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C&T e I para a produção agropecuária brasileira: mensurando e qualificando gastos públicos AgEcon
Batalha, Mario Otavio; Chaves, Gisele de Lorena Diniz; Souza Filho, Hildo Meirelles de.
Few researches in Brazil have undertaken the issue of quantification and qualification of public expenditure in S&T and Innovation devoted to agriculture and livestock. This paper presents an innovative evaluation and provides inedited information for public and private decision makers. Expenditure undertook by 48 Brazilian research organizations was evaluated. This set of organizations comprised the universe of federal and state institutes and agencies, as well as some other non-profit organizations, which gave support to research in agriculture and livestock. The results showed that the role played by Embrapa is of primary importance to the National System of Agricultural Research. Some deficiencies and barriers to scientific and technological...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Technological innovation; Technology.; Agribusiness; Q; Q16..
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60817
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Condicionantes à transferência tecnológica: análise sob a perspectiva da pluralidade de instituições do sistema de inovação agrícola. Repositório Alice
MENDES, C. I. C.; BUAINAIN, A. M.; FASIABEN, M. do C. R..
Institutos públicos de pesquisa agrícola (IPPs) têm sido demandados a demonstrar que seus trabalhos têm impactos positivos para a sociedade brasileira. Essa realidade trouxe a necessidade de refletir, no contexto do pluralismo institucional ? que envolve instituições públicas e privadas, da pesquisa agrícola, da extensão rural e assistência técnica e de outras organizações da agricultura ? quais são os fatores que interferem para a transferência da tecnologia agrícola gerada por um IPP. Para tanto, o trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os fatores condicionantes exógenos à Embrapa, que contribuem ou inibem a transferência de suas tecnologias para a agricultura brasileira.
Tipo: Artigo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Pesquisa pública agrícola; Inovação tecnológica; Technological innovation; Transferência de tecnologia; Pesquisa agrícola; Agricultura; Technology transfer; Agricultural research; New technology; Agriculture.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1032109
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CONSTRUCCIÓN SOCIAL DE LA TECNOLOGÍA: SEMBRADOR MÚLTIPLE DE GRANO FINO AgEcon
Arras Vota, Ana Maria; Candia Sanchez, Judith Cristina.
The purpose of this research is to know the meaning, which the diverse social groups attribute to a new technology, with the assumption that for the group that work planting, the seeding device represents the accomplishment of their work with greater rapidity and exactitude, whereas for the owner it represents savings in the production process. In order to attain this goal one begins with a concept of technology, which is understood as the application of the scientific method to the procedures of manufacture and development of administrative processes in companies. In addition, one considers that the technological innovation is the creative activity that is set to create wealth and social welfare through technology. Whereas social construction of...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Technology; Technological innovation; Social construction of technology.; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53111
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Emissions Pricing, Spillovers, and Public Investment in Environmentally Friendly Technologies AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn.
In a second-best world of below-optimal pollution pricing, the public return to R&D may be greater than under Pigouvian pricing, due to excess benefits of increasing abatement, or it may be lower, since private actors lack the incentives to take full advantage of the new, cleaner technologies. This paper uses a simple model to demonstrate the interaction between environmental policies, R&D externalities, and the social return to innovation. The results indicate that strong public support for innovation is only justified if at least a moderate emissions policy is in place and spillover effects are significant. Furthermore, in most cases, policy constraints that limit regulatory burdens tend to further limit the scope for public support, even when...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions price; Technological innovation; Spillovers; R&D policy; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; O38; H23.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10648
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Innovation systems perspectives on developing-country agriculture: a critical review AgEcon
Spielman, David J..
Published as Spielman, David J. 2006. A critique of innovation systems perspectives on agricultural research in developing countries. Innovation Strategy Today 2(1): 41-54. Ithaca, NY: bioDevelopments International Institute.; Published as Spielman, David J. 2006. Systems of innovation: models, methods, and future directions. Innovation Strategy Today 2(1): 55-66. Ithaca, NY: bioDevelopments International Institute.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Innovation; Agricultural research; Technological innovation; Cooperation; Networks; Game theory; International Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59692
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Inovação e gestão tecnológica em organizações de P&D: um modelo integrador. Repositório Alice
LIMA, S.M.V.; CASTRO, A.M.G. de; BORGES-ANDRADE, J.E.; CARVALHO, J.R.P. de.
Modelos são representações da realidade que têm se revelado úteis para o avanço do conhecimento em inúmeras áreas. Este artigo busca apresentar um modelo de inovação tecnológica em que esse fenômeno seja concebido como sendo: a) sistêmico; b) multinível; c) organizacional, d) multideterminado; e) passível de mensuração; f) de intervenção. A literatura sobre modelos de inovação apresenta propostas em que dois elementos estão sempre presentes: a) o processo de P&D, em suas diversas etapas; b) determinantes dessas etapas, ou fatores originados nos contextos macro, meso ou micro do processo de inovação. A literatura sobre gestão tecnológica apresenta modelos de gestão, enfatizando variáveis relativas à gestão de portfólio e gestão de pesquisa em rede, como...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Inovação tecnológica; Gestão tecnológica; Modelos de inovação; Technological innovation; Technological management; Innovation models.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/110870
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Instrument Choice for Environmental Protection When Technological Innovation Is Endogenous AgEcon
Fischer, Carolyn; Parry, Ian W.H.; Pizer, William A..
This paper presents an analytical and numerical comparison of the welfare impacts of alternative instruments for environmental protection in the presence of endogenous technological innovation. We analyze emissions taxes and both auctioned and free (grandfathered) emissions permits. We find that under different sets of circumstances each of the three policies may induce a significantly higher welfare gain than the other two policies. In particular, the relative ranking of policy instruments can crucially depend on the ability of adopting firms to imitate the innovation, the costs of innovation, the slope and level of the marginal environmental benefit function, and the number of firms producing emissions. Moreover, although in theory the welfare impacts of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Technological innovation; Externalities; Environmental policies; Welfare impacts; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; O38; H23.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10812
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Irrigation controller mechanically actuated by soil-water tension: II - Field evaluations AGRIAMBI
Almeida,Alexsandro C. S.; Botrel,Tarlei A.; Raine,Steven R.; Camargo,Antonio P. de; Pinto,Marinaldo F.; Salvador,Conan A..
ABSTRACT In this study, a field evaluation of the performance of an irrigation controller mechanically actuated by soil-water tension (SWT) was performed. The controller employs a tensiometer used as a sensor of SWT to directly control a mechanically actuated hydraulic valve. Six controllers were installed in an orchard to control the irrigation for six rows of plants over 64 days. Each controller controlled the irrigation of one lateral drip line. The drip irrigation system was gravity-fed from a water source placed 7 m above the soil surface. The SWT and the pressure in each lateral line were measured to evaluate the performance of the controllers. All the controllers tested in the field autonomously initiated and terminated the irrigation during the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Irrigation scheduling; Technological innovation; Tensiometer; Automation.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-43662017000500298
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On the Implications of Technological Innovation for Environmental Policy AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper draws on a number of recent studies to shed light on several policy issues raised by the impact of environmental policies on technological innovation. First, to what extent does induced innovation raise the overall net benefits to society from environmental policies? Second, how does induced innovation affect the appropriate choice among alternative environmental policy instruments? Third, how does it affect the optimal stringency of environmental regulations? Fourth, should environmental policies be supplemented with additional policies to promote innovation, such as research contracts or prizes for new technologies?
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environment; Technological innovation; Pollution control; Instrument choice; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; O38.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10797
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Precision livestock tools to improve products and processes in broiler production: a review Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Avic.
Mollo,MN; Vendrametto,O; Okano,MT.
Economic growth and production process development require technological support. Technology changes production functions, enabling a higher number of goods to be produced using the same amount of input. In this review, we discuss research and development in information technology that has led to innovative actions, with the new generation of tools, known as precision agriculture tools, that can be applied in Brazilian poultry production. In this context, research and development have focused on producing technological innovations based on increasingly specialized tools that go beyond human mind power, and are related to the acquisition, access, and processing of a huge number of data. The technology generated to date has assimilated the knowledge of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Decision support system; Precision agriculture; Research and development; Technological innovation.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-635X2009000400001
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Productivity Trends in the Natural Resource Industries AgEcon
Parry, Ian W.H..
This paper examines multi-factor productivity trends in the U.S. petroleum, coal, copper and logging industries since 1970. Measures of multi-factor productivity growth are negative for all four industries during the 1970's. At the time this led to fears that stocks of natural resources were being exhausted, and this might hinder future economic growth. However in retrospect the 1970's look like an exceptional period, rather than marking a change in long run productivity trends. The decline in measured multi-factor productivity in that decade appear to be explained by a number of special factors that generally have a transitory rather than a permanent effect on productivity growth. For example, the rise in natural resource prices encouraged the entry of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Productivity; Natural resources; Technological innovation; Depletion effect; Productivity Analysis; Q30; O30.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10585
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Technological Environment and Innovation of Township Enterprises AgEcon
Mei, Qijun.
This paper introduces the technological environment and innovation, and analyzes the barriers of technological innovation in township enterprises. Finally, this paper puts forward related countermeasures to improve the technological innovation of township enterprises in China.
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Technological environment; Township enterprises; Technological innovation; China; Agribusiness; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53514
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Technological Innovation of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises from the Perspective of Modern Marketing ——A Case of Agricultural Products Processing Enterprises in Hubei Province, China AgEcon
Yue, Wei; Wu, Su-chun; Xu, Yan-ju.
The science and technology development of agricultural products processing enterprises in Hubei Province is analyzed. From the perspective of modern marketing, problems in the research and development work of agricultural products processing enterprises are analyzed from the aspects of market, personal training and technology radiation, which are mainly the lack of close connection with market. Countermeasures for the technological innovation of agricultural products processing enterprises are put forward, such as establishing modern enterprise culture with innovative features, strengthening the market benefits of brand, constructing a comprehensive customer orientation information platform, scientifically predicting and developing the market, doing well...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Modern marketing; Agricultural products processing enterprises; Technological innovation; China; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/113434
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The Brazilian investment in science and technology BJMBR
Pinheiro-Machado,R.; de Oliveira,P.L..
An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/other Palavras-chave: Science and technology; Research and development; Patents; Technological innovation; Scientific publication.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2001001200003
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The Theoretical Connotation and Systematic Essence of Core Competence of Agricultural High-tech Enterprises AgEcon
Zhao, Qing-hui.
Six representative interpretations about the core competence of the corporate proposed by the researchers both at home and abroad from different perspectives are introduced, which includes “Resource theory”, “Capacity theory”, “Integration theory of assets and mechanism”, “Theory of consumer surplus”, “Theory of institutions and systems” and “Theory of innovation”. It is pointed out that although these interpretations play an active role in enriching the theory of core competence, it still faces the problems to further deepen these interpretations: the first problem is how to give a precise definition; the second is about its extension; the third is on the logical and practical relationship between the production mechanism and its sustainable competitive...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural high-technology; Core competence; Systematic essence; Technological innovation; China; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93662
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