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Effects of Roads on Animal Abundance: an Empirical Review and Synthesis Ecology and Society
Fahrig, Lenore; Carleton University, Geomatics and Landscape Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biology; lfahrig@ccs.carleton.ca; Rytwinski, Trina; Carleton University, Geomatics and Landscape Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biology; trytwins@connect.carleton.ca.
We attempted a complete review of the empirical literature on effects of roads and traffic on animal abundance and distribution. We found 79 studies, with results for 131 species and 30 species groups. Overall, the number of documented negative effects of roads on animal abundance outnumbered the number of positive effects by a factor of 5; 114 responses were negative, 22 were positive, and 56 showed no effect. Amphibians and reptiles tended to show negative effects. Birds showed mainly negative or no effects, with a few positive effects for some small birds and for vultures. Small mammals generally showed either positive effects or no effect, mid-sized mammals showed either negative effects or no effect, and large mammals showed predominantly negative...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Environmental impact; Landscape connectivity; Mortality; Population density; Road network; Road density; Road effect zone; Road mitigation; Species distribution; Species richness; Traffic density; Traffic volume.
Ano: 2009
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Pay-At-The-Pump (PATP) Auto Insurance: Criticisms and Proposed Modifications AgEcon
Khazzoom, J. Daniel.
In 1998 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored an effort to examine the criticisms and concerns expressed about Pay-at-the-Pump (PATP) auto insurance and explore the reformulation of PATP, taking into account these concerns. This paper provides a brief exposition of PATP and its main advantages followed by a review of its criticisms and concerns. We outline a reconstituted PATP proposal emerging from the review of these criticisms: a hybrid system that merges the best features from PATP and the existing insurance system. It retains what is consistent with the free market operation and market incentive in the existing system. At the same time it restores the price signal, the sine qua non for economic efficiency, where it has been extinguished...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pay at the pump; Distance-based insurance; Efficient pricing of auto insurance; Conversion of fixed to variable cost; Loss on insuring the uninsured motorist; Pay at the pump and the poor; Environmental benefit of pay at the pump; Vehicle fuel-efficiency and safety; Vehicle miles traveled; Traffic density; Accident risk; Public Economics; L1; L5; L8; L9; M2; Q2; Q4; R4.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10811
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