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A Composite Fuzzy Indicator for Assessing Farm Household Potential for Non-farm Income Diversification AgEcon
Fritzsch, Jana.
European politicians encourage the income diversification of rural households through various measures. Although being aware of farm households’ potential for non-farm income diversification seems important for finely-targeting such policy measures, no attempt has thus far been made to summarise the various determinants of income diversification in a single figure. This contribution aims to close this gap. A composite fuzzy indicator that measures farm household potential for non-farm income diversification is developed and applied to 1,053 farm households in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. The indicator summarises the incentives of and capacities for non-farm income diversification on the individual household member level, and on the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Composite indicator; Fuzzy logic; Rural non-farm income diversification; Transition countries; Consumer/Household Economics; C65; J24; Q12; R23.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114349
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A Methodology for Assessing National Sustainable Development Strategies AgEcon
Cherp, Aleg; George, Clive; Kirkpatrick, Colin.
At the Rio Earth Summit of 1992, governments undertook to develop and adopt national sustainable development strategies as a key component of implementing the goals of Agenda 21. Only partial progress was reported at the 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg, with uncertainty as to the effectiveness of those strategies that had been introduced. This paper describes a methodology for assessing a country's progress in implementing a national sustainable development strategy for (NSDS) and for identifying potential areas for improvement. Five key principles of sustainable development and strategic planning are identified, and a set of assessment criteria are proposed for each principle. The results of applying the methodology in two Eastern European countries,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Sustainable development; Strategic planning; National sustainable development strategies; Transition countries; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30577
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Access to Credit, Factor Allocation and Farm Productivity: Evidence From the CEE Transition Economies AgEcon
Ciaian, Pavel; Falkowski, Jan; Kancs, d'Artis.
This paper analyses how farm access to credit affects farm input allocation and farm efficiency in the CEE countries. Drawing on a unique farm level panel data with 37,409 observations and employing a matching estimator we are able to control for the key source of endogeneity – unoberserved heterogeneity. We find that farms are credit constrained both in the short-run as well as in the long-run, but that credit constraint is asymmetric between inputs. Our estimates suggest that farm access to credit increases TFP up to 1.9% per 1000 EUR of additional credit. The use of variable inputs and capital investment increases up to 2.3% and 29%, respectively, per 1000 EUR of additional credit. Due to credit-financed investment in labour-saving farm equipment,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Access to credit; Investment; Factor allocation; Productivity; Transition countries; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use; Q12; P14.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61347
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AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN AN ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION: DOES THE CAP REFORM / INTRODUCTION MATTER? AgEcon
Baum, Sabine; Cook, Peter; Stange, Henriette; Weingarten, Peter.
In the course of economic development there is a general downward trend of agricultural employment. In the EU-15, agricultural employment decreased by 2.3% p.a. (measured in regular persons) and 3.0% p.a. (measured in annual working units) between 1995 and 2000. In some of the new EU Member States, employment in agriculture plummeted in the early 1990s, whereas in others it increased during the first years of transition and has served as a social buffer in times of economic hardship. The most important determinants of agricultural employment changes are labor saving technical progress, the macroeconomic environment, the farm structure, socio-economic characteristics of the farmer and agricultural support policies. Currently, farmers in the enlarged EU...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural labor market; Agricultural policy; European Union; Transition countries; Case studies.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14962
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Agricultural Employment Trends in an Enlarged European Union: Does the CAP Reform/Introduction Matter? AgEcon
Baum, Sabine; Cook, Peter; Stange, Henriette; Weingarten, Peter.
In the course of economic development there is a general downward trend of agricultural employment, although structural change in agriculture is often delayed. In the EU-15, agricultural employment decreased by -2.3% p.a. (measured in regular persons) and -3.0% p.a. (measured in annual working units) between 1995 and 2000. In some of the new EU Member States, employment in agriculture plummeted in the early 1990s, whereas in others it increased during the first years of transition and has served as a social buffer in times of economic hardship. The most important determinants of agricultural employment changes are labor saving technical progress, the macroeconomic environment, the farm structure, socio-economic characteristics of the farmer and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural labor market; Agricultural policy; European Union; Transition countries; Case studies; Agricultural and Food Policy; Labor and Human Capital; J43; Q18; Q19.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25395
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Agricultural Productivity Growth in the European Union and Transition Countries AgEcon
Lissitsa, Alexej; Rungsuriyawiboon, Supawat.
Economic reform in the Central and Eastern European countries in the 1980s helped transform the structure and volume of agricultural production, consumption and trade, and resulted in significant agricultural productivity improvements. However, there are large differences among the transition countries in the magnitude and direction of these changes. The main objective of this study is to measure and compare the levels and trends in agricultural productivity in transition countries with those of the European Union (EU) countries making use of the most recent data available from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). This study employs a parametric distance function approach to measure Malmquist productivity index as well as the magnitude and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Parametric; Productivity; Transition countries; Biased technical change; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25353
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AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND TRANSITION COUNTRIES AgEcon
Rungsuriyawiboon, Supawat; Lissitsa, Alexej.
Malmquist total factor productivity (TFP) index has been extensively applied in the literature to measure productivity growth decomposition. This study applies a parametric decomposition of a Generalized Malmquist TFP index to measure and compare the levels and trends in agricultural productivity in European countries, making use of the most-recent data available from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of United Nations. The aim of this study is to measure TFP developments in agriculture of transition countries after breakdown of socialism and to compare their TFP growth with other European countries. The Generalized Malmquist productivity index can be decomposed into technological change, technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Transition countries; Malmquist; Multifactor Productivity; Agriculture; Productivity Analysis; Q16; Q18; P27.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14903
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Competitiveness in the Food Industry: a CGE Modelling Approach to assess Foreign Direct Investment in Transition Countries AgEcon
Banse, Martin; Gay, Stephan Hubertus; McDonald, Scott; M'Barek, Robert; Swinnen, Johan F.M..
For transition countries, the food industry sector is a key industry in terms of output and employment shares. As a competitive sector that receives substantial foreign direct investments (FDI), it plays an important role as an element in the process of integration in the European and world market. The GLOBE Computable General Equilibrium model is applied to analyse scenarios of alternative development pathways of the food industry sector, taking into account the impact of FDI in the European food industry. The scenario analyses of this study identify that with an enhanced attraction of FDI in the food processing industries in the New Member States (NMS) the integration of the agri-food sectors in the NMS into the Single European Market will become even...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food industry; Foreign direct investment; CGE; Transition countries; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8525
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Food Security Analysis and Policies for Transition Countries AgEcon
Wehrheim, Peter; Wiesmann, Doris M..
This article explores the characteristics of food security in the context of economies in transition. These special characteristics derive from the “legacies” of socialist systems, both economy-wide ones and others specific to the agriculture and the food sector. Food insecurity in transition countries is considered predominantly “transitory”, while social safety nets dating back to the socialist years provide some cushion. Market failures and other institutional constraints are prevalent, inhibiting the process towards improvement of the food security situation. Conflict takes a heavy toll in terms of hunger and malnutrition in economies in transition and macro level factors are at work to determine food security outcomes. At the same time, socialist...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Food security; Poverty; Malnutrition; Transition countries; Agriculture; Agricultural policy; Safety nets; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112604
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Institutional Changes for Agricultural and Rural Development in the CEEC and CIS Region AgEcon
Koester, Ulrich; Brümmer, Bernhard.
The paper emphasizes the importance of embedded institutions for the transformation of the agricultural sector and rural economies in the transition countries and identifies and analyses institutional aspects regarding agriculture and rural development common to the transition countries. It focuses on the institutional dimension of reform policies, i.e. on the political economy aspects of the transition process that were decisive for the success or failure of the reforms. The importance of identifying the “mental models” of various stakeholders during the transition process is emphasized and the reasons are explored why the transition process in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has not resulted in a restructuring of the agricultural sector...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Transition countries; Agriculture; Agricultural reform; Agricultural policy; Rural development; Farm structure; Institutions; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112605
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Non-farm income diversification of rural farm households in Central and Southeastern Europe: an application of fuzzy set theory AgEcon
Fritzsch, Jana; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Mollers, Judith.
A fuzzy logic model for quantifying farm households’ potential for non-farm income diversification is developed and applied to 1,077 farm households in Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. About three quarters of households have a diversification potential, but not all households use it. An analysis of diversification potential and diversification behaviour shows that there are seven household types in the sample. Not all development options, i.e. farm development, farm exit, or starting non-farm employment, are equally suitable for all households thus fine targeting of policy measures according to the household type could be important for policy makers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural development; Non-farm rural employment diversification; Fuzzy logic; Transition countries; Community/Rural/Urban Development; C65; D33; J24; Q12.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95321
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Preferences for Inequality: East vs. West AgEcon
Suhrcke, Marc.
Do preferences for income inequality differ systematically between the post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Western established market economies? This paper analyses 1999 data from a large international survey to address this question. In particular, we examine whether attitudes to inequality differ between East and West even after the "conventional" determinants of attitudes are controlled for. Results suggest that this is indeed the case. A decade after the breakdown of communism, people in transition countries are indeed significantly more "egalitarian" than those living in the West, in the sense that they are less willing to tolerate existing income inequalities, even after the actual level of income inequality and other...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Inequality; Transition countries; Attitudes; Political Economy; D30; D63; P5.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26369
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Productivity and Efficiency of Corporate and Individual Farms in Ukraine AgEcon
Lerman, Zvi; Sedik, David J..
The paper presents a comparative analysis of the productivity of corporate and individual farms in Ukraine based primarily on cross-section data from a farm survey conducted by FAO in 2005. We calculate partial land and labor productivity, total factor productivity, and technical efficiency scores (using Stochastic Frontier Analysis) for farms of different organizational forms. Our results demonstrate with considerable confidence that, contrary to established convictions among the Ukrainian decision makers, the large corporate farms are not more productive than the smaller family farms. This finding is not restricted to Ukraine, as a similar result has been obtained by in Moldova, Russia, and the U.S. Policies encouraging a shift from large corporate farms...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Family farms; Corporate farms; Comparative performance; Technical efficiency; Total factor productivity; Agrarian reforms; Transition countries; Farm Management; Productivity Analysis; D24; J24; P27; P31; P32; Q12; Q15; R14.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9985
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PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY OF SMALL AND LARGE FARMS IN MOLDOVA AgEcon
Lerman, Zvi; Sutton, William R..
The paper presents a comparative analysis of the productivity of small and large farms in Moldova based primarily on cross-section data from three farm surveys conducted by the World Bank and USAID in 2000 and 2003. The survey data are supplemented where feasible with time series from official national-level statistics. We calculate partial land and labor productivity, total factor productivity, and technical efficiency scores (using Stochastic Frontier and Data Envelopment Analysis algorithms) for the two categories of small individual farms and large corporate farms. Our results demonstrate with considerable confidence that small individual farms in Moldova are more productive and more efficient than large corporate farms. This finding is not restricted...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Family farms; Corporate farms; Comparative performance; Technical efficiency; Total factor productivity; Agrarian reforms; Transition countries; Farm Management; D24; J24; P27; P31; P32; Q12; Q15; R14.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7133
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ROMANIA AND BULGARIA ON THE WAY OF INTEGRATION – INVESTMENTS ASPECTS AgEcon
Voicilas, Dan Marius.
The present study as well as the studies produced by UNCTAD, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe1 and other institutions, reveal certain characteristics of the FDI flows in the transition countries from Central and South-Eastern Europe, applicable for Romania and Bulgaria, too: - These flows grow faster than the world average. - The FDI per capita is low compared to the values in Western Europe (2000-3000 USD) and USA (about 1800 USD). - There is a linear correlation between GDP per capita in the transition countries and the FDI level. - The main sectors initially targeted by foreign investors were the industrial sector (40-60%) and the trade sector (12-25%). - About 25% of FDI in the transition countries come from Hungary, Poland, Czech...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: FDI; GDP; Transition countries; Investment Matrix; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58915
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Semi-subsistence farm households and the non-farm rural economy - Perspectives and challenges AgEcon
Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Fritzsch, Jana; Wegener, Stefan; Curtiss, Jarmila; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio.
Semi-subsistence farm households (SFHs) have persevered in Central and Southeastern Europe. An outlook on future perspectives of SFHs asks for reliable information on the phenomenon of SFHs and the impact of policy measures on their development options: (1) intensifying farming, (2) diversifying income creating activities, or (3) exiting farming for waged employment. This article focuses on SFHs and rural non-farm employment (RNFE). On the basis of a comparative 2007-survey of 489 SFHs in Bulgaria, Poland and Romania, three countries with particularly many SFHs, four major types of SFHs (rural pensioners, farmers, rural diversifiers, rural newcomers) were identified. For policy analysis, a multiobjective linear programming household model was developed. In...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Semi-subsistence; Rural non-farm economy; Policy analysis; Transition countries; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Land Economics/Use; Political Economy; C61; P27; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52804
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Semi-subsistence Farm Households in Central and South-eastern Europe: Current State and Future Perspectives AgEcon
Fritzsch, Jana; Wegener, Stefan; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Curtiss, Jarmila; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio.
The European Union (EU) introduced a special transitional semi-subsistence measure to promote the smallest agricultural producers, so-called semi-subsistence farm households (SFHs) in the enlargement process. An outlook on the future of SFHs requires comprehensive and reliable information on the phenomenon and the impact of policy measures on their development. Therefore, a survey using a standardised questionnaire was conducted in Poland (175 households), Romania (185 households), and Bulgaria (184 households) from July to September 2007. In a first step, four major types of SFHs could be identified by means of cluster analysis: (i) rural diversifiers, (ii) rural pensioners, (iii) farmers, and (iv) rural newcomers. In a second step, a multiobjective...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Semi-subsistence; Policy analysis; Transition countries; Multiobjective linear programming; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; C61; P27; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51444
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Sources of Agricultural Productivity Growth in Central Asia AgEcon
Lerman, Zvi; Sedik, David J..
The paper examines agricultural production and productivity growth in two Central Asian countries – Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Both countries are characterized by a significant shift of resources from the traditional Soviet model of collective agriculture to more market-compliant individual and family farming. In both countries, the beginning of the policy-driven switch to family farming around 1997 coincided with the beginning of recovery in agriculture, namely resumption of agricultural growth after a phase of transition decline since 1991. In addition to growth in total agricultural production, we also observe significant increases in productivity of both land and labor since 1997. These observations suggest that productivity growth may be attributable...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural productivity; Agricultural growth; Family farms; Corporate farms; Comparative performance; Agrarian reforms; Transition countries; Central Asia; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis; P27; P31; P32; Q15; R14.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49312
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Sources of Agricultural Productivity Growth in Central Asia: The Case of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan AgEcon
Lerman, Zvi; Sedik, David J..
The paper examines agricultural production and productivity growth in two Central Asian countries – Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Both countries are characterized by a significant shift of resources from the traditional Soviet model of collective agriculture to more market-compliant individual and family farming. In both countries, the beginning of the policy-driven switch to family farming around 1997 coincided with the beginning of recovery in agriculture, namely resumption of agricultural growth after a phase of transition decline since 1991. In addition to growth in total agricultural production, we also observe significant increases in productivity of both land and labor since 1997. These observations suggest that productivity growth may be attributable...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural productivity; Agricultural growth; Family farms; Corporate farms; Comparative performance; Agrarian reforms; Transition countries; Central Asia; Tajikistan; Uzbekistan; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Land Economics/Use; Productivity Analysis; P27; P31; P32; Q15; R14.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54713
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The Dynamics of Agricultural Productivity and Industrial Transformation in Transition Countries AgEcon
Kim, Hanho; An, Donghwan.
Relying on the frontier production approach, we investigated the performance of the agricultural sector in 28 transition countries and its changes over time, especially focusing on the dynamics of productivity changes and the effects of reform policy. Our findings are: (i) Asian and CEE transition countries performed better than CIS countries, while the performance improvement of CEE countries seems to be more prominent compared to that of Asian and CIS countries; (ii) The productivity growth is mainly attributable to the technical progress, particularly in CEE countries; (iii) Reform policy and industrial transformation seems to have positive effects on the performance of agricultural sector and its changes; (iv) The initial conditions do matter.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transition countries; Efficiency; Productivity; Directional distance function; Agricultural reform; Initial condition; Industrial transformation; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8518
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