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Registros recuperados: 18
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Agriculture in a Water-Scarce World AgEcon
Gilmour, Brad; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Gurung, Rajendra Kumar; Polcyn, Tania; Deng, Hugh.
With a relatively small population and 7% of the world's available freshwater resources, Canada is well placed for a world of water scarcity where the real value of water in its many uses becomes more and more apparent. However, action is necessary to ensure that Canada continues to benefit from the social, economic and environmental goods and services derived from water resources. Experience and analysis suggests that policy and incentives play critical roles in the sustainable exploitation of natural resources. In particular, properly valuing water in all its forms and uses appears to be critical. Analysis abroad has underlined the benefits of clearly delineating the roles of regulators, resource managers, infrastructure operators and service...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Water; Governance; Scarcity; Incentives; Sustainability; Valuation; Accountability; Transparency; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46689
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Coordination Failures and the Lender of Last Resort: Was Bagehot Right After All? AgEcon
Rochet, Jean-Charles; Vives, Xavier.
The classical doctrine of the Lender of Last Resort, elaborated by Thornton (1802) and Bagehot (1873), asserts that the Central Bank should lend to "illiquid but solvent" banks under certain conditions. Several authors have argued that this view is now obsolete: when interbank markets are efficient, a solvent bank cannot be illiquid. This paper provides a possible theoretical foundation for rescuing Bagehot's view. Our theory does not rely on the multiplicity of equilibria that arises in classical models of bank runs. We build a model of banks' liquidity crises that possesses a unique Bayesian equilibrium. In this equilibrium, there is a positive probability that a solvent bank cannot find liquidity assistance in the market. We derive policy implications...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Central Bank policy; Interbank market; Prudential regulation; Liquidity ratio; Solvency ratio; Transparency; Prompt corrective action; Orderly failure resolution; Global games; Supermodular games; Financial Economics.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26264
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Gestión del agua público-urbana en la cabecera municipal de Tepexi de Rodríguez, Puebla. Colegio de Postgraduados
Miranda Trejo, Mario.
El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar los procesos de administración y de distribución del agua público-urbana para los usos doméstico, público e industrial, que controla el Ayuntamiento de Tepexi de Rodríguez, Pue. El enfoque teórico utilizado fue el de la Gestión Integral de Recursos Hídricos (GIRH), bajo el cual se evaluaron los procesos de planeación, seguimiento, participación ciudadana; principios de transparencia y equidad en el acceso al agua; así como el papel de actores sociales clave como los empresarios del mármol. Fueron entrevistados 89 habitantes de la localidad con la técnica de encuesta. La muestra (n) se calculó a través de muestreo aleatorio simple, considerando como población (N) el total de viviendas particulares...
Palavras-chave: Agua; Equidad; Gestión Integral de Recursos Hídricos; Transparencia; Equity; Hydric Resources Integral Arrangements; Water; Transparency; Estrategias para el Desarrollo Agrícola Regional; EDAR; Maestría.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10521/2195
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Improving the Delivery of Rural Development Programmes AgEcon
Dwyer, Janet.
Key issues in the effective delivery of EU-funded rural development programmes include simplification, transparency and accessibility. This paper draws upon the experience of rural development programming, as presented in a number of case studies drawn from recent and ongoing research by the author and others, and discussed in the panel sessions at the Salzburg RD conference in 2003, to summarise outstanding needs in these areas. Central areas of concern include a lack of local flexibility and poor integration between top-level goals at the point of delivery, as well as a lack of trust and support for capacity building and innovation among local delivery agents, where synergies between economic, environmental and social aims can most readily be identified...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Rural development policy; Delivery; Simplicity; Transparency; Accessibility; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24474
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Increasing the Openness of the Trade Policy Process: Challenges and Implications AgEcon
Isaac, Grant E..
Trade policy – once a subset of foreign policy far removed from domestic concern, focused squarely on border issues and subject to the rules of international diplomacy – is now a central concern on the public policy agenda as trade issues have become increasingly entwined with traditionally domestic policy issues. Consequently, demands have been made for more openness in trade policy formation and, in response, many governments have undertaken openness initiatives. Despite these developments there has been only a little research into the increased openness of trade policy processes in general and no research aimed at developing a consistent framework for categorizing various openness initiatives and permitting a meaningful comparison of initiatives between...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Openness; Openness framework; Trade policy; Transparency; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23816
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Latina Microenterprise and the U.S.-Mexico Border Economy AgEcon
Robles, Barbara J..
The number of U.S. Latina-owned small businesses and microenterprises increased at a rapid clip during the 1990s. An astonishing growth rate of 232 percent between 1988 and 1997 in Latino-owned businesses was reported by the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA, 1998). Self-employment rates among Latinas in the United States increased two-fold during the time period from 1990 to 2000 (Census Bureau, 2001). According to estimates there are more than two million microentrepreneurs in the United States (Grameen Foundation USA, 2002; Aspen Institute, 2000). Almost ten million people live along the U.S.-Mexico border. Mexico is the United States' second-largest trading partner, accounting for US $262 billion in two-way trade in 2000 (Department of Commerce,...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Bicultural skills; Microenterprise; Transnational trade; Transparency; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23922
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Long-term changes in the Zostera bed area in the Seto Inland Sea (Japan), especially along the coast of the Okayama Prefecture ArchiMer
Komatsu, T.
The Seto Inland Sea is the largest enclosed sea in Japan (22,000 km(2) surface area), and is very shallow (average depth of 37 m). Large Zostera marina L. beds throughout the Sea play an important role in its ecosystems and environments. This study reviews the long-term changes in the area of the Zostera beds, as well as some direct and indirect environmental factors which influence their distribution. In 1924, the area of the beds was 4,137 ha in the waters of the Okayama Prefecture, By 1989, 87 % of these beds had been lost. Industrialization and urbanization around the coasts of the Seto Inland Sea began in the 1950s. In the 1960s, the area of the Zostera beds in this Sea amounted to 22,625 ha. Since 1977, 70 % of these beds has been lost. This decline...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Zostera bed; Long-term change; Pollution; Reclamation; Transparency.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00093/20391/18058.pdf
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Russia Agriculture Policy Review AgEcon
Melyukhina, Olga; Tanguay, Luc; Vaughan, Odette; Jotanovic, Aleksandar.
In recent years, as a result of a strong demand for energy and other natural resources, Russia's economy has experienced impressive growth. Russia's re-emergence as a political and, particularly, economic power have allowed it to increase policy support to its agricultural sector. Russia's size, improving prospects, and growing policy support make developments in its agricultural sector of interest to Canada.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Russia; Agricultural policy; Regionalization; Ruble; Energy demand; Transparency; Agricultural and Food Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46511
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The almost invisible league: crypsis and association between minute fishes and shrimps as a possible defence against visually hunting predators Neotropical Ichthyology
Carvalho,Lucélia Nobre; Zuanon,Jansen; Sazima,Ivan.
Camouflage is one of the most widespread defence modes used by substrate-dwelling animals, whereas transparency is generally found in open-water organisms. Both these defence types are regarded as effective against visually guided predators. We present here three assemblages of similarly-sized freshwater fish and shrimp species which apparently rely on camouflage and transparency to evade some of their potential predators. In one of the associations, there is a transition from cryptic colours and translucency to transparency of the component species according to the position each of them occupies in the habitat. The likeness between the fishes and the shrimps is here regarded as a type of protective association similar to numerical or social mimicry....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Camouflage; Transparency; Defensive association; Mimicry; Freshwater fauna.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1679-62252006000200008
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Trade Agreements: The Important Role of Transparency AgEcon
Kerr, William A..
International trade can be inhibited in two ways; through the use of mechanisms that directly alter the flow of goods and poor transparency in the rules of trade. The former includes tariffs and other border measures, subsidies and non-tariff barriers. The effect on trade flows resulting from issues of transparency is indirect. When the rules of trade are unclear for firms considering investing in trade related activities, the risks associated with those investments increase and investment is inhibited. If there is less investment in trade related activities, trade flows will be reduced. Poor transparency exists in contingent protection measures such as anti-dumping – currently on the agenda of the Rules negotiations at the WTO and – customs and related...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Investment; Liberalization; Risk; Transparency; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6322
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Transparency in Food: A Challenge for Research and Sector Initiatives AgEcon
Schiefer, Gerhard.
Transparency in the Food Sector and especially towards consumers is an issue which receives increasingly attention in public and research. There is widespread agreement that the present state of transparency is not sufficient and needs engagement by research and the sector to move forward. A Strategic Research Agenda on Transparency (SRA) identifies opportunities and challenges for research to contribute to improvements in transparency supporting consumers’ trust in food and the society’s interest in food that is safe and considers the evolving environmental and social concerns
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Transparency; Food chains; Research; Agribusiness; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121851
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Transparency in Meat Production – Consumer Perception at the Point of Sale AgEcon
Deimel, Mark.
As a result of a large number of food scandals, societal interest in transparency in the food sector has grown considerably. Deficits have been discovered, which new legal frameworks of the EU and the German legislative body have attempted to address. Hence, the creation of transparency in the production process has been the focus of the legislation. In this context, traceability systems for animal-based foods, for instance, have been established (Regulation (EC) 178/2002). In addition to tracking and tracing, one finds in the public discussion an increasing number of demands for further information, for instance information on food safety, animal and environmental protection and generally for sustainability of the production processes for foods. This is...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transparency; Pork production; Adaptive conjoint analysis.; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94923
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Transparency in Supply Chains: Is Trust a Limiting Factor? AgEcon
Frentrup, Mechthild; Theuvsen, Ludwig.
Transparency has gained much relevance in food chains. This paper summarizes the determinants of transparency and points out that transparency in the sense of effective information exchange needs trust as a mediator in order to become a powerful tool in supply chain management. In addition to that this paper analyses the characteristics of trust and highlights the reciprocal and dynamic mechanisms of trust on transparency and vice versa. It is argued that both constructs should be enhanced at the same time in order to realize the benefits of trust and transparency on supply chain management.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Transparency; Trust; Power; Control; Agribusiness; Agribusiness.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7733
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Transparency in the Pork Supply Chain: Comparing China and The Netherlands AgEcon
Osinga, Sjoukje A.; Hofstede, Gert Jan.
We present a research plan to assess the value of transparency by comparing pork supply chains in The Netherlands and China.We assume that chain performance depends on chain configuration, which depends on societal context and its associated quality control institutions. We define chain configuration in terms of structure and transparency. In order to be able to assess the influence of societal context and its quality control institutions on chain configuration and performance, we compare two countries that have very different societies. Ultimately, our goal is to be able to indicate whether a certain chain configuration suits all, or whether chain configuration should be tailored to societal context.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Pork supply chain; Societal context; Transparency; Information exchange; Chain configuration; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7741
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Transparency of Complex Regulation: How Should WTO Trade Policy Reviews Deal with Sanitary and Phytosanitary Policies? AgEcon
Zahrnt, Valentin.
Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures that protect human, animal, and plant health are impeding trade and provoking high-profile disputes. This paper argues that the WTO’s Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) could play an important role in defusing the trade-disrupting potential of SPS regulation. The most promising avenue is to review in greater detail the policy-making procedures that lead to SPS measures. How transparent and independent are countries’ risk assessments of health hazards? Which provisions have countries taken to account for trade effects when selecting SPS measures? Do countries give foreign interests adequate possibility to voice their concerns over proposed SPS regulation? If reviews motivate countries to improve their...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: SPS; Food safety; Transparency; TPRM; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50365
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Transparency Solutions for Increasing Trust along the Food Chain AgEcon
Sebok, Andras; Berczeli, Attila; Molnar, Adrienn; Van Lembergen, Katrien; Gellynck, Xavier.
The concept of products having designated country of origin was investigated. It was established that a coherent approach can be developed by systematic organisation and structuring of the available information. A working definition was developed for identification of successful practices in food transparency. Several successful solutions for increasing transparency along the food chain were identified. The lessons learned from these solutions can be used for better understanding of the problems related to the transparency of claims and statements on food products having designated country of origin and for increasing the transparency about the validity of such statements and claims
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Transparency; Successful practices; Country of origin food; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Marketing.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122013
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What Can We Learn from Best Practices Regarding Food Chain Transparency? AgEcon
Molnar, Adrienn; Van Lembergen, Katrien; Gellynck, Xavier; Sebok, Andras; Berczeli, Attila.
This paper reports on food chain transparency. The research specifically aims to investigate best practices. Therefore, inductive research was conducted, starting with the identification of best practices. Further, underlying patterns were investigated to derive hypotheses and to develop a theoretical framework. These were confronted with literature findings which resulted in the validation of the hypotheses and the theoretical framework. Overall it can be concluded that several types of food chain transparency exist, whereas the different types represent a hierarchy of transparency domains, and that the basis mainly applies to information quality. In addition, it is shown that performance indicators measure directly or indirectly the success of...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Inductive research; Best practices; Transparency; Food chain; Agribusiness; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122030
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Влияние крупномасштабных атмосферных процессов на формирование гидрофизических и гидробиологических полей в северо-западной части Черного моря в зимний период. IBSS Repository
Воскресенская, Е. Н.; Кукушкин, А. С.; Бурлакова, З. П.; Еремеева, Л. В..
Совместный анализ глобальных и региональных гидрометеорологических характеристик, гидрофизических и гидробиологических полей северо-западной части Черного моря в зимний период показал, что глобальные процессы в системе океан-атмосфера ответственны за особенности их межгодовой изменчивости. Аномалии речных стоков в определенные фазы Североатлантического и Южного колебаний влияют на условия трансформации речных вод и продуцирования фитопланктона, что приводит к изменению содержания взвешенного вещества и прозрачности вод в зоне смешения речных и морских вод.
Tipo: Journal Contribution Palavras-chave: Североатлантическое и Южное колебания; Гидрометеорологические условия; Сток рек; Прозрачность; Взвешенное вещество; Фитопланктон; North Atlantic and Southern Oscillations; Hydrometeorological characteristics; River run off; Transparency; Suspended matter; Phytoplankton Phytoplankton Transparency Phytoplankton http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/c_13344.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://repository.ibss.org.ua/dspace/handle/99011/93
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