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Registros recuperados: 27
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND URBAN POVERTY IN INDIA AgEcon
Fan, Shenggen.
Using a similar analytical approach to a study in China, this paper analyzes the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty reduction in India. State level data from 1970 to 1995 were used in the empirical analysis. It is found that in addition to its large impact on rural poverty reduction, agricultural research investments have also played a major role in the reduction of urban poverty. Agricultural research investments increase agricultural production, and increased production in turn lowers food prices. The urban poor often benefit proportionately more than the non-poor since they spend 50-80% of their income on food. Among all the rural investments considered in this study, agricultural research has the largest impact on urban poverty reduction...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developing countries; India; Agricultural research; Urban; Poverty; Food price; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16079
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Broadband Internet's Value for Rural America AgEcon
Stenberg, Peter L.; Morehart, Mitchell J.; Vogel, Stephen J.; Cromartie, John; Breneman, Vincent E.; Brown, Dennis M..
As broadband—or high-speed—Internet use has spread, Internet applications requiring high transmission speeds have become an integral part of the “Information Economy,” raising concerns about those who lack broadband access. This report analyzes (1) rural broadband use by consumers, the community-at-large, and businesses; (2) rural broadband availability; and (3) broadband’s social and economic effects on rural areas. It also summarizes results from an ERS-sponsored workshop on rural broadband use, and other ERS-commissioned studies. In general, rural communities have less broadband Internet use than metro communities, with differing degrees of broadband availability across rural communities. Rural communities that had greater broadband Internet access had...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Internet; Broadband; High-speed Internet; Rural economies; Rural economic growth; Digital economy; Telemedicine; Rural; Urban; Census data; June Agricultural Survey; Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS); ERS; USDA; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55944
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Catalyst: reimagining sustainability with and through fine art Ecology and Society
Connelly, Angela; Manchester Architecture Research Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK ; angela.connelly-2@manchester.ac.uk; Guy, Simon C; Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK ; s.guy@lancaster.ac.uk; Wainwright, Dr. Edward; School of Architecture, Planning & Landscape, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK ; edward.wainwright@ncl.ac.uk; Weileder, Wolfgang; Fine Art, School of Arts and Cultures, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK ; wolfgang.weileder@ncl.ac.uk; Wilde, Marianne; Fine Art, School of Arts and Cultures, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK ; marianne.wilde@ncl.ac.uk.
How might we begin to explore the concept of the “sustainable city” in a world often characterized as dynamic, fluid, and contested? Debates about the sustainable city are too often dominated by a technological discourse conducted among professional experts, but this technocratic framing is open to challenge. For some critics, sustainability is a meaningless notion, yet for others its semantic pliability opens up discursive spaces through which to explore interconnections across time, space, and scale. Thus, while enacting sustainability in policy and practice is an arduous task, we can productively ask how cultural imaginations might be stirred and shaken to make sustainability accessible to a wider public who might join the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Coproduction; Interdisciplinarity; Practice-led research; Sustainability; Urban.
Ano: 2016
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Civic ecology practices: insights from practice theory Ecology and Society
Krasny, Marianne E; Civic Ecology Lab, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University; mek2@cornell.edu; Silva, Philip; Civic Ecology Lab, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University; philip.silva@gmail.com; Barr, Cornelia; Gateway Environmental Initiative; cbdub@me.com; Golshani, Zahra; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; golshani@gmail. com; Lee, Eunju; Civic Ecology Lab, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University; el372@cornell.edu; Ligas, Robert; Five Rivers MetroParks; rligas2@yahoo.com; Mosher, Eve; Seeding the City; eve@evemosher.com; Reynosa, Andrea; Tusten Heritage Community Garden; areynosa@skydogprojects.com.
Our aim was to explore the use of practice theory as an approach to studying urban environmental stewardship. Urban environmental stewardship, or civic ecology practice, contributes to ecosystem services and community well-being and has been studied using social-ecological systems resilience, property rights, communities of practice, and governance frameworks. Practice theory, which previously has been applied in studies of consumer behaviors, adds a new perspective to urban stewardship research, focusing on how elements of a practice, such as competencies, meanings, and physical resource, together define the practice. We applied practice theory to eight different civic ecology practices, including oyster gardening in New York City, a civil society group...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Civic ecology; Practice theory; Stewardship; Urban.
Ano: 2015
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Closing the Gap: Communicating to Change Gardening Practices in Support of Native Biodiversity in Urban Private Gardens Ecology and Society
van Heezik, Yolanda M; University of Otago; yolanda.vanheezik@otago.ac.nz; Dickinson, Katharine J. M.; University of Otago; kath.dickinson@botany.otago.ac.nz; Freeman, Claire; University of Otago; cf@geography.otago.ac.nz.
Private gardens collectively comprise the largest green space in most cities and the greatest potential for increasing the extent of wildlife-friendly and native-dominated habitat, improving the quality of ecosystem services, and providing opportunities for urban dwellers to reconnect with nature. Because attitudes and values driving landscape preferences in gardens are complex and often not conducive to biodiversity, and a gap exists between the possession of knowledge or values and the expression of pro-environmental behavior, facilitating change in gardening behavior is challenging. We attempted to improve knowledge and influence values, attitudes, and gardening behavior of 55 householders in favor of native biodiversity and environmentally friendly...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Attitude; Behavior; Communication; Garden; Gardening; Native; Urban; Wildlife gardening.
Ano: 2012
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DEMAND FOR FOOD QUANTITY AND QUALITY IN CHINA AgEcon
Gale, H. Frederick, Jr.; Huang, Kuo S..
As their incomes rise, Chinese consumers are changing their diets and demanding greater quality, convenience, and safety in food. Food expenditures grow faster than quantities purchased as income rises, suggesting that consumers with higher incomes purchase more expensive foods. The top-earning Chinese households appear to have reached a point where the income elasticity of demand for quantity of most foods is near zero. China’s food market is becoming segmented. The demand for quality by high-income households has fueled recent growth in modern food retail and sales of premium-priced food and beverage products. Food expenditures and incomes have grown much more slowly for rural and low-income urban households.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: China; Food; Consumption; Demand; Income; Elasticities; Engel curve; Households; Rural; Urban; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7252
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DISPARITIES OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITIES AMONG URBAN INDUSTRIES -- AN EXPLORATORY APPROACH AgEcon
Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen).
The results of an on-going exploratory study focused on disparities in entrepreneurial activities across 203 Metropolitan Statistical Areas among 18 industries in the US showed that there existed variations in the path of entrepreneurial development among MSAs and different industries. Resource allocation, market, policies, and supportive organizations could lead to these variations.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: MSA; Entrepreneurship; Urban; Disparity; Gini coefficient; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20405
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Epidemiological estimates of Respiratory diseases in the hospital population, Faisalabad, Pakistan. BABT
Sultana,Tayyaba; Afzal,Aqsa; Sultana,Salma; Al-Ghanim,Khalid; Shahid,Tehniat; Jabeen,Zahra; Turab,Nusrat; Ahmed,Z.; Mahboob,Shahid.
ABSTRACT A cross sectional study was conducted in two types of respiratory patients in hospital population. It was found that tuberculosis (T.B) was the most common type (29.66%) followed by the asthma (28.08%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (11.31%). Average age of diagnosis was 42.15 ± 0.65 years and average age at present 47.99 ± 0.70 years. Age group 51-60 years was more prone to this disease (21.13%). Most of the patients were married (80.06%). The highest representation of patients with respiratory diseases was observed in 1st birth order (30.36%) followed by 2nd (26.49%) and 3rd (18.45%), while the lowest was in 10th birth order (0.40%). Tuberculosis, asthma and COPD are the most prevalent types of respiratory diseases....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Respiratory; Age; Sex; Urban; Rural; Income.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132017000100418
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Experiments with regulations & markets linking upstream tree plantations with downstream water users AgEcon
Nordblom, Thomas L.; Reeson, Andrew; Finlayson, John D.; Hume, Iain H.; Whitten, Stuart M.; Kelly, Jason A..
Land-use change in upper catchments impact downstream water flows. As trees use large amounts of water the expansion of upstream plantations can substantially reduce water availability to downstream users. There can also be impacts on downstream salinity due to reduced dilution flows. In some jurisdictions afforestation requires the purchase of water rights from downstream holders, while in others it does not, effectively handing the water rights to the upstream landholders. We consider the economic efficiency and equity (profitability and distributional) consequences of upstream land use change in the presence of a water market under alternate property rights regimes and different salinity scenarios.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Experimental-economics; Tree-plantations; Environmental-services; Urban; Irrigation; Stock & domestic; Water use; Land use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47945
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Factors affecting escape distance in birds Rev. Bras. Zool.
Piratelli,Augusto J.; Favoretto,Gabriela R.; Maximiano,Marina F. de Almeida.
ABSTRACT The flight initiation distance has been used either to understand the cost-benefit trade-offs related to the risk of predation or as an important tool for wildlife managers. Although this variable is well-discussed for temperate regions, it is still poorly known in the Neotropics. Here we analyze the escape behavior of birds from southeastern Brazil, comparing an urban to a non-urban area. We tested for the influence of sites (urban vs. non-urban area), approaching (by one vs. two people), daytime (morning vs. afternoon), seasons (breeding vs. non-breeding) and body mass on the determination of the initial (FID) and final (FFD) flight distances across different bird species. We predict that FID will be greater in rural areas and under a greater...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Behavior; Energetic; Neotropical; Predation; Urban.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-46702015000600438
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Factors Affecting Fluid Milk Sales in Urban Markets AgEcon
Stelly, Randall; Nichols, John P..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Fluid; Fluid Milk; Urban; Sales; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Livestock Production/Industries; Marketing.
Ano: 1971 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96413
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HOW AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AFFECTS URBAN POVERTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF CHINA AgEcon
Fan, Shenggen; Fang, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaobo.
This paper develops a framework to measure the impact of agricultural research on urban poverty. Increased investments in agricultural R&D can lower food prices by increasing food production, and lower food prices benefit the urban poor because they often spend more than 60% of their income on food. Application of the framework to China shows that these food price effects are large and that the benefits for the urban poor have been about as large as the benefits for the rural poor.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developing countries; China; Agricultural research; Urban; Poverty; Food Security and Poverty; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16123
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Insects associated to Heliconia spp. inflorescenses used as ornamental plants. Repositório Alice
LOGES, V; SILVA, F. A. DA; CASTRO, A. C. R. de; COSTA, A. S. DA; CASTRO, M. F. A. DE; VERONA, A. L.; OLIVEIRA, C. M..
2009
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Urban.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/573550
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Market Institutions: Enhancing the Value of Rural-Urban Links AgEcon
Chowdhury, Shyamal K.; Negassa, Asfaw; Torero, Maximo.
This paper examines how market institutions can affect links between urban and rural areas with specific emphasis on goods market integration in the national context. Traditionally, development researchers and practitioners have focused either on rural market development or on urban market development without considering the interdependencies and synergies between the two. However, more than ever before, emerging local and global patterns such as the modern food value-chain led by supermarkets and food processors, rapid urbanization, changes in dietary composition, and enhanced information and communication technologies point to the need to pay close attention to the role of markets both in linking rural areas with intermediate cities and market towns and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market; Institution; Value; Urban; Rural; Bangladesh; Ethiopia; Indonesia; Kenya; Peru; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59597
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Migration and the Rural-Urban Continuum: Evidence from the Rural Philippines AgEcon
Quisumbing, Agnes R.; McNiven, Scott.
Migration is an important livelihood strategy in the Philippines. In 1991, 26 percent of urban households and 13 percent of rural households received remittances from migrant parents or children. Although international migration has received more attention than internal migration, the latter is significant in the Philippines. Between 1980 and 1990, the number of persons over the age of five years who were not resident in the city or municipality they resided in five years ago, increased from 2.85 to 3.24 million. Recent migration flows are interprovincial, typically in the direction of Metropolitan Manila and surrounding areas, and are dominated by women. While the percentage of the population classified as urban increased from 36 percent in the mid-1970s...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Migration; Rural; Urban; Philippines; International Development; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59599
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Neighborhood change and the role of environmental stewardship: a case study of green infrastructure for stormwater in the City of Portland, Oregon, USA Ecology and Society
Shandas, Vivek; Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning, Portland State University; Sustaining Urban Places Research Lab; vshandas@pdx.edu.
Throughout the history of cities, the ecological landscape has often been buried, removed, or taken for granted. A recent recognition that humans are part of the global ecosystem, and that human actions both cause and are affected by ecological change, brings with it an awareness of the value of nature in cities and of natural systems on which cities depend. The feedbacks between humans and their environment within an urban context can have profound implications for the growth of and change in cities, yet there is a limited understanding of the interactions between biophysical changes in cities and the implications of these changes on the quality of life for residents. The application of a coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) framework provides a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: CHANS; Stewardship; Stormwater management; Urban.
Ano: 2015
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Patterns of Urban Food Consumption and Expenditure in Zambia: An Overview Report Based on the CSO/MACO/FSRP Food Consumption Survey in Urban Areas of Lusaka, Kitwe, Mansa and Kasama, 2007-2008 AgEcon
Hichaambwa, Munguzwe; Beaver, Margaret; Chapoto, Antony; Weber, Michael T..
Replaced with revised version of paper 06/16/10.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Africa; Food security; Urban; Consumption; Zambia; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty; International Development; Q19.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56802
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Prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus infection among Chinese ethnic women in southern of Yunnan, China BJID
Baloch,Zulqarnain; Yasmeen,Nafeesa; Li,Yuanyue; Ma,Ke; Wu,Xiaomei; Yang,Shi-hua; Xia,Xueshan.
ABSTRACT Background: Dai is a major Chinese ethnic minority group residing in rural areas of the southern part of Yunnan. However, no data exist on the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution among Dai women. Method: A total of 793 participants (Dai = 324, Han = 251, other ethnic = 218) were included in this study. PCR was performed to detect the HPV-positive samples, and genotyping was performed with an HPV Geno-Array. Result: The overall HPV prevalence was very low among Dai women compared to the others. The prevalence of high-risk-HPV infections was significantly higher (p = 0.001) among other ethnic women (22.0%) than that among Han (13.1%) and Dai women (7.1%). The overall HPV, high-risk-HPV, single and multiple infection...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: HPV; Prevalence; Dai; Genotypes; Rural; Urban; China.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702017000300325
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Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among rural and urban populations in southern Yunnan province, China BJMBR
Baloch,Z.; Yuan,T.; Yindi,S.; Feng,Y.; Tai,W.; Liu,Y.; Liu,L.; Zhang,A.; Wang,B.; Wu,X.; Xia,X..
This study was designed to investigate and compare the HPV prevalence, genotypes distribution and associated risk factors in rural and urban women living in Xishuang Banna district, in the province of Yunnan. A total of 177 and 190 women from rural and urban areas were engaged, respectively. HPV DNA was amplified using the L1 consensus primers system (MY09/11 and GP5/6) and HPV GenoArray test was conducted for genotyping. Proportions were compared by chi-square test, and logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors. A total of 54 women were positive for HPV DNA. Among rural women, 23 women were positive for HPV infection, of which 21 showed a single infection and 2 had a multiple infection. HPV-16 (10/23) was the most prevalent genotype followed...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Xishuang Banna; Prevalence; Genotype; Oncogenic; Rural; Urban.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2016000600708
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Rural Broadband At A Glance, 2009 Edition AgEcon
Stenberg, Peter L.; Low, Sarah A..
Three-quarters of U.S. residents used the Internet to access information, education, and services in 2007. Broadband Internet access is becoming essential for both businesses and households; many compare its evolution to other technologies now considered common necessities—such as cars, electricity, televisions, microwave ovens, and cell phones. Although rural residents enjoy widespread access to the Internet, they are less likely to have high-speed, or broadband, Internet access than their urban counterparts. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the difference in access may lie in the higher cost and limited availability of broadband Internet in rural areas. As a result, rural residents depend more on Internet use outside of the home, in places like the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Keywords: Internet; Broadband; High-speed internet; Telemedicine; Rural; Urban; Census data; Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS); ERS; USDA; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59018
Registros recuperados: 27
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