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Registros recuperados: 36
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A Household Level Analysis of Food Expenditure Patterns in Urban China: 1995-2000 AgEcon
Aguero, Jorge M.; Gould, Brian W..
With China's admission into the WTO, there is the potential for dramatic increases in U.S. agricultural exports to China. As China's economy continues to develop, there is general consensus that there will be an associated change in the population's diet. Currently, dairy products account for a small proportion of total food consumed, but that has been increasing in importance over the last two decades. As Chinese markets become more open to U.S. food products, it is important that U.S. manufacturers and traders obtain a better understanding of the determinants of food expenditures in China. This paper addresses the question of how changes in household income may impact food demand in general and dairy products in particular.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: China's Food Consumption; Chinese Markets; Chinese Household Income; World Trade Organization; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37598
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Agricultural Biotechnology and the FTAA: Issues and Opportunities AgEcon
Gaisford, James D..
This article examines trade and intellectual property rights questions associated with agricultural biotechnology in the Western Hemisphere and goes on to chart a potential course through which they could be addressed by an agreement on a Free Trade Area of the Americas. Issues pertaining to import approvals, labelling, exports to sensitive markets, intellectual property piracy and regulatory cooperation are considered.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; BioSafety Protocol; Free Trade Area of the Americas; FTAA; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23926
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AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN VIETNAM: PRODUCER SUPPORT ESTIMATES, 1986-2002 AgEcon
Nguyen, Hoa; Ulrike, Grote.
Since 1986, Vietnam started to move from a centrally-planned towards a market-oriented system. It underwent several major economic and trade reforms – a process which is still not completed. At the same time, it also started to open its economy. Vietnam has become a member of the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA), signed several bilateral trade agreements and is currently negotiating accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). First positive results of the reform process became visible in the early 1990s when poverty declined to a large extent. Since then, the Vietnamese agricultural sector has also experienced high growth and impressive export achievements. The country changed from a food importer to one of the major exporters worldwide. The question...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural policies; Markets; Free trade; Trade agreements; World Trade Organization; Poverty; Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60456
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Agricultural Trade Preferences and the Developing Countries AgEcon
Wainio, John; Shapouri, Shahla; Trueblood, Michael A.; Gibson, Paul R..
Nonreciprocal trade preference programs originated in the 1970s under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as an effort by high-income developed countries to provide tariff concessions for low-income countries. The goal of the programs was to increase export earnings, promote industrialization, and stimulate economic growth in the lower income countries. This study analyzes detailed trade and tariff data for the United States and the European Union (the two largest nonreciprocal preference donors) to determine the extent to which the programs have increased exports from beneficiary countries. For those products where the margins of preference are large and where beneficiaries have a comparative advantage and the capacity to expand production, these...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Tariff; Agricultural trade; Preferences; Least developed countries; Market access; World Trade Organization; WTO; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7258
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ANALYSIS OF IMPACT ON DOMESTIC AGRICULTURE OF WTO MARKET ACCESS POLICY WITH THE HAMI SIMULATION MODEL AgEcon
Girardin, Jean.
A simple but new theoretical approach is used to analyse ex-ante the impact of tariff reduction. This methodology is based on the assumption of a constant price relation between each direct substitutable product. No elasticities are needed, but accurate import and domestic prices of the most sensitive and representative product of each tariff line are required. The present contribution forms a partial sector static simulation model that minimises the reduction of domestic production prices for the agricultural sector consecutive of the WTO market access negotiations of the Doha round. Results are shown on two levels whereas one of them provides rapidly a preliminary hierarchy of the sensitive products tariff lines and their optimal number. The second level...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Maximal domestic price; Sensitive products; Partial Sector Simulation; Market Access Simulation; World Trade Organization; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6451
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China's Accession to the WTO: What Is at Stake for Agricultural Markets? AgEcon
Fuller, Frank H.; Beghin, John C.; de Cara, Stephane; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fang, Cheng; Matthey, Holger.
We analyze the impact of China's accession to the World Trade Organization on major crop and livestock markets using the FAPRI modeling framework. We incorporate expected changes in consumer income, textile production, and trade policies as exogenous shocks to the baseline model. Following accession, revenues decline in China's livestock, grain, and oilseed industries, while cotton production prospers despite increased cotton imports. Chinese consumers benefit from lower food prices, with vegetable oil, dairy, and meat consumption increasing significantly. Argentina, Brazil, Canada, the European Union, and the United States are the greatest beneficiaries from expanded agricultural trade with China.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Accession; Agricultural trade; China; Policy analysis; Simulation models; Trade liberalization; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18522
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CHINA'S COTTON POLICY AND THE IMPACT OF CHINA'S WTO ACCESSION AND BT COTTON ADOPTION ON THE CHINESE AND U.S. COTTON SECTORS AgEcon
Fang, Cheng; Babcock, Bruce A..
In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major substitute crops from nine cotton-producing regions in China. Cotton demand, total fiber demand, and cotton share are estimated for each end user. The estimated parameters from the Chinese model are then used with the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) modeling system to simulate various...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Bt technology; China and cotton policy; U.S. cotton exports; World Trade Organization; WTO accession; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18556
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Climate Change Meets Trade in Promoting Green Growth: Potential Conflicts and Synergies AgEcon
Zhang, ZhongXiang.
To date, border adjustment measures in the form of emissions allowance requirements (EAR) under the U.S. proposed cap-and-trade regime are the most concrete unilateral trade measure put forward to level the carbon playing field. If improperly implemented, such measures could disturb the world trade order and trigger a trade war. Because of these potentially far-reaching impacts, this paper focuses on this type of unilateral border adjustment, which requires importers to acquire and surrender emissions allowances corresponding to the embedded carbon contents in their goods from countries that have not taken climate actions comparable to that of home country. This discussion is mainly on the legality of unilateral EAR under the WTO rules. Given that the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Post-2012 climate negotiations; Border carbon adjustments; Carbon tariffs; Emissions allowance requirements; Cap-and-trade regime; Lieberman-Warner bill; Waxman-Markey bill; World Trade Organization; Kyoto Protocol; Developing countries; United States; Environmental Economics and Policy; F18; Q48; Q54; Q56; Q58.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59475
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Costs and Benefits of a WTO Dispute: Philippine Bananas and the Australian Market AgEcon
Javelosa, Josyline C.; Schmitz, Andrew.
Why do governments engage in WTO disputes? What can countries expect to gain from international legal trade battles? This article examines the costs and benefits of the Philippine-Australian dispute regarding Australia's quarantine policy on Philippine fresh fruits and vegetables, a case also of keen interest to a number of countries including those in the European Union, the United States, Canada, Ecuador, Thailand, China, India, and Chile. We find that a host of institutional, political, and economic factors can trigger disputes under strong, yet debatable, expectations over winning a case in the WTO.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Bananas; Cost-benefit analysis; Sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures; Trade disputes; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23824
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EMPIRICALLY ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF U.S. EXPORT CREDIT PROGRAMS ON U.S. AGRICULTURAL TRADE AgEcon
Rienstra-Munnicha, Paul; Mulik, Kranti; Koo, Won W..
The use of officially supported export credit programs for agricultural products has been a widely debated issue at the World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations in recent years. The European Union (EU) has agreed to reduce their direct export subsidies if the United States reduces its export credits. Specifically, the main issue of contention is whether to limit the length of repayment of the U.S. export credit programs to a period not exceeding 180 days. However, the impacts of such a reduction on the importing countries and the United States are not clear. In light of this debate, we analyze the impact of a reduction in the repayment period to 180 days on importing countries and examine the subsequent effects on U.S. exports supported through...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Export credit programs; Agricultural trade; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23644
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Green Trade Agreements: Comparison of Canada, US and WTO AgEcon
Colyer, Dale.
Paper presented at the CAES/NAREA meeting, Quebec City, June 29 - July 1, 2008.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Trade; Free trade agreements; Environment; World Trade Organization; Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37329
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India's Reform of External Sector Policies and Future Multilateral Trade Negotiations AgEcon
Srinivasan, T.N..
I evaluate India's transition from an inward-oriented development strategy to greater participation in the world economy. While tariff rates have decreased significantly over the past decade, India is still one of the more autarkic countries. Despite improvement over the past in export performance, India continues to lag behind its South- and East Asian neighbors. Second, official debt flows have been largely replaced by foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio investment in the 1990s. India's ability to attract FDI would be greatly enhanced by further reforms. I argue that India's participation in a future round of multilateral trade negotiations would benefit India. I outline the further reforms most needed: reform of labour and bankruptcy laws,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: India; Antidumping; Developing countries; Economic reform; Export performance; Foreign direct investment; Intellectual property rights; Multilateral trade negotiations; Quantitative restrictions; Real exchange rate; Tariff and non-tariff barriers; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; F15; F21; F35; H54; K31; O34; O38; O53; P11.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28428
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IS THE WTO STILL RELEVANT TO THE GLOBAL ECONOMY? AgEcon
Bochniarz, Henryka.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: World Trade Organization; International trade; Trade agreements; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14593
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MARKETING OPPORTUNITIES FOR JAMAICA’S GRAPEFRUIT INDUSTRY AgEcon
Evans, Edward A.; Nalampang, Sikavas; Spreen, Thomas H..
Several Caribbean sugar producing countries are actively looking for viable alternatives to recover some of the expected lost revenues due to the WTO (World Trade Organization) ruling that sugar subsidies in the European Union (EU) are illegal. One alternative worth considering is exporting fresh grapefruits to the EU. This marketing opportunity comes about as the United States of America (U.S.), the world’s leading grapefruit producer and exporter (over half of world production), has suffered a series of recent setbacks (citrus canker, citrus greening diseases, and devastating hurricanes) that threaten the future of that industry. Specifically, grapefruit and pomelo production in the U.S. has declined steadily since 2000 (from 2,506 thousand metric tons...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Grapefruit; Marketing; Florida citrus industry; World Trade Organization; CAES; Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; Financial Economics; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36963
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PROFILES OF TARIFFS IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL MARKETS AgEcon
Gibson, Paul R.; Wainio, John; Whitley, Daniel B.; Bohman, Mary.
High protection for agricultural commodities in the form of tariffs continues to be the major factor restricting world trade. The large differences in average tariffs across countries make it possible for farmers in one country to benefit from tariff protection while farmers in other countries lose income because of lower prices resulting from those tariffs. This report provides the first comprehensive analysis of agricultural tariffs and tariff-rate quotas (limits on imported goods) across a large number of countries and commodities and finds that high average tariffs create barriers to markets for U.S. and other farmers.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Market access; Megatariffs; Tariff profiles; Over-quota tariffs; In-quota tariffs; Tariff-rate quotas; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34055
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Promouvoir les échanges commerciaux pour réduire la pauvreté : les accords de l’ OMC et l’agriculture en Afrique de l’ Ouest. Un rapport de l’ Accord de Coopération no. II sur la sécurité alimentaire AgEcon
Nouve, Kofi; Staatz, John M.; Schweikhardt, David B.; Yade, Mbaye.
Ce rapport est une vue d’ensemble sommaire des accords commerciaux de l’ OMC et de leurs implications pour les pays de l’ Afrique de l’ Ouest (ainsi que le Tchad). L’étude décrit les positions adoptées par les pays de l’ Afrique de l’ Ouest sur divers enjeux des négociations commerciales de l’ OMC, tout en comparant ces positions avec celles exprimées par les grands partenaires commerciaux, notamment l’ Union Européenne, le Japon, les U.S.A. et le reste de l’ Afrique Subsaharienne.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: World Trade Organization; Poverty; Food Security and Poverty; International Relations/Trade; Downloads July 2008-June 2009: 7; F0.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54574
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RETHINKING AGRICULTURAL DOMESTIC SUPPORT UNDER THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Hart, Chad E..
This paper focuses on the third pillar of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the discipline of agricultural domestic support. The paper examines the current definition of agricultural domestic support used by the WTO, focusing on the Aggregate Measure of Support (AMS) and other forms of support that are less to least distorting (Blue and Green Box payments). The analysis looks at the recent experience of four member states (the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Brazil). The structure of recent support varies considerably by country. Some countries, notably the United States, have strategically used the de minimis exemption to deflate their support figures substantially in order to remain...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Aggregate measure of support; Agricultural domestic support; Amber box; AMS; Blue box; Doha; Green box; World Trade Organization; WTO; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18296
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South American wheat markets and MERCOSUR AgEcon
Diaz-Bonilla, Eugenio.
"November 1997." Includes bibliographical references (p. 27-31).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trade liberalization; Wheat production -- South America; Trade policy -- South America; Argentina; Brazil; World Trade Organization; Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97561
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Spatial Price Analysis Incorporating Rate of Trade: Methods and Application to United States–China Soybean Trade AgEcon
Han, Shengfei; Durham, Catherine A..
A regime-switching model for analysis of market integration has been developed that incorporates rate of trade information. An application of the methods to United States–China soybean trade demonstrates that the extended trade information allows better interpretation of market conditions. While the empirical results show that China’s reform efforts since mid 1990s toward an open market have greatly improved United States–China soybean markets integration, about 40% of nontransitional disequilibrium occurrences likely indicate infrastructural limits such as the lack of information availability and limited competition. The United States–China price linkage is observed to be closer after China’s World Trade Organization membership. The link has also been...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: China; Futures markets; Market integration; Regime switching; Soybeans; World Trade Organization; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; F15; G13; Q11.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90667
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Tariff Liberalization, Wood Trade Flows, and Global Forests AgEcon
Sedjo, Roger A.; Simpson, R. David.
This paper examines the question of the likely effects on global forests of a further reduction in wood products tariffs including both solid wood products and pulp and paper, as has been proposed to the World Trade Organization (WTO) by the Asia Pacific Economic Community (APEC). The tariff reductions would be an extension of the tariff reductions associated with the Uruguay Round (Federal Register 1999). The questions include both how international trade is likely to change in response to further tariff reduction and also the implications for timber harvests and forests generally of such trade liberalization in the various forest regions. The paper finds that the evidence suggests further reductions in tariffs on forest products are likely to generate...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International trade; Tariffs; Forest; Forest products; World Trade Organization; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; F01; F21; F13; Q23.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10557
Registros recuperados: 36
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
 

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