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A History of Violence: Testing the ‘Culture of Honor’ in the US South AgEcon
Grosjean, Pauline.
Using historical data on early settlers to the United States, this paper tests and confirms the “Culture of Honor” hypothesis by socio-psychologists Dov Cohen and Richard Nisbett (1994, 1996). This hypothesis argues that the high prevalence of homicides in the US South stems from the fact that it was a frontier region settled by people whose economy was based on herding: the Scotch-Irish. Herding societies develop cultures of honors for reasons having to do with their precariousness: violence is a necessary condition to preserve a reputation for toughness and deter animal theft. Using historical census data on waves of settlers from Europe and relating contemporaneous violence to early Scotch-Irish settlers, this paper provides a test of the link between...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Culture of honor; US South; Labor and Human Capital; K4; Z; Z13.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90902
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A “masculinização” da produção de leite AgEcon
Magalhaes, Reginaldo Sales.
The strengthening of social organizations that made it possible for dairy production to become a market-driven activity has brought about deep changes in the sexual division of labour. The sociological analysis of the changes in family-farming intra-household roles shows that cultural traditions, gender-related power gaps, and social contexts that further deepen differences in market access between men and women are the social and cultural foundations of a hierarchy structured according to sex and generation, where women, especially the youngest, occupy greatly disadvantageous positions. With the strengthening of cooperatives, dairy production began to occupy a rather important role in providing resources to the household, yet the control over the activity...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Gender; Markets; Economic sociology.; Agribusiness; Z1; Z13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60822
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A relevância da família como unidade de análise nos estudos sobre pluriatividade AgEcon
Mattei, Lauro Francisco.
The pluriactivity phenomenon has been more studied in Brazil in the 1990’s, when increased the papers about it in many regions of the country. The main issue related with the pluriactivity theme is the relevant unit of analyses. In according to the international literature, this article defends the idea that the family, and not the production unit, should be the north of the studies of pluriactivity in the Brazilian family farming.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Pluriactivity; Family; Rurality.; Agribusiness; Z13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61928
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A Social Network Analysis of Occupational Segregation AgEcon
Van der Leij, Marco J.; Buhai, I. Sebastian.
We develop a social network model of occupational segregation between different social groups, generated by the existence of positive inbreeding bias among individuals from the same group. If network referrals are important for job search, then expected homophily in the contact network structure induces different career choices for individuals from different social groups. This further translates into stable occupational segregation equilibria in the labor market. We derive the conditions for wage and unemployment inequality in the segregation equilibria and characterize first and second best social welfare optima. Surprisingly, we find that socially optimal policies involve segregation.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social Networks; Homophily; Inbreeding Bias; Occupational Segregation; Labor Market Inequality; Social Welfare; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; J24; J31; J70; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6224
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Asthma Management Survey of Participants in an Inner City Asthma Intervention AgEcon
Sadof, Matthew; Brandt, Sylvia J..
Background: The Inner City Asthma Intervention (ICAI) was a national multi-center implementation of an evidence-based intervention to reduce asthma morbidity. Objective: This study describes mitigating behaviors and reported outcomes in families with asthma who completed the intervention and a post-intervention survey at one of the ICAI sites. Results: Eighty percent (0.72- 0.88, 95% confidence interval) of these families made five or more changes to mitigate exposure to environmental asthma triggers. The majority of families (0.84-0.96, 95% confidence interval) reported an improved awareness of asthma symptoms and less school absences, limitations of activity, unplanned doctor visits, and asthma related sleep disruption.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Asthma; Health intervention; Health behavior; Health Economics and Policy; I12; I18; Z13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14526
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BEHAVIOURS OF CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS. Analysis based on New (and not so new) Institutional Economics AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This article draws mostly (but not entirely) on new institutional economics to consider the likely behaviours of non-government conservation organizations and the implications of these behaviours for biodiversity conservation. It considers how institutional factors may result in behaviour of conservation NGOs diverging from their objectives, including their support for biodiversity conservation; examines aspects of rent capture and conservation alliances; specifies social factors that may restrict the diversity of species supported by NGOs for conservation; considers bounded rationality in relation to the operation of conservation NGOs; and using game theory, shows how competition between NGOs for funding can result in economic inefficiencies and narrow...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Australia; Biodiversity conservation; Bounded rationality; Civil society; Common Agricultural Policy; European Union; Landcare; Mixed goods; New institutional economics; New Zealand; NGOs; Principal-and-agent problem; Political acceptability; Environmental Economics and Policy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Political Economy; Q00; Q2; Q5; Q57; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6185
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Bilingualism and Communicative Benefits AgEcon
Gabszewicz, Jean; Ginsburgh, Victor; Weber, Shlomo.
We examine patterns of acquiring non-native languages in a model with two languages and two populations with heterogeneous learning skills, where every individual faces a binary choice of learning the foreign language or refraining from doing so. We show that both interior and corner linguistic equilibria can emerge in our framework, and that the fraction of learners of the foreign language is higher in the country with a higher gross cost adjusted communicative benefit. It turns out that this observation is consistent with the data on language proficiency in bilingual countries such as Belgium and Canada. We also point out that linguistic equilibria can exhibit insufficient learning which opens the door for government policies that are beneficial for both...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Communicative Benefits; Linguistic Equilibrium; Learning Costs; Labor and Human Capital; C72; D83; O52; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6380
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Changing Attitudes: Does Personal Experience Matter? A Structural Equilibrium Equation Modeling Approach with Panel Data AgEcon
Tutkun, Aysel.
Conversion to particularly animal-friendly stabling (PAFS) is one of the programs for which Swiss farmers receive direct payments from the government. This conversion to PAFS is analysed within a structural equation model in order to 1) review the link between intention to convert and observed conversion behavior, 2) prove the influence of personal experience on changing attitudes and norms, after having converted. The behavior model encompasses three theoretical constructs which influence the Behaviour: Attitude toward PAFS and Subjective Norm regarding PAFS, which both affect Intention to perform PAFS. Lastly, Intention influences the Behavior, i.e. observed conversion to PAFS. These variables are available for two time points, so one can...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Attitudes; Subjective norm; Personal experience; Observed behavior; Conversion to particularly animal friendly stabling; Theory of reasoned action; Consumer/Household Economics; Livestock Production/Industries; C8; D1; Q12; Z13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7971
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Do Social Relations Affect Economic Welfare? A Microeconomic Empirical Analysis AgEcon
Antoni, Giacomo Degli.
Over the last few years, many studies have shown that social networks affect the socioeconomic development. This paper presents evidence, through the Italian microdata representative of the entire Italian population, that the quality and quantity of interpersonal relations of agents can increase their economic welfare. Two proxies of interpersonal relations at an individual level are considered: a proxy for the density and one for the quality of network structure of personal contacts. Both seem to have a positive effect on the level of household economic welfare of agents. This result proves robust to the inclusion of a variety of control variables and to the use of different econometric methods.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Networks; Social Interactions; Household Economic Welfare; Microdata; Fuzzy Logic; Labor and Human Capital; D10; Z13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9330
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Does Social Capital Create Trust? Evidence from a Community of Entrepreneurs AgEcon
Sabatini, Fabio.
Which kind of social capital fosters the diffusion of development-oriented trust? This paper carries out an empirical investigation into the causal relationships connecting four types of social capital (i.e. bonding, bridging, linking, and corporate), and different forms of trust (knowledge-based trust, social trust, trust towards public services and political institutions), in a community of entrepreneurs located in the Italian industrial district of the Tuscia. Our results suggest that the main factors fostering the diffusion of social trust among entrepreneurs are the perception that the local community is a safe place, and the establishment of corporate ties through professional associations. Trust in people is positively and significantly correlated...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Trust; Social capital; Safety; Professional associations; Entrepreneurship; Corporate ties; Group and Interpersonal Processes; Social Perception and Cognition; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; J24; O15; Z13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52340
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Does Social Capital Mitigate Precariousness? AgEcon
Sabatini, Fabio.
There is a surprising gap in the economic literature on social capital. First, we lack studies addressing the effects of social capital on those facets of development that can contribute in making growth more sustainable in the long run, like, for example, human development and social cohesion. Second, it is still unclear what type of networks may exert a positive effect on the different dimensions of development. In particular, the literature has not yet provided a rigorous assessment of the role of strong family ties, that are generally referred to as a form of bonding social capital causing backwardness. This paper carries out an empirical investigation into the relationship between the three types of social capital so far identified by the literature...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social capital; Human development; Labour market; Precariousness; Italy; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Labor and Human Capital; Risk and Uncertainty; J24; O15; Z13.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6358
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Evaluating Multifunctional Activities as Rural Institution in Japan AgEcon
Ohe, Yasuo.
The relationship between multifunctionality and the roles of rural communities has not been discussed fully although the connection between the two is an essential issue in the rural policy arena. Pursuing this issue, this paper considers that multifunctional hamlet activities are generated as institutional joint products within the hamlet. Also evaluated is the connection between multifunctional activities and institutional hamlet conditions under the Japanese direct payment program for less favored areas. Results of conceptual considerations and empirical evaluations reveal that specific multifunctional hamlet activities depend on hamlet conditions; those on the least favorable level tend to perform land preservation activities while those under the most...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Multifunctionality; Rural community; Institution; Jointness; Diversification; Human resources; Direct payment; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; Q19; R0; Z13; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25468
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Examining Collective Action among Mieso Agropastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia AgEcon
Beyene, Fekadu; Hagedorn, Konrad.
An increasing scarcity of water for crop farming and livestock watering among agropastoralists of Mieso in Eastern Ethiopia has largely disrupted their livelihoods. Indigenous water well maintenance and government initiated rainwater harvesting are two important collective actions common among these communities. With the aim of examining collective action institutions in both cases, we collected data from different stakeholders and individual members. Theoretically, low level of physical assets (action resource) limits participation of an individual in collective action. In our case, other factors such as environmental uncertainty and lower level of dependence on the resource have been found to be more significant in limiting membership than limitation of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Collective Action; Agropastoralists; Institutions; Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D71; Z13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25797
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Explaining the Conversion to Organic Farming of Farmers of the Obwalden Canton, Switzerland - Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior within a Structural Equation Modeling Approach AgEcon
Tutkun, Aysel; Lehmann, Bernard; Schmidt, Peter.
Farmers' decisions about conversion to organic farming are analyzed with a structural equation model. The Theory of Planned Behavior (ToPB), one of the prominent theories in the social psychology, is used as the theoretical basis of this study. Though ToPB is a well-defined theory, it is static rather than procedural and cannot model the individual decision-making as a process. Therefore, we first examine the general applicability of ToPB in an agricultural context and explain the variance in intentions of farmers to convert to organic farming. Second, we extend the ToPB to make it more procedural. For this purpose, research findings from the Diffusion Theory are included as part of the behavioral model. The empirical results indicate that, overall, the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Behavior research; Conversion to particularly animal friendly stabling system; Theory of planned behavior; Diffusion theory; Structural equation modelling; Farm Management; C8; D1; Q12; Z13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25313
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Gender Differences in Pro-social Behaviour: The Case of Fair-trade Food Consumers AgEcon
De Devitiis, Biagia; De Luca, Anna Irene; Maietta, Ornella Wanda.
Objective of this paper is to analyse the presence of gender differences in the purchase motivations of Fair Trade (FT) food products sold in the Italian World Shops (WS). At this end, a questionnaire has been distributed to a sample of consumers in four Italian regions. A bivariate ordered probit analysis has been performed in order to identify the determinants of the two main ethical motivations in the purchase: worker guarantees and solidarity. The variables used as determinants are individual and municipal characteristics. Among individual characteristics, gender is significant; among the municipal characteristics, the rate of female job market participation is also significant. These results give evidence of a gender gap in the preferences for public...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Ethical consumerism; Gender preferences; Fair trade; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital; D12; I31; L31; Z13.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114372
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Gender Issue and Water Management in the Mediterranean Basin, Middle East and North Africa AgEcon
Minoia, Giulia.
This article aims to investigate some aspects of the social process related to water resources management and gender relations. Given that gender and water management are interrelated issues exposed to a growing attention at the international level, it is therefore necessary to identify relations between the academic literature, the institutional framework and the field-based research. This document has been inspired by the Nostrum DSS project (Network on Governance, Science and Technology for Sustainable Water Resources Management in the Mediterranean), a Co-ordination Action funded by the European Commission, which involves eighteen partners from the North and South shores of the basin. As the scope of the project is to disseminate Best Practice...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Irrigation; Gender; Regional Development Policy; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; J16; Z13.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9556
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How Homophily Affects Learning and Diffusion in Networks AgEcon
Golub, Benjamin; Jackson, Matthew O..
We examine how three different communication processes operating through social networks are affected by homophily - the tendency of individuals to associate with others similar to themselves. Homophily has no effect if messages are broadcast or sent via shortest paths; only connection density matters. In contrast, homophily substantially slows learning based on repeated averaging of neighbors' information and Markovian diffusion processes such as the Google random surfer model. Indeed, the latter processes are strongly affected by homophily but completely independent of connection density, provided this density exceeds a low threshold. We obtain these results by establishing new results on the spectra of large random graphs and relating the spectra to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Networks; Learning; Diffusion; Homophily; Friendships; Social Networks; Random Graphs; Mixing Time; Convergence; Speed of Learning; Speed of Convergence; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D83; D85; I21; J15; Z13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50718
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Identifying the Factors that Influence Small-scale Farmers’ Transaction Costs in Relation to Seed Acquisition - An ethnographic case study of maize growing smallholders in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico AgEcon
Badstue, Lone B..
Using an ethnographic approach, this study explores small-scale farmers’ perceived transaction costs in relation to maize seed acquisition in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca. These farmers have different needs and require seed of diverse maize types with multiple traits in particular combinations. Formal seed distribution has yet to develop in this region and farmers depend mostly on informal seed sources. Issues of information about maize seed, seed transaction negotiation and enforcement are examined from a small-scale farmer perspective through the use of qualitative data. Results show that farmers’ perceived transaction costs are low to negligible in most cases where seed transactions take place locally, and trust is indicated as a factor which serves to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Small-scale farmers; Transaction costs; Seed acquisitions; Maize (Zea mays L.); Informal seed sector; Oaxaca; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; D23; O17; Q12; Z13.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23800
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Informal Insurance in the Presence of Poverty Traps: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia AgEcon
Santos, Paulo; Barrett, Christopher B..
Fieldwork for this paper was conducted under the Pastoral Risk Management (PARIMA) project of the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program (GL CRSP), funded by the Office of Agriculture and Food Security, Global Bureau, USAID, under grant number DAN-1328-G-00-0046-00, and analysis was underwritten by the USAID SAGA cooperative agreement, grant number HFM-A-00-01-00132-00. Financial support was also provided by the Social Science Research Council's Program in Applied Economics on Risk and Development (through a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation), The Pew Charitable Trusts (through the Christian Scholars Program of the University of Notre Dame), the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portugal), and the Graduate...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk; Informal insurance; Social networks; Poverty traps; Ethiopia; Risk and Uncertainty; Z13; I3; O13.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25487
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Inside the 'Black Box' of Project Star: Estimation of Peer Effects Using Experimental Data AgEcon
Boozer, Michael A.; Cacciola, Stephen E..
The credible identification of endogenous peer group effects— i.e. social multiplier or feedback effects —has long eluded social scientists. We argue that such effects are most credibly identified by a randomly assigned social program which operates at differing intensities within and between peer groups. The data we use are from Project STAR, a class size reduction experiment conducted in Tennessee elementary schools. In these data, classes were comprised of varying fractions of students who had previously been exposed to the Small class treatment, creating class groupings of varying experimentally induced quality. We use this variation in class group quality to estimate the spillover effect. We find that when allowance is made for this ‘feedback’ effect...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Peer effects; Data with a group structure; Organization of schooling; Experimental evidence; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; Z13; C51; C81; I21; C23.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28524
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