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A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae) Naturalis
Nieukerken, E.J. van; Geertsema, H..
A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, R. digitata, R. tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Host shift; Leafminers; Vitaceae; Viticulture; Table grapes; Rhoicissus; Cissus; DNA barcode; Genitalia; Holocacista; Antispilina; Antispila; Afrotropics; South Africa; Zimbabwe; India.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/648754
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Adapting Science to Adaptive Managers: Spidergrams, Belief Models, and Multi-agent Systems Modeling Ecology and Society
Lynam, Timothy; Tropical Resource Ecology Program, University of Zimbabwe; tlynam@science.uz.ac.zw; Bousquet, Francois; CIRAD Tera; bousquet@cirad.fr; Le Page, Christophe; CIRAD Tera; lepage@cirad.fr; d'Aquino, P.; CIRAD Tera; daquino@telecomplus.sn; Barreteau, Olivier; Cemagref Division Irrigation; barreteau@montpellier.cemagref.fr; Chinembiri, Frank C; Agritex;; Mombeshora, Bright; ;.
Two case studies are presented in which models were used as focal tools in problems associated with common-pool resource management in developing countries. In the first case study, based in Zimbabwe, Bayesian or Belief Networks were used in a project designed to enhance the adaptive management capacity of a community in a semiarid rangeland system. In the second case study, based in Senegal, multi-agent systems models were used in the context of role plays to communicate research findings to a community, as well as to explore policies for improved management of rangelands and arable lands over which herders and farmers were in conflict. The paper provides examples of the use of computer-based modeling with stakeholders who had limited experience with...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Bayesian belief networks; Developing country; Dynamic modeling; Multi-agent systems; Participatory modeling; Semiarid rangeland; Senegal; Spidergrams; Zimbabwe.
Ano: 2002
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ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF HIGH-YIELDING VARIETIES OF MAIZE IN RESETTLEMENT AREAS OF ZIMBABWE AgEcon
Bourdillon, Michael; Hebinck, Paul; Hoddinott, John; Kinsey, Bill; Marondo, John; Mudege, Netsayi; Owens, Trudy.
This study is part of a larger effort to explore the impact of agricultural research on poverty reduction. It examines the diffusion and impact of hybrid maize in selected resettlement areas of rural Zimbabwe, paying particular attention to varieties made widely available from the mid-1990s onwards. While “Zimbabwe’s Green Revolution” of the early 1980s was characterized by the widespread adoption of hybrid maize varieties and significant increases in yields, the subsequent diffusion of newer varieties occurred more slowly and had a more modest impact. Several factors account for this. Government now plays a much-reduced role and one that increasingly focuses on “better farmers.” Private-sector institutions that have entered the maize sector operate mainly...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Agricultural research; Sustainable livelihoods; Vulnerability; Agricultural extension; Social capital; Hybrid maize; Zimbabwe; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16407
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Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems Ecology and Society
Campbell, Bruce; Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR); b.campbell@cgiar.org; Sayer, Jeffrey A; WWF (World Wildlife Fund); jsayer@wwfint.org; Frost, Peter; Institute of Environmental Studies; pfrost@compcentre.uz.ac.zw; Vermeulen, Sonja; International Institute for Environment and Development; sonja.vermeulen@iied.org; Cunningham, Tony; World Wildlife Fund/UNESCO/Kew People and Plants Initiative; peopleplants@bigpond.com; Prabhu, Ravi; CIFOR Regional Office; r.prabhu@cgiar.org.
Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Capital assets; Conceptual models; Decision support; Livelihoods; Modeling; Multivariate statistics; Natural resource systems; Performance; Zimbabwe.
Ano: 2001
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Assessment of the effectiveness of maize seed assistance to vulnerable farm households in Zimbabwe AgEcon
Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Setimela, Peter S..
The publication describes outcomes of a study to assess the effectiveness of a large-scale crop seed relief effort in Zimbabwe during 2003-07. Aims of the effort, which was supported by the British Department for International Development (DfID) and coordinated by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) regional office in Harare, included broader diffusion of open-pollinated maize varieties (OPVs), as opposed to hybrids. Based on the findings of the study, the authors recommend that, to increase benefits to vulnerable groups, participants in such efforts should effectively disseminate information on selecting and recycling seed, supported by training and field demonstrations, and should target relatively well-endowed farmers initially. Recommendations...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural development; Technical aid; Farm income; Food production; Maize; Open pollination; Hybrids; Zimbabwe; Crop Production/Industries; International Development.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7655
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Collapse and Reorganization in Social-Ecological Systems: Questions, Some Ideas, and Policy Implications Ecology and Society
Abel, Nick; CSIRO; nick.abel@csiro.au; Cumming, David H. M.; University of Zimbabwe; dcumming@science.uz.ac.zw; Anderies, John M; Arizona State University; m.anderies@asu.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Key words: resilience collapse; Recovery; Social-ecological systems; Adaptive cycle; Natural capital; Social capital; Human capital; Zimbabwe; Australia.
Ano: 2006
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Comparative use patterns of plant resources in rural areas of South Africa and Zimbabwe Phyton
Maroyi,A; Rasethe,MT.
Documentation of use patterns of plants across national boundaries is of relevance in understanding the importance of plant resources to livelihood strategies of different ethnic groups. Plant resources have gained prominence as a natural asset through which families derive food, frewood, income, medicines and timber, enabling particularly poor communities to achieve self-suficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in plant usage in South Africa and Zimbabwe. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted between January 2012 and January 2013 in the Limpopo Province, South Africa and the Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. The study used questionnaire surveys and interviews with a total of 143 participants to explore plant use patterns in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ethnobotany; Plant use; Rural communities; South Africa; Zimbabwe.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.scielo.org.ar/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1851-56572015000200005
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Effects of Cash Crop Production on Food Crop Productivity in Zimbabwe: Synergies or Trade-offs? AgEcon
Govereh, Jones; Jayne, Thomas S..
This paper studies the dynamics between cash cropping and food crop productivity in Gokwe North District in Zimbabwe, a major cotton producing area. The main research issues were: (1) to identify the determinants of commercialized crop production at the household level; and (2) to determine the effect of increasing crop commercialization on household food productivity. The paper derives a household crop commercialization index, defined as the ratio of crop sales to total crop production. Econometric models were developed for identifying the determinants of household-level commercialization and for measuring its effects on food crop productivity.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Cash crop production; Food crop productivity; Zimbabwe; Crop Production/Industries; Productivity Analysis; Downloads June 2008 - July 2009: 62; Q18.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54670
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Farmers' Taxonomies as a Participatory Diagnostic Tool: Soil Fertility Management in Chihota, Zimbabwe AgEcon
Bellon, Mauricio R.; Gambara, Peter; Gatsi, Tendai; MacHemedze, Timothy E.; Maminimini, Obert; Waddington, Stephen R..
Soil infertility is a major constraint to food production in the communal areas of Zimbabwe. Smallholders in the region recognize the problems of low soil fertility and have devised ways of coping with them. This study describes the use of farmers’ taxonomies of themselves and their soils to identify and understand the options they have, and the constraints they face in managing poor soil fertility in Chihota, a sub-humid communal area of north central Zimbabwe. It is part of an effort by a group of agricultural researchers and extensionists working on improved soil fertility technologies, to better integrate their work with farmers in order to expose the latter to promising technologies, get feedback on the technologies merits and feasibility, and help...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Participatory methods; Soil fertility; Local taxonomies; Smallholders; Zimbabwe; Farm Management; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7677
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Gemmology, geology and origin of the Sandawana emerald deposits, Zimbabwe Naturalis
Zwaan, J.C..
As one of the most valuable gemstones, emeralds are known to occur in several countries of the world, such as Colombia, Zambia, Brazil, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Russia, Madagascar and Zimbabwe. The emerald deposits at Sandawana, Zimbabwe, are described, the emeralds from this deposit characterised and a model of emerald formation presented; this is compared with existing models. The emeralds from Sandawana, Zimbabwe, show relatively constant physical properties, with high refractive indices and specific gravities. They are characterized by laths and fibres of amphibole, both actinolite and cummingtonite. Other common inclusions are albite and apatite. Rare, opaque and chromium-rich inclusions constitute a new variety of ilmenorutile. Compared to emeralds...
Tipo: Article / Letter to the editor Palavras-chave: Emerald; Sandawana; Zimbabwe; Gemmology; Petrology; Geothermometry; Geochronology; 38.30.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/record/209632
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IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH ON POVERTY: FINDINGS OF AN INTEGRATED ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ANALYSIS AgEcon
Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Adato, Michelle; Haddad, Lawrence James; Hazell, Peter B.R..
The extent to which agricultural research has reduced poverty has become an increasing concern of policymakers, donors, and researchers. Until recently, poverty reduction was a secondary goal of agricultural research. The primary focus was on increasing food supplies and reducing food prices, a strategy that was successful in increasing the yields of important food staples. When increased productivity is combined with increased agricultural employment, lower food prices, and increased off-farm employment, agricultural research can be credited with significant reductions in rural poverty. However, these benefits do not necessarily materialize, and thus it is essential to understand how agricultural technologies influence and are influenced by the diverse...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Poverty; Agricultural research; Sustainable livelihoods; Vulnerability; Agricultural extension; Bangladesh; China; India; Mexico; Kenya; Zimbabwe; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16088
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Macroeconomic adjustment and agricultural performance in Southern Africa: a quantitative overview AgEcon
Bautista, Romeo M..
"February 1996." Includes bibliographical references (p. 29-30).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Macroeconomics -- Models; Economic development; Agricultural development -- Africa; Southern; Malawi; Tanzania; Zimbabwe; Zambia; International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97768
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Modelling the impact of the ‘Fast Track’ land reform policy on Zimbabwe’s maize sector AgEcon
Kapuya, T.; Meyer, Ferdinand H.; Kirsten, Johann F..
This paper attempts to analyze the impacts of the ‘fast track’ land reform policy on maize production in Zimbabwe through the construction of a partial equilibrium model that depicts what could have happened if no further policy shifts had taken place after 2000. The resimulated baseline model was used to make projections based on the various trends of exogenous variables in 2000. This means that the model generated an artificial data set based on what the maize market would have looked like under a set of the pre-2000 existent policy conditions. The ‘fast track’ land reform policy was thus assessed based on the performance of the baseline model using a range of “what if” assumptions. Commercial area harvested was 39 % less than what could have been...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: ‘fast track’ land reform programme; Partial equilibrium model; Maize; Zimbabwe; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95958
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Science in Agricultural Relief and Development Programs: The Case of Conservation Farming In Zimbabwe AgEcon
Mazvimavi, Kizito; Twomlow, Steve; Murendo, Conrad; Musitini, Tawedzegwa.
Drought is endemic to southern Africa. In Zimbabwe farmers have been experiencing drought once every two to three years. Relief agencies have traditionally responded to drought by providing farmers with enough seed and fertilizer to enable them to re-establish their cropping enterprises. But, in the absence of these interventions there are limited sustainable options for farmers to maintain higher productivity levels. ICRISAT has been working with government, NGOs and the donor community to test more sustainable farming strategies that will increase food production levels even under drought conditions. For years, ICRISAT sought to develop more drought-tolerant varieties of sorghum, pearl millet and groundnut. But these offered only limited gains in...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Drought; Farmers; Relief; Zimbabwe; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Productivity Analysis; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52129
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The Green Revolution in Zimbabwe AgEcon
Alumira, Jane; Rusike, Joseph.
This paper presents a historical overview of plant breeding research, variety release and seed supply of staple food grains in Zimbabwe, and assesses the impacts of the new varieties on yields using national aggregate yield data. The paper also analyses farm-level factors determining farmers’ adoption decisions in the semi-arid areas, where the mini-green revolution lagged behind more favorable areas. The results indicate that the adoption of improved crop varieties will not lead to substantial yield gains unless improved soil management methods, such as application of manure and fertilizer, are also adopted..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Green Revolution; Maize; Semi-arid areas; Soil fertility management; Drought; Zimbabwe; International Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/110144
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The Many Paths of Cotton Sector Reform in Eastern and Southern Africa: Lessons From a Decade of Experience AgEcon
Tschirley, David L.; Poulton, Colin; Boughton, Duncan.
With cotton sector reform in much of SSA a decade old, it is now possible to review the empirical record and begin drawing lessons from experience. This paper assesses the record of five countries in southern and eastern Africa: Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Mozambique. In four of these countries, cotton is the first- or second most important smallholder cash crop; only in Uganda does it substantially lag other cash crops. The focus on the course of reform in each – initial conditions, key elements of the reform, and institutional response to it – and attempt to draw lessons for policy makers, donors, and researchers. the paper begins by outlining the challenges faced by cotton production and marketing systems. Next a review the range of...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food policy; Cotton sector reform; Tanzania; Uganda; Zimbabwe; Zambia; Mozambique; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54477
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The Role of Food from Natural Resources in Reducing Vulnerability to Poverty: A Case Study from Zimbabwe AgEcon
Mithofer, Dagmar; Waibel, Hermann; Akinnifesi, Festus K..
Vulnerability to poverty is a major problem in the rural areas of Sub Saharan Africa. Rural Households are confronted with various covariate and idiosyncratic shocks and are often severely constrained in coping with such events. They frequently resort to food from natural resources such as indigenous fruits during times of crisis. The availability of such food sources is increasingly at risk due to deforestation and biodiversity loss. The objective of this paper is to quantify the contribution of indigenous fruit trees towards reducing vulnerability to food insecurity and poverty. The methodology used is a multi-period stochastic household income model. The data were collected in a case study in Zimbabwe using detailed monthly income and expenditure...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Vulnerability; Poverty; Food security; Seasonal fluctuations; Wild food resources; Zimbabwe; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25264
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The role of rural off-farm employment in agricultural development among farm households in low-income countries: Evidence from Zimbabwe AgEcon
Chikwama, Cornilius.
This study examines the widely held view that earnings from rural wage employment can help farm households overcome constraints on farm investments. It uses a panel dataset of 359 randomly selected farm households from three resettlement areas in Zimbabwe over the period 1996/97 to 1998/99. It finds no evidence to support the hypothesis that income from rural wage employment contributes towards increasing farm investment for the sampled households, and it attributes this to very low savings rates on rural wage employment income. Further, it finds that levels of farm investment increase with the amount of labor and land used in farm production in the previous year, and for households with male and/or older household heads. It also finds an inverse relation...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Rural off-farm wage employment; Farm investment; Agricultural development; Sub-Saharan Africa; Zimbabwe; International Development; Labor and Human Capital; O12; O18; J40; R20.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93874
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Towards an Analytical Framework for Assessing Property Rights to Natural Resources: A Case Study in the Communal Areas of Zimbabwe AgEcon
Kundhlande, Godfrey; Luckert, Martin K..
A taxonomy for describing property rights to natural resources is described and applied in a Zimbabwean case study. The taxonomy allows: tenures to be systematically compared and contrasted; incentives for natural resource management to be identified; and the evolution of tenure to natural resources to be assessed. In the case study, we find: key differences between tenure types, all termed "communal"; a wide range of tenure arrangements that transcend concepts of "tree" and "land tenure"; information suggesting that the promotion of tree planting may work on some tenure types, but is likely to fail on others; and that the evolution of indigenous tenure to natural resources seems to have been somewhat immune from external changes in institutional systems....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Incentives; Natural resources; Property rights framework/taxonomy; Tenure; Zimbabwe; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24115
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TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE PLANT Xanthium strumarium IN PIGS IN ZIMBABWE J. Venom. Anim. Toxins
MASVINGWE,C.; MAVENYENGWA,M..
Major clinical signs were depression, vomiting, abdominal pain, weakness, recumbency, paddling convulsions terminating in death from 6 to 96 hours after ingestion. Gross pathological findings included ascites with fibrin strands, enlarged, congested and friable livers with accentuation of lobulation on the capsule. Microscopically, acute hepatic congestion and hemorrhage, centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis, with occasional binucleation together with discoid lysis of skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers were remarkable changes. Binucleation of hepatocytes and degenerative changes in active muscles have not been reported before in relation to cocklebur plant toxicosis. These findings suggest that X. strumarium is a potential cause of sudden death in pigs...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Xanthium strumarium toxicosis; Hepatocyte necrosis; Striated muscle fiber and renal tubular degeneration; Zimbabwe.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-79301998000200003
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