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Waterlogging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in pigeon pea Eprints@IARI
Sairam, R K; Kumutha, D; Ezhilmathi, K; Chinnuswamy, V; Meena, R C.
An experiment was conducted with two contrasting pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) genotypes, ICPL 84023 (tolerant) and ICP 7035 (susceptible), to study the physiological and molecular basis of waterlogging tolerance in relation to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities. Waterlogging resulted in visible yellowing and premature senescence of leaves, and greater decline in relative water content, chlorophyll content, and membrane stability index in ICP 7035 than in ICPL 84023. Superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide contents increased at day 4 and 6 of waterlogging probably due to activation of NADPH-oxidase. O2 ̇⎯ production was inhibited, by diphenylene iodonium chloride, a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase and expression of NADPH oxidase-mRNA...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/160/1/Biol._Plant-2009_Pigeon_pea_Oxidative_stress_II.pdf
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Impact of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Fungi on Phosphorus Efficiency of Wheat, Rye, and Triticale Eprints@IARI
Pandey, Renu; Singh, Bhupinder; Nair, T V R.
Genotypic variation and mycorrhiza play an important role in plant uptake of phosphorus (P). A pot experiment was conducted with three cereals, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW-34), rye (Secale cereale L. cv. R-308), and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in the degree of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) infection and its inheritability from parents (wheat and rye) to their progeny (triticale). The soil used for pot culture was low in available P (7.8 mg P kg−1soil). Inoculation withAMfungi showed a significant increase in extent of root colonization for all three cereals (average 70%) compared with their performance without AM (average 19.1%). However, among the three cereals, this...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/81/1/JPN_2005_Renu_et_al.pdf
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Micronutrient Deficiency: A Global Challenge and Physiological Approach to Improve Grain Productivity under Low Zinc Availability Eprints@IARI
Singh, Bhupinder; Dheeravathu, Seva Nayak; Usha, Kalidindi.
Micronutrient deficiency in soils is a fast emerging phenomenon and a challenging abiotic stress in world agriculture. Most important micronutrients that the developing and developed world is concerned from point of view of sustaining grain productivity and malnutrition in human beings are iron and zinc. Biofortification of staple food crops with micronutrients by either breeding for higher uptake efficiency or fertilization can be an effective strategy to address widespread dietary deficiency in human populations. Cereal species greatly differ in their micronutrient efficiency (MiE), defined in this paper as the ability of a plant to grow and yield well under micronutrient deficiency. MiE generally has been attributed to the efficiency of acquisition of...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/314/1/NAPS-27-2009proof%5B1%5D.pdf
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Effect of elevated carbon dioxide on Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants Eprints@IARI
Jain, Vanita; Saxsena, D C; Pandey, Renu; Sairam, R K.
Spinach is an important leafy vegetable enriched in iron. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of elevated carbon dioxide on growth and nutrient composition of spinach. The plants were grown in open top chambers (OTC) under two concentration of carbon dioxide viz. ambient (ACO2, 350± 50 μmol mol-1) and elevated (ECO2, 600± 50 μmol mol-1) and were analyzed 40, 60 and 80 days after exposure to CO2. The plants grown in ECO2 had higher net photosynthetic rate and lower stomatal conductance when compared with the plants grown in ACO2. ECO2 also changed the nutrient composition of leaves. Lower nitrogen and iron content and higher carbon and calcium content were observed in the plants exposed to elevated CO2. The rising CO2 may lead to changes in...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/277/1/eCO2___spinach_plants_hindi_article_Jain-saxena-pandey-sairam.pdf
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Gamma irradiationto improveplant vigour, graindevelopment, and yield attributes of wheat Eprints@IARI
Singh, Bhupinder; Datta, P.S..
Utilizing low dose gamma radiation holds promise for physiological crop improvement. Seed treatment of low dose gamma radiation 0.01–0.10 kGy reduced plant height, improved plant vigour, flag leaf area, total and number of EBT. Gamma irradiation increased grain yield due to an increase in number of EBT and grain number while 1000 grain weight was negatively affected. Further uniformity in low dose radiation response in wheat in the field suggests that the affect is essentially at physiological than at genetic level and that role of growth hormones could be crucial.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/307/1/Wheat_Paper_Rad_Phys_Chem_09.pdf
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Waterlogging induced oxidative stress and antioxidant activity in pigeonpea genotypes Eprints@IARI
Kumutha, D; Ezhilmathi, K; Sairam, R K; Srivastava, G C; Deshmukh, P S; Meena, R C.
The objective of this study was to examine the role of antioxidant enzymes in waterlogging tolerance of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Halls) genotypes ICP 301 (tolerant) and Pusa 207 (susceptible). Waterlogging resulted in visible yellowing and senescence of leaves, decrease in leaf area, dry matter, relative water content and chlorophyll content in leaves, and membrane stability index in roots and leaves. The decline in all parameters was greater in Pusa 207 than ICP 301. Oxidative stress in the form of superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents initially decreased, however at 4 and 6 d of waterlogging it increased over control plants, probably due to activation of DPI-sensitive NADPH-oxidase....
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/190/1/Biol._Plant.-Pigeon_pea_oxidative_stress.pdf
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Oxidative stress and antioxidative system in plants Eprints@IARI
Arora, Ajay; Sairam, R K; Srivastava, G C.
Free radicals and other active derivatives of oxygen are inevitable by-products of biological redox reac- tions. Reactive oxygen species inactivate enzymes and damage important cellular components. The increased production of toxic oxygen derivatives is considered to be a universal or common feature of stress conditions. Plant and other organisms have evolved a wide range of mechanisms to contend with this problem. The antioxidant defence system of the plant comprises a variety of antioxidant molecules and enzymes. The effects of the action of free radi- cals on membranes include the induction of lipid peroxidation and fatty acid de-esterification. Both ethylene biosynthesis and membrane breakdown, which appear to be closely linked, seem to involve free...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/163/1/Curr.Sci.-Oxidative_stress_and_antioxidative_-RKS.pdf
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Germination behaviour and physiological response of rice to paper mill effluent application Eprints@IARI
Madhumita, Paul; Joshi, H C; Sairam, R K.
A study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of paper mill effluent on rice var. Pusa Basmati-1 (PB-l) at the germination stage. The effluent at higher concentration showed limited inhibitory effect on the germination percentage. The shoot and root length increased on application of effluent at 25 and 50 % concentration but higher concentrations of effluent, i.e. 75 and 100 % effluent, retarded the root and shoot length of the seedlings. RWC and MSI decreased with increase in the effluent concentration but the total sugar content increased significantly with the increase in effluent concentration. Hydrogen peroxide content increased in the seedlings under higher concentration of effluent with a corresponding increase in lipid...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/167/1/IJPP-Paper_mill_effluent.pdf
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Effect of waterlogging on carbohydrate metabolism in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.): Upregulation of sucrose synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase Eprints@IARI
Kumutha, D; Sairam, R K; Ezhilmathi, K; Chinnuswamy, V; Meena, R C.
The objective of this study was to examine the role of root carbohydrate levels and metabolism in the waterlogging tolerance of contrasting pigeon pea genotypes. An experiment was conducted with 4 pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) genotypes, 2 tolerant (ICPL 84023 and ICP 301) and 2 susceptible (ICP 7035 and Pusa 207) to waterlogging stress.Waterlogging treatment was given by placing pots with 25 days old plants in plastic troughs filledwithwater. Waterlogging resulted in decrease in leaf area, dry matter, relative water content and chlorophyll content in leaves, andmembrane stability index in root and leaf tissues. The decline was greater in ICP 7035 and Pusa 207, which also suffered almost 100% mortality during recovery of 6 days waterlogged plants, than ICPL...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/205/1/JACS-Oxidative_-2000.pdf
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Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Hexaploid and Tetraploid Wheat to Drought Stress Eprints@IARI
Chandrasekhar, V; Sairam, R K; Srivastava, G C.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the physio! logical and biochemical responses of two hexaploids viz[\ C 295 "water stress tolerant# and Hira "water stress sus! ceptible#\ and two tetraploids\ HW 13 "Triticum dicoccum# and A 8!29!0 "Triticum durum# wheat genotypes to water stress under pot culture condition[ Water stress was imposed for a uniform period of 09 days at 49\ 59 and 69 days after sowing "DAS# and observations were recorded at 59\ 69 and 79 DAS[ Total dry matter and plant height were recorded at harvest[ Water stress caused a decline in relative water content "RWC#\ chlorophyll and carotenoid content\ membrane stability and nitrate reductase activity and increased accumulation of proline at all stages and abscisic acid...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/171/1/JACS-2000.pdf
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Sulfur starvation and restoration affect nitrate uptake and assimilation in rapeseed Eprints@IARI
Kaur, Gurjeet; Chandna, Ruby; Pandey, Renu; Abrol, Yash Pal; Muhammad, Iqbal; Ahmad, Altaf.
Abstract We analyzed the effect of omission of sulfur (S) from the nutrient solution and then restoration of S-source on the uptake and assimilation of nitrate in rapeseed. Incubation in nutrient solution without S for 1–6 days led to decline in uptake of nitrate, activities, and expression levels of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS). The nitrite reductase (NiR) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activities were not considerably affected. There was significant enhancement in nitrate content and decline in sulfate content. Evaluation of amino acid profile under S-starvation conditions showed two- to fourfold enhancement in the contents of arginine, asparagine andO-acetyl-L-serine (OAS), whereas the contents of cysteine and methionine were...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/219/1/S_starvation_%26_restoration_Gurjeet%2C_chandana%2C_pandey_etal_Protoplasma_2010.pdf
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Influence of certain chemicals on nitrate reductase activity and its correlation with caffeine in tea [(Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze)] leaves Eprints@IARI
Pandey, Renu.
Any factor which influences the chemical composition of leaf also has a great bearing on quality of made tea. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of certain chemicals on nitrate reductase (NR) activity and to find its correlation with the chemical constituents of leaf. A Tockali released clone TV18 was sprayed with chemicals, viz., jibika (mixture of GA3+4+7), IAA, cycocel, thiourea, methanol, succinic acid and sucrose including water spray as control. Sucrose application increased NR activity amongst all other chemical treatments in phase I (45.2 %) and phase II (42.1 %). However, the total nitrogen (N) (7.21 %) and crude protein (6.39 %) were higher with succinic acid in phase I and thiourea in phase II. Further, methanol application...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/240/1/Influence_of_certain_chemicals_on_NRA_%26_its_correlation_wtih_caffeine_in_tea_JPC2010_Pandey.pdf
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Effect of ethrel on reproductive efficiency in chickpea Eprints@IARI
Saxsena, D C; Abbas, Sabra; Sairam, R K.
An experiment was conducted with chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar BG 209 to study the effect of ethrel applied as foliar spray at low (250 ppm), medium (500 ppm) and high (1000 ppm) concentrations at pre flowering (65 DAS: S1), mid-flowering (94 DAS: S2) and post-flowering (125 DAS: S 3) stages. The low and medium concentrations resulted in increase in dry matter over the control plants, though medium concentration was less effective than lower concentration at all the stages. Maximum leaf area was observed at lowest ethrel concentration at all stages and there was decline in leaf area with increasing ethrel concentration. Low concentration increased the pod number at S1 (17%) and S2 stages (11%), while at S3 stage, a 22% reduction in pod number was...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/165/1/IJPP-Ethrel.pdf
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CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS RELATED PARAMETERS IN ISABGOL (PLANTAGO OVATA) UNDER DOWNY MILDEW INFECTION Eprints@IARI
R, Saravanan; Mandal, Kunal; Gutam, Sridhar; Samanta, Jatindra Nath; V, Saroj Kumar.
Sequential changes in leaf chlorophyll content and associated gas exchange parameters in isabgol (Plantago ovata) were recorded over a period of nine days starting from initial sporulation to severe chlorosis in a highly downy mildew susceptible cultivar (Niharika). The Downy mildew caused significant reduction in chlorophyll content. The loss of chlorophyll was more severe in case of chlorophyll ‘a’ compared to chlorophyll ‘b’. Net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in the diseased leaves also reduced compared to healthy ones. However, internal CO2 concentration (Ci) increased in diseased leaves. Difference between healthy and infected leaves in terms of stomatal conductance and Ci became significant at ninth day of study. In the complex...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/281/1/PPS_08.pdf
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Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants Eprints@IARI
Sairam, R K; Tyagi, Aruna.
The productivity of plants is greatly affected by vari- ous environmental stresses. Soil salinity affects plant growth and development by way of osmotic stress, – injurious –effects of toxic Na+ and Cl ions and to some 2– 2+ extent Cl and SO4 of Mg and nutrient imbalance – caused by excess of Na+ and Cl ions. Salinity stress response is multigenic, as a number of processes in- volved in the tolerance mechanism are affected, such as various compatible solutes/osmolytes, polyamines, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defence mecha- nism, ion transport and compartmentalization of inju- rious ions. Various genes/cDNAs encoding proteins involved in the above-mentioned processes have been identified and isolated. The role of genes/cDNAs en- coding proteins...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/164/1/Curr.Sci.-Salinity_review.pdf
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Response of maize genotypes to salinity stress in relation to osmolytes and metal-ions contents, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity Eprints@IARI
Kholova, J; Sairam, R K; Meena, R C; Srivastava, G C.
Effect of long term soil salinity (control - S0 and three levels S1 to S3) was studied in two maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes, PEHM 3 (comparatively tolerant) and Navjot (susceptible) at vegetative and anthesis stages during summer- rainy season. Salinity stress decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoid (Car) contents, membrane stability index (MSI), potassium and calcium contents, and increased the contents of superoxide radical (O2 ̇⎯), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), proline, glycinebetaine, total soluble sugars, and sodium, and Na+/K+ and Na+/Ca2+ ratios in both the genotypes. Contents of zinc, copper, manganese and iron increased up to S2. Though under S0 PEHM 3 had higher content...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/161/1/Biol._Plant_Salinity_Jana.pdf
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Chemical Manipulation of Reproductive Efficiency of Chickpea (Cicer arietinnum L.) by Triadimefon in Relation to Changes in Ethylene Eprints@IARI
Saxsena, D C; Abbas, Sabra; Sairam, R K.
Reproductive efficiency was successfully manipulated by the application of different concentrations of triadimefon at pre-flowering, flowering and post-flowering stages in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Triadimefon improved the parameters determining reproductive efficiency. Yield was significantly improved due to reductions in flower and pod abscission by the application of triadimefon, which also lowered the ethylene levels in leaves, flowers and pods and delayed senescence. These findings suggest a relationship between ethylene level and reproductive efficiency in chickpea. Further, they indicate that triadimefon can be used for chemical manipulation of the reproductive efficiency of chickpea under field conditions.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/213/1/JACS-Saxena-2000.pdf
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Differences in antioxidant activity in response to salinity stress in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes Eprints@IARI
Sairam, R K; Srivastava, G C; Agarwal, S; Meena, R C.
Effects of long-term sodium chloride salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCl; ECe = 6.85 and 12.3 dS m-1) were studied in tolerant (Kharchia 65, KRL 19) and susceptible (HD 2009, HD 2687) wheat genotypes. NaCl decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content (Chl), membrane stability index (MSI) and ascorbic acid (AA) content, and increased the contents of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) and glutathione reductase (GR). Kharchia 65 showed lowest decline in RWC, Chl, MSI and AA content, lowest increase in H2O2 and TBARS contents and higher increase in SOD and its isozymes, APOX and GR, while HD2687 showed the highest decrease in AA content, highest...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/157/1/Biol._Plant.-2005--Salinity.pdf
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Combining ability for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase enzymes in cabbage head (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) Eprints@IARI
Singh, B.K.; Sharma, S.R.; Singh, Bhupinder.
Antioxidant enzymes have been touted as beneficial for enhancing the fitness, preventing disorders, and mitigating the effects of aging and senescence. Our objective was to evaluate combining ability of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase activity in cabbage head. Head samples were frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and placed at 80 8C for assay. Less than unity values of s2 gca/s2 sca ratio for all three enzymes indicated predominance of non-additive gene action. The parents CMS-GA and Red Cabbage excelled as good general combiners for all antioxidants and indicated the value and need for multiple crossing. The crosses CMS-GA x Red Cabbage, CMS-GA x C-2, 83-2 x AC-204, 83-2 x EC-490174, 83-2 x AC-1021, Pride of Asia x C-4, and Pride of Asia...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/312/1/binod_et_al_2009_scientia_hort.pdf
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Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen on wheat growth and photosynthesis Eprints@IARI
Pal, Madan; rao, l s; Jain, Vanita; srivastava, a c; Pandey, Renu; Raj, anupam; singh, k p.
The effects of nitrogen [75 and 150 kg (N) ha-1] and elevated CO2 on growth, photosynthetic rate, contents of soluble leaf proteins and activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and nitrate reductase (NR) were studied on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. HD-2285) grown in open top chambers under either ambient (AC) or elevated (EC) CO2 concentration (350 ± 50, 600 ± 50 μmol mol-1) and analyzed at 40, 60 and 90 d after sowing. Plants grown under EC showed greater photosynthetic rate and were taller and attained greater leaf area along with higher total plant dry mass at all growth stages than those grown under AC. Total soluble and Rubisco protein contents decreased under EC but the activation of Rubisco was higher at EC with...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Plant Physiology.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://eprints.iari.res.in/248/1/eCO2_%26_nutrient_Pal_et_al_2005_biol_plant.pdf
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