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Provedor de dados:  ArchiMer
País:  France
Título:  Investigating the biological and socio-economic impacts of marine protected area network design in Europe
Autores:  Metcalfe, Kristian
Data:  2013-01
Ano:  2013
Resumo:  Marine ecosystems are under increasing pressure from a diverse range of threats. Many national governments have responded to these threats by establishing marine protected area (MPA) networks. One such approach for designing MPA networks is systematic conservation planning, which is now considered the most effective system for designing protected area networks. However, the main exception to this trend is Europe, where the designation of MPAs is still largely based on expert opinion, despite growing awareness that these existing methods are not the most effective. Therefore, there is a need to demonstrate how systematic conservation planning can be used to inform MPA design in European waters and show how this approach can fit within existing marine conservation policy and practice. This thesis brings together a range of biological, legal and socio-economic data to address these issues and is comprised of four main chapters: After the introductory chapter, this thesis begins with a review of how existing approaches for guiding the selection of MPAs in Europe compare to conservation planning best practice (Chapter 2). Here I show that whilst existing legislation has widespread political support and has underpinned the rapid expansion of MPA networks, it fails to incorporate three key elements from systematic conservation planning which are designed to identify MPA networks that achieve conservation goals, minimise impacts on stakeholders, and facilitate implementation. These include the extent to which current legislation fails to: (i) translate broad policy goals into quantitative targets; (ii) incorporate socio-economic data; and (iii) requires a social assessment. In Chapter 3 I investigate the species-area relationship (SAR) based approach that has been used to set conservation targets for marine habitats in the UK. Here I use data from the English Channel to show this approach is strongly influenced by changes in: (i) the number of samples used to generate estimates of species richness for each habitat; (ii) the different estimators used to calculate species richness; and (iii) the resolution of the habitat classification. However, whilst each of these tested factors had an influence on targets, this work found that the number of samples had the greatest impact. In Chapter 4 I examine the impact of using MPA size constraints when designing MPA networks in English waters, and show that increasing the size of MPAs would result in MPA networks that are only slightly larger but more costly to stakeholders. The findings also suggest that increasing this minimum size constraint produces MPA networks comprised of fewer MPAs that are more widely distributed throughout the planning region, thus reducing potential connectivity for a range of species. Finally, in Chapter 5 I use an ecosystem model of the eastern English Channel to investigate the potential trade-offs associated with different spatially explicit MPA management strategies. In particular, I show that broader classes of spatial management based on zoning fleet access and gear restrictions can have conservation and fisheries benefits, which is important given that this approach is less politically contentious than strict no-take MPA networks. However, I also demonstrate that if MPA networks are to ensure the sustainable use of fisheries they should be comprised of at least 60% no-take zones and that a 100% no-take MPA network would produce substantial increases in exploited ecosystem biomass and fisheries catches. Equally importantly, I show that exploited catches recovered six times as quickly in 100% no-take MPA networks when compared to 100% limited-take MPA networks. Collectively, these chapters demonstrate the value of adopting a systematic approach to MPA network design in Europe, as it: (i) provides a flexible and transparent platform for exploring different designs and management strategies; and, (ii) can be combined with spatial prioritisation and decision support tools to help identify and manage priority areas that meet regional and national obligations, minimise impacts on stakeholders, and fit within existing policy frameworks.
Tipo:  Text
Idioma:  Inglês
Editor:  University of Kent
Formato:  application/pdf
Direitos:  2013 University of Kent, Ifremer

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