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Provedor de dados:  ArchiMer
País:  France
Título:  Variability of the Ocean Carbon Cycle in Response to the North Atlantic Oscillation
Autores:  Keller, Kathrin M.
Joos, Fortunat
Raible, Christoph C.
Cocco, Valentina
Froelicher, Thomas L.
Dunne, John P.
Gehlen, Marion
Bopp, Laurent
Orr, James C.
Tjiputra, Jerry
Heinze, Christoph
Segschneider, Joachim
Roy, Tilla
Metzl, Nicolas
Data:  2012
Ano:  2012
Palavras-chave:  North Atlantic Oscillation
Carbon cycle
Ocean biogeochemistry
Climate modeling
Ocean-atmosphere interaction
Resumo:  Climate modes such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), representing internal variability of the climate system, influence the ocean carbon cycle and may mask trends in the sink of anthropogenic carbon. Here, utilising control runs of six fully coupled Earth System Models, the response of the ocean carbon cycle to the NAO is quantified. The dominating response, a seesaw pattern between the subtropical gyre and the subpolar Northern Atlantic, is instantaneous (<3 months) and dynamically consistent over all models and with observations for a range of physical and biogeochemical variables. All models show asymmetric responses to NAO+ and NAO− forcing, implying non-linearity in the connection between NAO and the ocean carbon cycle. However, model differences in regional expression and magnitude and conflicting results with regard to air–sea flux and CO2 partial pressure remain. Typical NAO-driven variations are ±10 mmol/m3 in the surface concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity and ±8 ppm in the air–sea partial pressure difference. The effect on the basin-wide air–sea CO2 flux is small due to compensating fluxes on the sub-basin scale. Two models show a reduced carbon sink in the north-eastern North Atlantic during negative NAO phases, qualitatively in accordance with the observed decline during a phase of predominantly negative NAO. The results indicate that wind-driven dynamics are the main driver of the response to the NAO, which – via vertical mixing, upwelling and the associated entrainment of dissolved inorganic carbon and nutrients – leave an imprint on surface pCO2 and the air–sea CO2 flux as well as on biological export production, pH and the calcium carbonate saturation state. The biogeochemical response to the NAO is predominantly governed by vertical exchange between the surface and the thermocline; large-scale horizontal transport mechanisms are of minor importance.
Tipo:  Text
Idioma:  Inglês

Editor:  Co-action Publishing
Formato:  application/pdf
Fonte:  Tellus Series B-chemical And Physical Meteorology (0280-6509) (Co-action Publishing), 2012 , Vol. 64 , P. -
Direitos:  2012 K.M. Keller et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License (, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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