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Cost-Effective Reduction of NOx Emissions from Electricity Generation 31
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
This paper analyzes the benefits and costs of policies to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Because emissions of NOX contribute to the high concentration of atmospheric ozone in the eastern states that is associated with health hazards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has called on eastern states to formulate state implementation plans (SIPs) for reducing NOX emissions. Our analysis considers three NOX reduction scenarios: a summer seasonal cap in the eastern states covered by EPA's NOX SIP Call, an annual cap in the same SIP Call region, and a national annual cap. All scenarios allow for emissions trading. Although EPA's current policy is to implement a seasonal cap in the SIP Call...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Health benefits; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10677
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Investment in Electricity Transmission and Ancillary Environmental Benefits 31
Bloyd, Cary; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Burtraw, Dallas.
Planning of the electricity transmission system generally focuses on the pros and cons of providing generation close to the source of the power demand versus remote generation linked via the transmission system. Recent electricity supply problems in the western United States have renewed interest in the role of transmission in assuring the reliability of electricity supply. Recently, the Western Governors' Association led the development of a planning exercise that examined the tradeoffs over the next 10 years between locating new natural gas powered generation close to the load centers versus new coal, wind, hydro, and geothermal generation in remote areas. Although the analysis concentrated on the direct system costs, the choice of new generation will...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Transmission; Air pollution; Ancillary benefits; Nitrogen oxides; Sulfur dioxide; Carbon dioxide; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; L94; Q25; Q41.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10519
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Restructuring and the Cost of Reducing NOx Emissions in Electricity Generation 31
Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
We look at the effects of restructuring on three issues: (a) economic surplus and environmental quality, (b) the cost of NOx control policies and who bears the costs, and (c) the cost-effectiveness of a seasonal and an annual NOx cap in the SIP Call region. We find that without the NOx cap, nationwide restructuring leads to higher NOx and carbon emissions from the electricity sector. Adding either a seasonal or an annual NOx cap-and-trade regime in the eastern United States mitigates the increase in NOx emissions but has a much smaller effect on carbon emissions. The out-of-pocket compliance cost associated with achieving a seasonal or an annual NOx cap is moderately higher with nationwide restructuring than without, but the changes in economic surplus are...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Electricity; Restructuring; Deregulation; Competition; Emissions trading; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOx; Health benefits; Cost effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10549
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The Effect of Allowance Allocation on the Cost of Carbon Emission Trading 31
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
We investigate the cost-effectiveness and distributional effects of a revenue-raising auction, grandfathering, and a generation performance standard as alternative approaches for distributing carbon emission allowances in the electricity sector. We solve a detailed national electricity market model and find the auction is roughly one-half the societal cost of the other approaches. This result holds under a variety of assumptions about the future state of economic regulation and competition in the electricity sector. The differences in the cost of the approaches flow from the effect of each approach on electricity price. Grandfathering is the best for producers but it imposes a substantial cost on consumers. The generation performance standard yields the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon; Emission allowance trading; Allowance allocations; Electricity; Restructuring; Air pollution; Safety valve; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Output-based allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10536
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The Effect on Asset Values of the Allocation of Carbon Dioxide Emission Allowances 31
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Paul, Anthony.
Paradoxically, owners of existing generation assets may be better off paying for carbon dioxide emission allowances than having them distributed for free. This analysis shows that it takes just 7.5% of the revenue raised under an auction to preserve the asset values of existing generators.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon dioxide; Emission allowance trading; Allocation; Electricity; Restructuring; Air pollution; Auction; Grandfathering; Generation performance standard; Outputbased allocation; Cost-effectiveness; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25; Q4; L94.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10705
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Uncertainty and the Cost-Effectiveness of Regional NOx Emissions Reductions from Electricity Generation 31
Burtraw, Dallas; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; McGuinness, Meghan.
This paper analyzes uncertainties surrounding the benefits and costs of a policy to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from electricity generation in the eastern United States. Under each of 18 scenarios examined, we find an annual policy would yield net benefits that are at least as great as those expected under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) currently planned seasonal policy. Preferred (midpoint) assumptions yield additional benefits of $724 million per year under an annual policy compared to a seasonal one (1997 dollars). The subset of 11 northeastern states benefit the most from an annual policy relative to a seasonal one, but relative net benefits are also positive in the remaining states in the region. An annual policy...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Emissions trading; Electricity; Particulates; Nitrogen oxides; NOX; Health benefits; Market structure; Restructuring; Deregulation; Value of statistical life; Uncertainty; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q4.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10846
Registros recuperados: 6
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