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DRYING KINETICS OF UNRIPE PLANTAIN CHIPS USING CHARCOAL FUELLED CABINET DRYER. CIGR Journal
Famurewa, John Alaba Victor.
This study presents the thin layer drying behavior of unripe plantain slices (Musa paradisiaca) in a developed biomass cabinet dryer. The developed dryer provided an environment with an optimum operating temperature between 50 - 700C meant for drying agricultural materials. The use of thin layer drying mechanisms and equations contribute to better understanding of drying food materials. The thin layer drying behaviour of agricultural products was identified based on the mathematical models which describe the heat and mass transfer phenomena of the products. In order to select a suitable drying model, fourteen different thin layer drying models were fitted to experimental data. Fick’s second law was used to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Food Engineering Thin layer; Mathematical modelling; Diffusion; Drying biomass fuel.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3028
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Physical properties of soybean cultivated in NEH region of India CIGR Journal
Singh, Hijam Jiten; De, Dipankar; Sahoo, P. K..
This study was conducted to investigate physical properties of soybean cultivated in NEH region of India.  Major, minor and intermediate mean diameters of soybean seeds were 8.88±0.55 mm, 4.68±0.32 mm and 6.46±0.36 mm, respectively.  Geometric mean diameter was 6.45±0.35 mm. Mean roundness of the seeds was 0.66±0.02, while mean sphericity of the seeds in their natural rest position was 0.73±0.02.  Bulk density, true density, porosity, thousand seeds weight and angle of repose were 749.50±1.59 kg/m3, 1171.80±115.02 kg/m3, 34.62±9.00 %, and 177.55±3.04 g and 25.82±1.88 º, respectively.  The coefficient of static friction over aluminum, mild steel, and plywood surfaces were 0.46±0.03, 0.45±0.03 and 0.47±0.02, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Farm Power and Equipment soybean physical properties NEH region India.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2932
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Performance of supplementary irrigation systems for corn silage in the sub-humid areas CIGR Journal
Mostafa, Harby M. S.; Derbala, Asaad.
In the humid and sub-humid areas, agricultural production is largely rain fed and this needs to be urgently supplemented by irrigation practice if the country is to meet its food demand.  A two years study was carried out at the experimental site of the Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering, Johan Heinrich von Thünen Institute (vTI), Braunschweig, Germany to compare performance of maize crop for silage production using three different irrigation systems; rain fed, drip and rain-gun sprinkler.  Growth parameters such as plant height, stem diameter were measured.  The total yields of silage were obtained for all treatments at the harvesting.  The experimental results reveal that total yields obtained from different treatments were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Silage; Performance; Drip; Rain-gun; Rain-fed irrigation; Water use efficiency.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2572
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Validation of Universal Soil loss Equation for Selected Soil Locations in North Central Nigeria Using Rainfall Simulator CIGR Journal
Kuti, Ibrahim Abayomi.
Erosion control in Nigeria must be met with high standards in other to attain a sustainable agricultural practice to meet the demand of the growing population in terms of food production. The study is aimed at estimating soil loss using a locally made rainfall simulator and accertaining the performance of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) model in predicting soil loss in the study location. For this to investigated, experiments were conducted using rainfall simulators, which is readily not available in Nigeria due to its high cost. The drop velocity (DV) of the constructed rainfall simulator was calculated to be 8.101m/s and 2.443 m/s respectively when operated at maximum and minimum intensity. The performance test revealed that the experimental...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bare; Rainfall; USLE; Soil; Vegetative.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6719
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Impact of alternative air exhaustion in housing for poultry on concentration of harmful gases in the air CIGR Journal
Stefan Mihina.
The main aim of the paper is to assess an alternative way of disposal of pollutants from housing area, where the air is sucked from spaces below the animals. Measurements were taken in experimental conditions of enriched cage for 10 hens. Pipe for suction was located under the floor of the cage. Gas concentration was determined by the device 1412 Photoacoustic Multi-gas Monitor. Air samples were collected at the animal's head level. Air temperature was continuously registered by the device COMMETER D3120, and air velocity was measured by the anemometer ALMEMO 3290. Measurements were conducted for 6 consecutive days in each season of the year (spring, summer, autumn and winter). The obtained results were compared with the concentration of harmful gases...
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3068
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Drying behaviour and engineering properties of Lima beans CIGR Journal
MOHITE, ASHISH M; Sharma, Neha.
In this present research communication, selected engineering properties of lima beans and drying behaviour of beans using different dryers were studied. The results for geometric mean diameter and sphericity were found as 8.82 and 0.66. Bulk, tap and true densities were found as 568.1 kg/m3,625.8 kg/m3 and 769 kg/m 3 respectively. Arithmetic mean diameter, equivalent mean diameter and square mean diameter values were found to be 4.84 mm, 24.89 mm and 8.08 mm. Values for static coefficient of friction was highest on plywood surface followed by mild sheet and stainless steel. Ash content, crude fat and fiber content was found as 3.85%, 20.11% and 4.23 for lima beans. The drying behaviour of beans at three temperatures 40 oC,60 oC and 80oC at constant air...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Seeds; Drying rate; Density.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4838
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Development of a Digital Recording System for Automation of Class A Evaporation Pan Measurement CIGR Journal
Johnson Toyin Fasinmirin; University.
Adapting a sensor for automation of pan evaporimeters will increase reliability and accuracy of evaporation measurements especially in areas where data reliability is questionable. This research was aimed at developing and calibrating a digital recording (water level sensing device) system for use with Class A pan. A simple quadratic equation (calibration curve) was fitted between the sensor’s recorded depth and manually recorded depth (R2 > 0.98; F = 4388; P < 0.0001). The system performance was evaluated on the basis of its accuracy in measuring water depth when compared with readings from manual observations. Two accuracy parameters, correlation coefficient (R) and mean bias error (MBA) were used to indicate this accuracy. A high R > 0.97 and...
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1061
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Design, fabrication and evaluation of horizontal rotary separator of olive oil (Three-Phase Decanter) CIGR Journal
Rashvand, Mahdi; Akbarnia, Abbas.
Olive is one of the strategic products in Iran, and due to the significant cultivation area of this product, oil companies should be equipped with suitable processing equipment. Unfortunately, despite the high capacity of olive in Iran, oil companies are equipped with imported machines. In this study, the construction and evaluation of the Three-counter device of Iran has been developed. The machine has three oil, water and olive pulp outputs. In order to evaluate the machine, the amount of moisture content and fat extracted from the machine was checked at 2500 and 3500 rpm and 30 and 45% water content. Also, four different samples Manzallina, Fishemi, Kalamata and Oily were used in this experiment. The main components of the machine include an electric...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Olive; Oil; Water; Pulp; Moisture; Fat.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5344
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Experimental free convection thin layer groundnut greenhouse drying CIGR Journal
Kumar, Mahesh; Sahdev, Ravinder Kumar; Tiwari, Sumit; Panchal, Hitesh; Manchanda, Himanshu.
The groundnuts were dried inside an even span roof type free convection greenhouse dryer with a useful floor area of 1.2×0.8 m2 in the environmental conditions of Rohtak, India (28o54’ N 76o34’E). Wire mesh sieves of sizes 0.15×0.25 m2, 0.25×0.4 m2,and 0.35×0.6 m2 were used to accommodate thin layer samples of groundnuts. The groundnuts were dried till the optimum safe moisture storage level (8–10%) was attained. Based on experimental (hourly) observations the values of constants (C and n) in the equation of Nusselt number were evaluated. The values of convective and evaporative heat transfer coefficients were calculated which were observed to decrease with the increase in the sieve size. The overall average greenhouse thermal, energy, and exergy...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Groundnut/peanut; Greenhouse drying; Convective heat transfer coefficient; Evaporative heat transfer coefficient; Free convection..
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5325
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Effects of working depth and wheel slip on fuel consumption of selected tillage implements CIGR Journal
Moitzi, Gerhard; Wagentristl, Helmut; Refenner, Karl; Weingartmann, Herbert; Piringer, Gerhard; Boxberger, Josef; Gronauer, Andreas.
Rising fossil fuel prices are leading to an increasing awareness of energy efficiency in plant production.  Tillage in particular can consume large amounts of fuel.  For four tillage implements (reversible mouldboard plough, short disc harrow, universal-cultivator, subsoiler), this study quantifies the effect of different working depths on fuel consumption, wheel slip, field capacity and specific energy consumption.  A four-wheel drive tractor (92 kW) was equipped with a data-acquisition system for engine speed, vehicle speed, wheel speed and fuel consumption.  Fuel consumption was measured in the fuel system with an integrated high-precision flow-meter.  The results show that the area-specific fuel consumption increased linearly with working depth for...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering fuel consumption; Wheel slippage; Mouldboard plough; Subsoiler; Universal-cultivator; Short disc harrow.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2661
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A case-study approach to profitability assessment in fermented African locust beans (iru) production using break-even analysis CIGR Journal
Atoyebi, Jelili Olaniyi; Bello, Sururah Apinke; Owolarafe, Oseni Kehinde.
The significance of a break-even point analysis is much important to the small- scale enterprises in determining profit or loss incurred. In this study, a case study approach was used to test this concept on iru production using structured oral interviews and visual observation of a production centre in Nigeria. Data analysis was achieved using production cost, the unit quantity and break-even point analysis. The results show that the monthly average cost of N 32,237.00, the monthly average variable cost of N71,334.00, Contribution Margin Ratio of 47.06 % and break-even sales of N 68,502.00 were obtained using a traditional method of iru production (TIPP). In a mechanized method (MIPP), monthly average fixed cost of N 85,887.00, the monthly average...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Locust bean- processing; System; Traditional; Mechanized; Break-even analysis; Production cost; Profitability.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6721
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Development and comparative evaluation of radiation-based reference evapotranspiration equations for sub-humid Hazaribagh region of Jharkhand CIGR Journal
ARVIND SINGH TOMAR; GBPUAT, PANTNAGAR.
In this study, two site-specific solar radiation (Rs) and net radiation (Rn) based equations for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ET­0) were developed and their performance were statistically analysed in comparison to widely accepted FAO Penman-Monteith method (PMF-56) and four other standard radiation methods for sub-humid Hazaribagh region of Jharkhand. These two equations were developed with daily values of Rs and Rn in conjunction with maximum and minimum air temperature by taking daily PMF-56 ET0 values as index with weather dataset of 15 years (1990-2004). The performance of these equations validated with carefully screened daily weather dataset of eight years (2005-2012) with other considered standard methods revealed that they estimated ET0...
Palavras-chave: Site-specific; Radiation; Statistical performance; India..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3121
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Influence of Food Extruder Die Dimensions on Extruded Products Expansion CIGR Journal
Adekola, Kehinde Adedeji.
This paper studied the effects of food extruder die dimensions on the extrudate expansion indices using twin-screw extruder. The extruder has 59.6 mm screw diameter and screw L/D ratio of 20. The die dimensions considered are die length, die diameter and die temperature. The feed material used is yellow corn flour. Dies with diameter ranging from 2.5 – 5.0 were used to determine the effect of die nozzle diameter on extrudate expansion. Results obtained showed that radial expansion of the extrudate decreased with increasing die diameter. An average reduction of about 42% in radial expansion was recorded for a difference of 2 mm in die diameter. The overall expansion of the extrudate was not affected by changes in die diameter for all the diameters and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Dies; Dimensions; Extrudate; Expansion; Extruder.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3059
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Evaluation of wastewater reuse and suitability for agricultural purpose in Akure, Nigeria CIGR Journal
OLUWASEUN, FALOYE.
The suitability of six waste water sources for drinking and irrigation purposes in Akure, metropolis Nigeria was assessed. Waste water samples were collected from six sources (Tisco limited located at Akure North Local Government Area, FUTA Post-graduate Hotel, a Residential Quatre, State General Hospital Akure, Mandate Restaurant located at the South Gate of the Federal University of Technology, Akure  and Mr Bigg Akure)  in Akure, Nigeria. These were analysed for biochemical properties determination. The parameters determined include: pH, turbidity, alkalinity, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and total solids (TS). Others were chloride (CL-), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS),...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4919
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Storability of “DodoIkire” (over -ripe plantain-basedsnack) at ambient temperature (28±2ºC) CIGR Journal
Olatoye, kazeem koledoye.
“DodoIkire”is an example of traditional snack commonly consumed in western part of Nigeria. Effects of storage packaging modes and durations on its microbiological quality and sensory attributes at room temperature were investigated. Samples were collected from commercial sellers inIkire,Apomu and Ikoyi Towns. They were packaged and stored at room temperature (28±2ºC) in three different materials namely; Open storage in disposable cup (OS), low density nylon(LD) and high density polyethylene(HD) for a month.A sample of DodoIkire was prepared in the Food processing Laboratory of Wesley university of Technology, Ondo, to serve as Control. Total viable counts and fungi counts were conducted at intervals of two weeks using pour plate method. Sensory...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Food science DodoIkire plantain snack microbial change sensory quality loss storage modes.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3425
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Mathematical model for design of gender friendly farm equipment CIGR Journal
Singh, Shiv Pratap; Ekka, Utpal; Singh, Mukesh Kumar; Singh, M K.
Traditionally, the unit farm operations which require less muscle power is done by the women workers. The role of farm women are passive in majority of farm operations e.g. clod breaking, taking out weeds etc., assistance in sowing  e.g. dropping seeds or carrying seeds, weeding and interculture, harvesting, partly threshing as well as assistance in threshing, winnowing, cleaning-grading, carrying produce as well as grain. During last three decades, many research organizations in the country are working on assessment, refinement and development of gender friendly farm equipment. Based on various study conducted on gender perspective, a need was felt to work on algorithm, as algorithms design is a specific method to create a mathematical process in solving...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Farm Machinery and Power Weeder; Gender-friendly; Mathematical model; Design; Push force; Pull force.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4966
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Fuzzy logic approach in prioritization of crop growing parameters in protected farms: a case in North East India CIGR Journal
Sarkar, Amaresh; Majumder, Mrinmoy.
 Global food demand is rising exponentially as the population is increasing.  Protected farming is becoming increasingly popular among the farming communities for fast growing vine crops round the year.  Consideration of crop growing parameters while designing and maintaining a protected farm is very important for optimal crop growth and profit.  Many farmers does not consider all the crop growing parameters and does not know the importance of all factors in the optimal crop growth.  In this paper, an attempt has been made to prioritize 12 crops growing parameters using fuzzy approach.  12 crop growing parameters were selected from the literature and scored by four different evaluation methods viz., food consumer importance, expert’s importance, farmer...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering - Protected Cultivation greenhouse; Crop factors; Optimum crop yield; Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM).
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3782
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Modelling Rupture Force based on Physical Properties – a Case Study for Roma Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Fruits CIGR Journal
Lak, Mohammadbagher; Minaei, Saeid; Soufizadeh, Saeid; Banakar, Ahmad.
Biophysical properties of agricultural materials are important in designing of processing machines. In this study, some physical properties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits were determined and their mutual relationships were studied. Dimensions (major diameter, minor diameter, and length), mass, volume, fresh and dry matter weight, as well as rupture point under uniaxial loading were measured. Other properties; including Poisson's ratio, modulus of elasticity, energy for rupture, density, arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, diameter of equivalent volume sphere, and sphericity were calculated accordingly. Statistical analysis of the data indicated significant correlations between the rupture force and fresh weight, volume, dry weight,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biosystems Engineering; Food Engineering correlation; Elasticity; Geometry; Mechanical properties; Rupture.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4880
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Noise evaluation of MF285 tractor while pulling a trailer in an asphalt road CIGR Journal
Farzad Jalilian tabar; Hekmat Rabbani; Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah, Iran; Alinejat Lorestani; Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah, Iran; Payam Javadikia; Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah, Iran; Rashid Gholami; Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah, Iran;.
Tractors have been used for transportation on roads by many farmers in addition to use in the field operations. MF285 tractor is the popular kind of tractor in Iran (about 30% of all tractors) and almost this tractor has been used without cabin.  Despite the problems caused by noise from the tractors and all its adverse effects on users and observers, no comprehensive research has been done on them.  The result of this research indicate that the noise level of MF285 tractor, in 2250 r/min engine speed, will be 90 dB(A) which in comparison with the standard value, 85 dB(A), is dangerous for operator’s ears.  The test site was prepared according to the international standards.  The noise emitted by tractor in three gears (2, 3 and 4) and three speeds (1,500,...
Palavras-chave: Noise; Tractor; Sound pressure level; Ergonomics.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2096
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DETERMINATION OF THE CALORIFIC VALUE OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN ENUGU, NIGERIA AND ITS POTENTIAL FOR ELECTRICITY GENERATION CIGR Journal
NWOKE, OJI ACHUKA; Okonkwo, Wilfred Ifeanyi; Echiegu, Emmanuel Amagu; Ugwuishiwu, Boniface Obinwanne; Okechukwu, Chibueze Henry.
The work aimed at determination of calorific value of  municipal solid waste in Enugu, Nigeria and its potential for electricity generation. Random truck sampling was used according to American Society of Test and Material (ASTM)  in the collection of samples at Ugwuaji landfill site, Enugu, Nigeria and calorific value was determined using oxygen bomb calorimeter. Enugu has a present  population of 882,178 and the amount of municipal solid waste  generated in Enugu was  estimated to be 420 tonnes daily and this resulted in waste generation rate of   0.48kg/capita/day. The average composition of the municipal solid waste  was 39% putrescible, 11% paper, 21% plastics, 5% textile, and 2% metal, 3% glass and 19% others. The average moisture content Volatile...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Municipal solid waste; Calorific value; Composition; Energy content; Electricity.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5061
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