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Recovery and Reuse of Rural buildings: The Spread Out Building Case CIGR Journal
A. Candura; Dipartimento di Progettazione e Gestione dei Sistemi Agricoli e Forestali.
The slow but continuous flight from the countryside leads to the abandonment and consequent deterioration of rural constructions. Therefore the problem of their recovery, also for diversified uses, arises. The reuse problem becomes more heightened in case of small-sized constructions;hence special forms of recovery need to be identified to enable their reuse focused on functional integration.This paper tackles the problem by illustrating a study case concerning the Gargano, a National Park and tourist area, featuring a high number of spread out houses. We propose aggregating the single building units to form a spread out accommodation facility distributed over variousconstructions.To create the above mentioned spread out hotel, an integrated recovery is...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1249
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Simulation of Tef Seed Broadcasting CIGR Journal
A. D. Zewdu.
In this investigation broadcast seeding of tef seed was considered. In order to predict particle trajectory on and off disc, after developing a mathematical relationship, simulation of particle movement on and off disc of a spinning disc was undertaken. The terminal velocity and coefficient of drag force of tef seed were determined experimentally in laboratory. Projected distance of particle thrown off the disk was calculated by varying different particle property (such as moisture content, coefficient of friction, TGM and particle density) and machine parameters (such as cone angle and angular velocity). The projected distance of a particle increased with increase in moisture content of seed, spreader revolution per minute and inclination of disc with the...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1273
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Vehicle Path Planning for Complete Field Coverage Using Genetic Algorithms CIGR Journal
A. E. F Ryerson; Q. Zhang.
In farming operations, one of the fundamental issues facing a farmer is the cost of running the farm. If the equipment the farmer is using can be made more efficient, the cost of farming will be reduced. One way of making agricultural equipment more efficient is to develop automated or autonomous functions for the equipment. One of the fundamental tasks for autonomous equipment is to plan the path for the equipment to travel. This paper reports the research on the feasibility of creating an automated method of path planning for autonomous agricultural equipment. Genetic algorithms were chosen to plan the paths with a primary goal of creating an optimal path guiding the equipment to completely cover a field while avoiding all known obstacles. Two example...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/945
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Development of chitosan-glucose and chitosan-citric complexes edible coating to improve tomatoes post-harvest quality CIGR Journal
A., El-Beltagy; Eissa, Ayman H. Amer; S., El-Sayed.
 The effect of different shrimp chitosan molecular weights as well as shrimp chitosan complexes (chitosan-glucose and chitosan-citric) on the quality characteristics of the stored (at 7°C±2°C and 90% RH) tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum) was investigated.  Coating tomatoes with high molecular weight chitosan (H.M.C.G) significantly improved firmness and weight loss.  The lowest weight loss was found in high molecular weight chitosan-glucose (H.M.C.G) treatment followed by the fruits coated with high molecular weight chitosan (HMC) and then uncoated tomato fruits.  Both molecular weights was clear on retarding the total acidity loss especially for stored tomato fruit coated with low molecular weight chitosan, while control tomatoes exhibited a larger...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering and postharvest technology Chitosan; Edible Coating; Tomatoes; Firmness and Weight loss..
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2392
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Development and Ergonomic Evaluation of Manually Operated Weeder for Dry Land Crops CIGR Journal
A. K. Goel; D. Behera; B. K. Behera; S. K. Mohanty; S. K. Nanda.
A manually operated weeder for dry land crops was developed and evaluated to find its performance. It was compared with other available weeders namely wheel finger weeder, wheel hoe and conventional weeding by using trench hoe for groundnut crop at four levels of soil moisture content of 13.52, 11.63, 9.52 and 8.04 per cent (db). It was found that the heart rate, oxygen consumption rate and energy consumption rate increases with decrease in soil moisture content for all the treatments. The highest performance index of 3689.74 was obtained with developed weeder at 11.63 per cent moisture content. Lowest plant damage (2.46 to 7.96%) and lower energy consumption rate (8.34 to 40.05 kJ/min) with highest performance index (678.66 to 3689.74) of developed weeder...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1162
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Influence of coolant temperature on the performance of a four stroke spark ignition engine employing a dual circuit cooling system CIGR Journal
A. Rehman; Department of Mechanical Engineering, M. A. National Institute of Technology Bhopal; R. M. Sarviya; Department of Mechanical Engineering, M. A. National Institute of Technology Bhopal; Savita Dixit; Department of Applied Chemistry, M. A. National Institute of Technology Bhopal; Rajesh Kumar Pandey; Department of Mechanical Engineering, M. A. National Institute of Technology Bhopal.
Diesel engines have attracted attention because of their higher thermal efficiency and lower carbon dioxide emissions than gasoline engines.  On the other hand, oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust from diesel engines are difficult to be reduced simultaneously because a decrease in one is likely to result in an increase in the other.  In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the effect of the heat lost to the coolant in the cylinder block, and in the cylinder head with a conventional cooling circuit with corresponding effects in an engine with a dual cooling circuit.  A dual cooling circuit employs separate cooling circuits for the cylinder block, and for the cylinder head.  A...
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1122
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Evaluation of chloride mass balance and recharge in agricultural lands in Nigeria CIGR Journal
A Sobowale; Department of Agricultural and Bio-Resources Engineering, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria; A A Ramalan; O J Mudiare; M A Oyebode.
Groundwater salinization studies and recharge estimation was carried out at the Irrigation Research Station, Kadawa, Nigeria. Groundwater samples from fifteen randomly selected piezometer locations were analyzed monthly for chloride using Mohr’s method for three years while recharge was estimated using the chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Groundwater chloride range from 22 - 91.4 mg/l, seasonal trend was identified with the hot dry season (April – June) having higher values than the wet season (July – October). Correlation analysis revealed chloride status that is not associated with one another in all soil types while salt build up was observed at the south western tip of the farmland indicating potential reduction of agricultural productivity. CMB...
Palavras-chave: Groundwater Hydrology and irrigation irrigation; Groundwater; Chloride mass; Recharge; Water management; Salinity.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3213
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Water resources potentials of Hadejia River Sub-catchment of Komadugu Yobe River Basin in Nigeria CIGR Journal
A. Sobowale; Univesity of Agriculture, Abeokuta; J. K. Adewumi; University of Agriculture, Abeokuta; C. A. Okuofu; Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; J. A. Otun; Ahmadu Bello Uniersity, Zaria.
A. Sobowale1, J. K. Adewumi1, J. A. Otun2, D. B. Adie2(1. Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta. Nigeria;2. Department of Water Resources Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Nigeria) Abstract: A water audit of the Hadejia river sub-catchment of Komadugu Yobe River basin of Nigeria (KYB) has been carried out.  The available water in this sub-catchment was compared with existing and potential water demands; results show that about 2,619 million cubic meters (MCM) of surface water is available annually upstream of Wudil (HS 1), 658 MCM is available between Wudil and Hadejia (HS 2), while 905 MCM is available between Hadejia and Gashua (HS 3).  Analysis of direct ground water recharge...
Ano: 2010 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1065
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Heat and moisture production in growing-finishing pigs and broilers CIGR Journal
Aarnink-FBC, Andre.
Heat and moisture production are important parameters for designing ventilation and climate control systems in livestock housing. In 2002 a report was published of the CIGR Section II Working Group on Climatization of Animal Houses ‘Heat and moisture production at animal and house levels’ with formula to calculate heat and moisture production for different livestock categories. The objective of this paper is to discuss these CIGR formula for growing-finishing pigs and broilers. Results from calculated heat and moisture production with the relatively simple formula in the CIGR report were compared with results from a more comprehensive model. From this comparison the following conclusions were drawn: 1) The relatively simple CIGR formula to calculate total...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Livestock housing; Climate control; Heat production; Moisture production; Sensible heat; Latent heat; Pigs; Poultry.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4781
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Relatiohship between Reference Evapotranspiration and some Climatic Parameters for Umudike, Nigeria. CIGR Journal
Abarikwu, Okezie Ibeji.
Reference evapotranspiration, ETo, is important as it is used to determine the evaporative demand of the atmosphere. there is a need for continued studies to determine the reference evepotranspiration of different locations as well as its relationship with various climatic parameters for the prediction of water demands for human and ecological reasons. A study undertaken to determine the relationship between ETo, obtained using the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 PM) method, and some climatic data in Umudike, Nigerian environment are presented. The climatic parameters considered are solar radiation, sunshine hours and wind speed. The interactions of climatic parameters in the input variables of the ETo model,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Soil and Water Reference Evapotranspiration Climate Solar Radiation Sunshine Hours Wind Speed.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5074
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Scheduling Irrigation Using Automatic Tensiometers for Pea Crop CIGR Journal
Abd El- Baset, Marwa Mahmmoud; Eid, Abdelraouf Ramadan; Wahba, Saied; El-Bagouri, Khaled; El-Gindy, Abdel-Ghany.
Recent technological advances have made soil water sensors available for efficient and automatic operation of irrigation systems. Automatic soil water sensor-based irrigation seeks to maintain a desired soil water range in the root zone that is optimal for plant growth. Automatic tensiometers were buried at 30 cm depth under the sandy soil surface of Nubaria experimental station of NRC, subjected to drip irrigation system to automatically schedule irrigation for pea crop.  Soil moisture potentials 70, 75 and 85 kPa, represented 3 irrigation treatments and 3 Potassium treatments 50, 75 and 100% of 100 kg fed.-1, the officially recommended amount of Potassium fertilization for a pea crop by the ministry of agriculture in Egypt for sandy soils, were scheduled...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4440
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Antifungal Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Against Some Plant Pathogenic Fungi In Vitro. CIGR Journal
abd el-aziz, mahmoud.
The inhibitory affects of different concentrations of high and low molecular weight of chitosan (CH-HMw and CH-LMw, respectively) and chitosan nanoparticles (CH-HMw-NPs and CH-LMw-NPs, respectively) against linear growth and spores/sclerotia germination of the 18 phytopathogenic fungi of tomato, potato and green bean were evaluated in vitro. The studies showed that CH-HMw-NPs and CH-LMw-NPs were highly effective against all tested pathogenic fungi compared with CH-HMw and CH-LMw. Furthermore, CH-HMw-NPs and CH-LMw-NPs at concentrations 0.1% and 0.05% showed completely inhibited (100%) the mycelial growth of all tested pathogens. Meanwhile, Chitosan HMw and LMw at 1.0% caused 100% reduction of all tested pathogenic fungi. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5425
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QUALITY EVALUATION OF STRAWBERRY FRUIT USING VISABLE LASER CIGR Journal
abd el-rasoul, khalid ahmed.
The main objectives of work are to experiments and measurements for the optical, electrical, physical and chemical properties of strawberry fruits. Strawberry were classified into three grades according to The varieties of strawberry (Festival ,Fortona and Red Marline Strawberry). The strawberry fruits were exposure by visible laser to determine optical and electrical signal reflections of strawberry. The samples were classified into six kinds of defects of strawberry according to codex specification of strawberry. It was found that the high value of physical properties was Fortona variety while the low value is Festival variety, but the physical properties of Red Marlin variety intermediate between  value of fortona and festival varietyIt was found that...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4996
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Retrofitting multi-span dairy buildings to improve indoor environment CIGR Journal
Abdelbary, Khaled M..
Several dairy farms still have old multi-span barns which are encountering several problems in summer and they are: low ventilation rates, non-uniformed air distribution, heat stress and high indoor concentrations of harmful gases. A solution has been suggested, in this study, which is refurbishing the roofs of old multi-span dairy barns by modifying the roof design, increasing the cowshed height and the roof slope angle. In order to implement this new roof design, rigorous experimental measurements and theoretical calculations were carried out to evaluate the indoor environment before and after refurbishment which was determined by measuring and estimating the following parameters: air exchange rate, indoor temperature, gaseous concentrations (NH3, CH4,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering Farm Buildings dairy buildings; Roof refurbishment; Natural ventilation; Indoor environment; Air quality; Gaseous emissions.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4228
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Accuracy and precision of phytonematode sampling plans CIGR Journal
Abd-Elgawad, Mahfouz Mohamed Mostafa.
Sampling accuracy and precision are basic to nematode research and rational management decision. Taylor's Power Law is used to determine sample size. The published power law parameters are used here differently to define levels of reliability associated with a fixed, cost-determined, sample size. Such levels may provide the decision-maker with more informative data on sampling methods and their reliabilities. Instead of solving for unknown sample number, the rearranged equation to solve for sampling accuracy permitted the use of exact Student’s t-values. The t-values for confidence limits and standard normal variate were used. Both statistical techniques resulted in identical confidence band, in terms of being below, at, or above the economic threshold...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Action thresholds; Berseem clover; Citrus; Economics; Nematode distribution; Rice.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4371
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Modification of a watermelon seed extracting machine CIGR Journal
Abd-Elhmeed, Shreen Fouad; Swilm, Shreen Fouad.
This study was carried out at a private farm in Kfer Singabe District, Dikhlia governorate Egypt during 2015 summer season. The overall objective of the present investigation was to modify and evaluate the performance of a local manufactured machine for extracting seeds from watermelon seeds. Point three to develop machine: off the machine attached to tractor to propelled machine, used incline circle level instead of screw conveyor to decrease the energy required and increased the volume of feed rate by increasing the crushing drum length from of 850 mm to 1050 mm. the machine by determined the driving stability of machine (longitudinal, lateral and turn stability factor) and study the machine slip percentage. The developed equipment has been tested and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural engineering research intitute A local; Machine; Extracted; Watermelon seeds; Self propelled.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3745
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Postharvest application with propolis for controlling white rot disease of green bean pods CIGR Journal
Abd-El-Kareem, Farid; Abd-Elgawad, Mahfouz Mohamed Mostafa; Saied, Nehal.
White rot is the most severe disease attacking green bean pods during pre and postharvest stages. Ethanol extracted propolis (EEP) at four concentrations i.e. 0, 5, 10 and 15% was tested to study its effect on growth inhibition zone of the causative fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that all tested concentrations of EEP significantly increased the inhibition zone of S. sclerotiorum growth. The highest increase was obtained with at 15% where complete reduction in sclerotia germination occurred. At EEP 10%, the sclerotia germination was reduced by 91.6%.  When the same concentrations were tested to study their effect on white rot disease of green bean pods during storage, all EEP significantly reduced the percentage of white rot incidence...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Plant pathology ethanol extracted propolis; Green bean pods; Pre and postharvest stages; White rot.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4668
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Characteristics of locally fabricated sugarcane grab loaders related to transport CIGR Journal
Abdel-Mawla, Hassan Abdel-Razek.
AbstractManual loading of sugarcane is expensive slow operation last for several hours, therefore, mechanical loading have been urgently required.  To overcome the problem of the astronomical prices of self propelled sugarcane loaders, the tractor attached sugarcane loader were designed and locally fabricated.  The constructive and functional parameters of front loaders mounted on agricultural wheel tractors have to satisfy the requirements of the working process and of the dynamic stability and have to correspond to the structures of the tractors they are mounted on.   The current article aimed to study the geometry loader/vehicle relationship while loading and transporting sugarcane.   Vehicles equipped for sugarcane transport include rail transport...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sugarcane loading; Sugarcane loaders; Sugarcane transport vehicles; Loader design; Loader/vehicle relashionship; Loader/vehicle geometry.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3779
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Optimal design of the tractor-front-mounted sugarcane grab loader CIGR Journal
Abdel-Mawla, Hassan Abdel-Razek.
Abstract: The percent of sugarcane mechanical sugarcane loading (in Egypt) has not been exceeded 10% because of the poor finance-ability of the farmers to by the imported self-propelled loaders.  The local workshops have been attempting to fabricate a sugarcane loader attached to the farm tractors as a cheap alternative.  Farmers did not accept the tractor-mounted loaders fabricated locally because of the problems concerning poor efficiency and poor balance of the tractor-mounted loader while operation.  The main objective was to overcome the problems concerning precise fabrication of the tractor-front-mounted loader and to develop an efficient dynamically balanced machine.  Fabricating a sugarcane grab loader for the tractor faces difficulties due to the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2532
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Application of date palm leaves compost (DPLC) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) for controlling faba bean root rot disease in New Valley, Egypt CIGR Journal
Abdel-Monaim, Montaser.
Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of date palm leaves compost (DPLC) individually and/or in combined with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) for controlling faba bean root rot disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani andFusarium solani under greenhouse and field conditions as well as plant growth and yield parameters. The obtained data indicate thatDPLC at different concentrations significantly decreased root rot incidence either under artificial infection in pot or natural infection in field as well as increased growth and yield parameters during growing season 2013-2014. Date palm leaves compost at 8 ton/feddan recorded the highest protection against root rot disease and gave the highest increased of plant growth and yield...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: M. F. Abdel-Monaim; Manal S. M. Khalil; Sahar H. Abdel-Baset Date palm leaves compost (DPLC); Faba bean; Growth and yield parameters; Nodulation; PGPR; Root rot disease.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4423
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