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3D Dense Reconstruction of Plant or Tree Canopy Based on Stereo Vision CIGR Journal
Ni, Zhijiang; Burks, Thomas F..
Three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the plant or tree canopy is an important step in order to measure canopy geometry, such as, height, width, volume, and leaf cover area. In this research, binocular stereo vision was used to recover the 3D information of the canopy. A revised camera calibration method was provided to calibrate the cameras in world coordinate system. Only two images were used to realize a dense reconstruction. These two images were firstly rectified to make sure the corresponding feature points in the left and right images were on the same horizontal line. An efficient large scale stereo matching (ELAS) algorithm was used to find the disparity map. The plant or tree canopy was finally reconstructed based on these calibrated camera...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4358
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3D front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for characterization of extra virgin olive oil and olive oil according to the spectral pattern CIGR Journal
Lleó, Lourdes; Hernández-Sánchez, Natalia; Ammari, Faten; Roger, Jean-Michel.
3D front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to differentiate between Extra Virgin Olive (EVOO) and Olive Oil (OO). The results show that 3D front-face fluorescence could be an effective tool to characterize EVOO and OO. Fourteen samples of olive oils were acquired directly from producers and from retail markets and their 3D fluorescence spectra were measured and analyzed. The first principal component of the PCA model retained the most important variability as a combination of freshness due to the presence of antioxidant compounds and chlorophyll; and of oxidation stage due to the presence of oxidation products. Olive oil samples presented different spectral pattern providing different scores for EVOO and OO in...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Food quality fluorescence spectroscopy; Olive oil; Quality assessment; Authentication.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3699
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A Basic Approach to Implement Guided Tractor Control CIGR Journal
R. Freimann.
Within a continuous development of mobile agricultural machinery the application and further introduction of electronic controls is offering the fare most potential for working processes optimization. The article gives an introduction to tractor and implement controls, especially targeting implement guided tractor control, underlined with two executed examples for this advanced control design. A structured development model and basic knowledge on safe and robust control loop set-ups were developed. Potential conflict scenarios within the multi master control system of driver, tractor, implement and independently pre-planned task control were identified and solved by arbitrational state strategies. The two exemplarily executed demonstration examples utilize...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/934
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A case-study approach to profitability assessment in fermented African locust beans (iru) production using break-even analysis CIGR Journal
Atoyebi, Jelili Olaniyi; Bello, Sururah Apinke; Owolarafe, Oseni Kehinde.
The significance of a break-even point analysis is much important to the small- scale enterprises in determining profit or loss incurred. In this study, a case study approach was used to test this concept on iru production using structured oral interviews and visual observation of a production centre in Nigeria. Data analysis was achieved using production cost, the unit quantity and break-even point analysis. The results show that the monthly average cost of N 32,237.00, the monthly average variable cost of N71,334.00, Contribution Margin Ratio of 47.06 % and break-even sales of N 68,502.00 were obtained using a traditional method of iru production (TIPP). In a mechanized method (MIPP), monthly average fixed cost of N 85,887.00, the monthly average...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Locust bean- processing; System; Traditional; Mechanized; Break-even analysis; Production cost; Profitability.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6721
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A Closed-Type Irrigation System Performaces in the Plant House CIGR Journal
Dewi, Vita Ayu Kusuma; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman; Wasodo, Roh Santoso Budi; Liyantono, Liyantono.
Water application in the plant house is usually done by surface irrigation and manual micro-irrigation. Because of the conventional irrigation system’s inefficiency, water-saving irrigation has been developed. Smart or automated irrigation usually uses a microcontroller to maintain irrigation timing and soil moisture conditions. This automation is highly efficient in water application and can increase plant productivity. However, this system is costly and the irrigation components are not always available for smallholder farmers. Here we develop an automatic irrigation technology based on the capillarity principle that dramatically reduces the cost. This irrigation technology does not use any microcontroller device and the components can be easily...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: High productivity; Horticulture; Irrigation; Plant house; Water use efficiency.
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5981
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A comparative study between mathematical models and the ANN data mining technique in draft force prediction of disk plow implement in clay loam soil CIGR Journal
Shafaei, Seyed Mojtaba; Loghavi, Mohammad; Kamgar, Saadat.
This paper communicates the prediction of required draft force of disk plow implement during tillage operations. The well-known mathematical model proposed by American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), multiple linear regression (MLR) and data mining model, based on artificial neural network (ANN), were employed for this purpose. The input variables of the models were considered as forward speed of 2-6 (km/h) and plowing depth of 10-30 (cm). The development details of the models are documented in the paper. On account of statistical performance criteria, the best ANN model with coefficient of determination of 0.971, root mean square error of 0.762 (kN), mean absolute percentage error of 1.886 (%) and mean value of absolute...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4466
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A comparative study on drying of basil leaves CIGR Journal
Parmar, Mansukhlal Ramjibhai; Kumpavat, Mahendrasinh T.; Doshi, Jayesh Sevantilal; Kapdi, Shyamsundar S..
Basil is a popular aromatic and annual herb growing in many regions of the world.  Immediately after its harvesting, the highly perishable raw material, i.e. leaves, have to be preserved against deterioration and spoilage.  More often, during peak period, most of the crop is lost/wasted due to lack of proper post-harvest processing techniques.  Drying is by far the most widely used treatment, which needs to be performed very carefully and preciously so as to preserve the aroma and color of the leaves.  Various drying treatments and experimental methods viz., solar drying, tray drying, vacuum drying and fluidized bed drying were carried out at the temperatures of45°C,55°Cand65°Cto find and suggest the optimum drying condition for acquiring quality dried...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Post Harvest Process and Food Engineering drying; Drying characteristics; Basil leaves; Solar drying; Tray drying; Vacuum drying and fluidized bed drying.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3867
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A Computer Model to Select Optimum Size of Farm Power and Machinery for Paddy-Wheat Crop Rotation in Northern India CIGR Journal
R. C. Dash; College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology.
Selection of proper size of farm power and machinery is the most important component of any farm enterprise. Among the various inputs to the crop production system, power and machinery jointly represent the largest single item of expenditure constituting about 60% of the total investment on a farm. The decision on optimum size of machinery is quite critical not only because of the high proportion of total cost attributed to machinery but also due to the infrequency and irrevocability of such decisions. Computer based least cost models were developed in C programming language for the selection of optimum size power and machinery system for paddy-wheat cropping system with the input like area under the crop, soil type, number of operations for each crop,...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1245
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A critical review of selected appropriate traditional evaporative cooling as postharvest technologies in Eastern Africa CIGR Journal
Wanyama, Joshua.
The issue of postharvest losses (PHL) is of high importance in the efforts to combat hunger, raise income and improve food security in the world’s poorest countries. PHL of horticultural products in developing countries sometimes may reach up to 45%. PHL have an impact on food security for poor people, food quality and safety, economic development and the environment. The exact causes of PHL vary throughout the world and are very much dependent on the specific conditions and local situation in a given country. Irrespective of the level of economic development and maturity of systems in a country, PHL should be kept to a minimum. PHL of horticultural products in developing countries sometimes may reach up to 45%. The failure to harness the physical and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Bio-systems Engineering Perishables; Technologies; Technology use; Shelf life; Storage food processing.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3357
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A divergent type grader for cocoa pods (Theobroma cacao L.) CIGR Journal
Rangaraju, Visvanathan.
The size distribution of cocoa pods was measured and the average length and breadth were 147.5 and 74.2 mm, respectively.  Based on length, the pods were categorized as less than 120 mm, 120 to 140 mm and above 140 mm, which were 28, 37 and 35% of the whole lot. The breadth varied from 60 mm to 110 mm and the major contribution was 18, 28, 36, 12, 4 and 2% for the ranges, below 70 mm, 70-80 mm, 80-85 mm, 85-90 mm, 90-100 mm and 100-110 mm, respectively.  A direct proportion between the length and breadth was noted.   The sphericity and aspect ratio ranged 0.54 to 0.68 and 0.4 to 0.57. The coefficient of static friction increased in the range 0.503 to 0.738 with moisture content range of 50.3 to 76.4% (d.b.) against various surfaces, also the rolling angle...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cocoa pods; Size distribution; Divergent type grader; Capacity; Effectiveness..
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/7049
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A laser reflection method to detect strawberry fruit defects CIGR Journal
Mohamed, Hend Nabil.
Abstract:This study aims to use the method of laser reflection from the surface of strawberry fruits to classify different strawberry defects to facilitate the process of sorting the fruits during the handling process. The study was conducted on exposing the strawberry fruits (festival variety) by laser radiation with wavelengths of 543.5 and 632.8 nm, after dividing the fruits into six groups according to strawberry defects, to measure the amounts of reflected radiation and generated electricity. The results obtained were the following: a) For the physical and chemical properties of strawberry fruits: It was found that there is no dispersion in (height, width, length, volume, weight, total soluble solids (Brix) and the pH value of the fruits). Their...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6483
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A Linear Programming for Sugarcane Cultivation and Harvest Planning with Cane Survival Rate CIGR Journal
SUPSOMBOON, SRISAWAT; NIEMSAKUL, JIRAWAN.
In Thailand, sugarcane mills have faced supply and demand imbalance problems. Solving such problems is complicated due to various substantial factors. Sugarcane cultivation and harvest are important processes since they are the early stages of the sugarcane industry. Cultivation and harvest planning can be designed by using optimization model in order to balance supply and demand. This paper proposes a linear optimization model used in sugarcane cultivation and harvest planning with multiple suppliers. Sugarcane survival rate is one of the important factors considered in the presented model. A case study of the large-size sugarcane mills in Thailand was investigated. Many other significant factors were considered such as cultivating land size, sugarcane...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Optimization model Linear programming; Sugarcane harvest; Sugarcane cultivation.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3001
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A Machine Vision Algorithm Combining Adaptive Segmentation and Shape Analysis for Orange Fruit Detection CIGR Journal
M. W. Hannan; University of Florida; T. F. Burks; University of Florida; Duke M Bulanon; University of Florida.
 Over the last several years there has been a renewed interest in the automation of harvesting of fruits and vegetables. The two major challenges in the automation of harvesting are the recognition of the fruit and its detachment from the tree. This paper deals with fruit recognition and it presents the development of a machine vision algorithm for the recognition of orange fruits. The algorithm consists of segmentation, region labeling, size filtering, perimeter extraction and perimeter-based detection. In the segmentation of the fruit, the orange was enhanced by using the red chromaticity coefficient which enabled adaptive segmentation under variable outdoor illumination. The algorithm also included detection of fruits which are in clusters by using...
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1281
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A mathematical model for predicting the drying rate of cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L.) in a hot air dryer using dimensional analysis CIGR Journal
Nwakuba, Nnaemeka Reginald.
Development of a mathematical model for predicting the drying rate of a thin layer cocoa bean in a convective hot air dryer using dimensional analysis based on the Buckingham’s π theorem is presented. Results obtained show that drying rate decreases as the moisture level reduces due to increase in the intra-particle resistance to internal moisture migration of the cocoa beans. High coefficients of determination of 94.7%, 94.7% and 99.5% at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80oC respectively between the predicted and experimental values showed that the method is good. The model was validated with data obtained from an existing thin layer convective dryer and there was no significant difference between the experimental drying rate and the predicted values at 5%...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agric. Engineering; Crop Processing engineering cocoa bean; Thin layer drying; Dimensional analysis; Drying rate; Prediction equation..
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4107
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A method of determining cut position of automatic stem removal system for salted wakame CIGR Journal
Yimit, Adiljan; Takagi, Motoki; Hagihara, Yukari; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Hagihara, Yoshihiro.
In the wakame manufacturing procedure, the manual operation process of stem removal is known to hinder the production process. In order to solve this problem, the manufacture aspires to develop an automatic wakame stem removal system. The purpose of this paper is to propose a cut position detection method for the system by picking up the characteristic changes that appear at the cross section of the wakame. In this method, with the utilization of exposure control, two images are captured from the same cross section that is made by a developed device. These images are used in the segmentation of the cross section. The positions where the stem should be cut can then be determined through the examination of the thickness of the cross section. To test the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Marine algae; Wakame; Automation; Stem removal; Exposure control and segmentation.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2888
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A motorized device for cracking pre-treated dika nuts CIGR Journal
Ogundahunsi, Olufemi Emmanuel; Ogunsina, Babatunde Sunday; Ibrahim, Raheem O..
Cracking of dika nut has presented serious challenges to local processors considering the arduous task it constitutes during processing.  A motorized machine that is capable of multiple cracking of dika nuts was designed, fabricated and tested. The major components of the machine include a sliding hammer, a gear unit, a chain conveyor and cracking trays.  The experimental machine was evaluated on the basis of cracking efficiency and throughput considering three types of pre-treated nuts (sun-dried, oven-dried and roasted) and two nut sizes (small and big).  The cracking efficiency and throughput were: 65% and 8.84kg/h, 63% and 7.75kg/h, 45% and 5.67 kg/h for roasted, oven-dried and sun-dried small nuts; while the corresponding values for big nuts were: 72%...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Post harvest technology; Processing machines motorized; Machine; Dika nut; Cracking.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3614
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A paradigm shift for a successful launch of a locally-based start-up in the food supply chain CIGR Journal
Handrinos, Michael; Rotsios, K.; Moshonas, G.; Folinas, D..
The aim of this paper is to design a friendly-user framework for a successful launch of a locally-based start-up in the food supply chain.  Specifically, the study is focused on a Small Medium Enterprises (SME’s) cooperative store in a farm school.  The store is operated by the students in the context of their entrepreneurship, business and marketing classes.  Authors made a number of interviews with the managers and employees of the locally-based store so as to identify its potentials and challenges.  The outcome of the study is a framework dealing with managerial, as well as, technological aspects and even if refers to a specific SME it will act as a road map for an effective start-up development.   Keywords: customer loyalty, American farm school, SME...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Customer loyalty; American farm school; SME co-operatives; Agri-business.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2911
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A Potential Composite Material for Possible Applications in Earth Reinforcement CIGR Journal
M. Z. Hossain.
It is evident that the inadequate frictional resistance and meager cohesion of conventional reinforcements in reinforced earth structures such as geogrids, geosynthetics and wire meshes are serious shortcomings that not only impose constraints in structural designs, but also affect the stability of reinforced earth structures. In this regard, the benefits of earth reinforcing materials in improving the interaction resistances are eminent. For the reinforcement to be effective, two conditions need to be satisfied i.e. it must possess enough strength to withstand tension failure and adhesion failure. This paper highlights some experimental results on the performance behavior of thin cementitious composite elements reinforced by wire meshes under shear tests...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1228
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A Research on Briquetting of Greenhouse Pepper Crop Residues CIGR Journal
BİLGİN, Sefai.
Greenhouse cultivation is widespread in Turkey, and tomato, pepper and eggplant among the vegetables are grown densely in greenhouses. Every year, huge amounts of crop residue are produced from these greenhouses, and the vast majority of these residues are dumped in landfills and out of the greenhouses without evaluating in any way. These crop residues are organic matters and can be evaluated as a biomass energy source. In this study, dried ground greenhouse pepper crop residues were briquetted in the hydraulic press with maximum capacity of 210 MPa and a punch-conical die set, and physical properties of briquettes regarding briquette quality were determined. The briquetting experiments were conducted at 7.06 % moisture content (w.b.), 0.732 mm geometric...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Greenhouse pepper crop residue; Briquette; Briquette physical properties; Turkey.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3163
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A Review of Fixed Bed Gasification Systems for Biomass CIGR Journal
Sangeeta Chopra; Anil K Jain.
The gasification of biomass into useful fuel enhances its potential as a renewable energy resource. The fixed bed gasification systems are classified as updraft, Imbert downdraft, throatless downdraft, crossdraft and two stage gasifiers. Updraft gasifiers are suitable for gasification of biomass containing high ash (up to 15 %) and high moisture content (up to 50 %) and generate producer gas having high tar content (50–100 g/Nm3). The high temperature (830 oC) air gasification of biomass in updraft gasifiers increase the lower calorific value of producer gas and reduce the tar content. The updraft gasifiers have been used for gasification of bark, wood blocks, chips and pellets, straw, maize cobs, refuse derived fuel (RDF), and waste pellets with air and...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/960
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