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Chisel Plough Shares Protection by Using Two Different Coating Techniques CIGR Journal
Hegazy, Rashad Aziz; El-Sheikha, Ahmed mohamed.
Hydrophobic coating with ceramic, as nanotechnology, is widely used to protect metal in different industries, but it has not yet tested with agricultural tools. Nickel chrome plating is defined and used process to protect metals too, but it has a common use. So, this work discusses the effect of two types of coating techniques on wear reduction on normal chisel plough shares. First coating technique was using nanotechnology inform of SI14-200 micron (0.2 mm) high density hydrophobic and ceramic coating. Second coating technique was using the galvanizing process by treating the shares with nickel chrome plating. Both techniques were applied for chisels’ shares made from medium carbon steel C-45. All treated shares were operated for 40, 80 and 120 hours to...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Nanotechnology; Hydrophobic coating; Nickel chrome plating; Wear characteristics; Farm machinery.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6883
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Citrus black spot detection using hyperspectral image analysis CIGR Journal
Bulanon, Duke M.; Burks, Thomas F.; Kim, Dae G.; Ritenour, Mark A..
A recently discovered fungal disease called citrus black spot, is threatening the Florida citrus industry.  The fungal disease, which causes cosmetic lesions on the rind of the fruit and can cause a tree to drop its fruit prematurely, could possibly lead to a ban on sales of fresh Florida citrus in other citrus-producing states.  The objective of this research is to develop a multispectral imaging algorithm to detect citrus black spots based on hyperspectral image data.  Hyperspectral images of citrus fruits (Valencias) were collected in the wavelength range of 480 nm to 950 nm.  Five surface conditions were examined, citrus black spot, greasy spot, melanose, wind scar, and normal one.  The first part of the image analysis determined the optimal...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering citrus disease; Multispectral imaging; Hyperspectral imaging.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2382
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Classification of Anthurium flower cultivars based on combination of PCA, LDA and SVM classifier CIGR Journal
Soleimani Pour, Alireza; Chegini, Gholamreza; Massah, Jafar.
Two main steps in object recognition systems involve feature representation and classification. In this study, the combination of principal components analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) approaches were used to develop a cultivar classification system for Anthurium flower, which PCA, LDA, and SVM were applied for data reduction, feature extraction, and classification, respectively. The system was tested on a database of Anthurium flower images, which included the images of 20 cultivars of the flower with different sizes, angles of rotation placed under the imaging camera, and lighting conditions. Results were evaluated from the two point of view of classification accuracy and processing time, and the approach...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4491
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Classification of Banana Fruit Maturity using zNose CIGR Journal
P, Rajkumar; C, Dr. Indu Rani; N, Dr.Wang; G.S.V, Dr. Raghavan.
A study was undertaken to classify the banana fruits based on their ripening/maturity by using zNose flavour detection technique. The quality parameters of banana fruits viz., respiratory quotient (RQ), total soluble solids (TSS), moisture content and firmness at each ripening/maturity stage were determined and the results were correlated with zNose flavour data. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the ripening/maturity stages of banana fruits and also to test the variability of the observed data. By using multiple linear regression (MLR), models were established to predict the fruit quality parameters. The coefficient of determination (r2) corresponding to the predicted respiratory quotient, total soluble solids, moisture content...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: E-Nose/Z-Nose; Banana fruits; Maturity; Ripening; PCA; MLR.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3359
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Classification of papaya crispiness based on mechanical properties CIGR Journal
Terdwongworakul, Anupun.
This research investigated an objective technique for the classification of papaya varieties based on crispiness. Five varieties of papaya were sampled with variation in crispiness. The papaya samples were mechanically tested using texture profile analysis and rectangular blade cutting methods. Discriminant analysis based on the mechanical properties measured using rectangular blade cutting was performed to develop a classification model. The obtained discriminant model was capable of classifying the papaya samples into five different groups with an accuracy of 82.4%.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Papaya; Classification; Mechanical properties.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3472
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Classification of Potential Sheep Heat-Stress Levels According to the Prevailing Meteorological Conditions CIGR Journal
Dimitris K. Papanastasiou.
Many researchers have found that physiology, welfare, health, and productivity of ruminants are significantly affected when they are exposed to heat-stress conditions. In such cases, heat-stress may also cause a reduction of farmers’ profit in various ways. Heat-stress levels are significantly affected by the prevailing meteorological conditions. This paper aims to study the potential daily peak heat-stress conditions to which sheep are exposed and to classify them according to the prevailing meteorological conditions. For these purposes, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and incoming solar radiation data were analyzed. The meteorological data were recorded during the summers of the period 2007 – 2012 by an automated...
Palavras-chave: Sheep; Heat-stress; Temperature humidity index; Meteorological conditions; Cluster analysis; Greece.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3099
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Classification of Potential Sheep Heat-Stress Levels According to the Prevailing Meteorological Conditions CIGR Journal
Papanastasiou, Dimitris K..
Many researchers have found that physiology, welfare, health, and productivity of ruminants are significantly affected when they are exposed to heat-stress conditions. In such cases, heat-stress may also cause a reduction of farmers’ profit in various ways. Heat-stress levels are significantly affected by the prevailing meteorological conditions. This paper aims to study the potential daily peak heat-stress conditions to which sheep are exposed and to classify them according to the prevailing meteorological conditions. For these purposes, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and incoming solar radiation data were analyzed. The meteorological data were recorded during the summers of the period 2007 – 2012 by an automated meteorological station that...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Sheep; Heat-stress; Temperature humidity index; Meteorological conditions; Cluster analysis; Greece.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3099
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Classification of the cattle behaviors by using magnitude and variance of accelerometer signal CIGR Journal
AURASOPON, APINAN.
Time periods of walking-grazing, standing and lyingof cattle’s life can be used to predict their health. However, famer cannot observe those in all the time. Therefore, this paper proposes a simple technique to classify the cattle behaviors by using the magnitude and the variance of accelerometer output signal. There are two steps of algorithm detection, the first step employed the magnitude of each axis for classifying the cattle behaviors into two groups: 1) walking-grazing and standing and 2) lying. After that, the second step used the variance of Y-axis to notify between walking-grazing and standing behaviors. The classification results were inform time periods of each behavior and tested with two cattle. The measured precise times of each behavior...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cattle behaviors; Accelerometer; Variance; Decision tree and activity monitoring.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3422
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Classification of wheat varieties by PLS-DA and LDA models and investigation of the spatial distribution of protein content using NIR spectroscopy CIGR Journal
bagherpour, hossein.
Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy gives information about the chemical properties of objects, and it is of particular interest for agricultural and food science applications given its rapid and non-destructive nature. This paper presents a study on the prediction of protein content in whole wheat kernels by NIR, comparing two statistical discriminant analysis techniques, namely PLS-DA and LDA, to classify wheat varieties and protein levels at the farm’s site. Data were collected from 3 varieties collected from 9 farms located in the same region, with a total of 54 samples analyzed. The NIR spectrometer used had a range of 950-1650 nm and it was used to classify different wheat samples according to their varieties and protein level. The optimal spectral...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: NIR spectroscopy; Wheat protein; Wheat variety identification; Protein variability.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/7205
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Climate Change-Based Modeling of Potential Land Use Arrangements for Coffee (Coffea arabica) and Forest in Costa Rica CIGR Journal
Coto-Fonseca, Alberto; Rojas, Carlos; Molina-Murillo, Sergio.
Besides the need to reduce its own emissions, the challenge of the agricultural sector worldwide is also to adapt to a changing and more variable climate. Coffee is an important crop in Costa Rica based on cultivated area and on the number of families connected to this activity that has a long historical tradition. In this context, the potential distribution shifts of coffee production based on climate change scenarios has been identified and targeted in this study. Bioclimatic variables along with elevation were used to evaluate changes in suitable areas for coffee production under the framework of four climate change scenarios for the year 2070. Results suggest that highlands have a high probability of being suitable for coffee under all four scenarios...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3958
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Cocoa Pod Ash as Bio-Based Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Chicken Fat CIGR Journal
Odetoye, Temitope Elizabeth; Amusan, Greatness S..
The growing interest in using sustainable raw materials coupled with the need to reduce the over- dependence on non-renewable petroleum resources has made agricultural residues attractive raw material for biofuel production. The potential utilization of cocoa pod ash (CPA) as a bio-based catalyst for the production of biodiesel from waste chicken fat was investigated. Bio-based catalyst was obtained from cocoa pods by ashing method. The catalyst was subjected to scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. The experimental design was based on a five level, two factor central composite design. CPA was used in the preparation of biodiesel from waste chicken fat (WCF) using a two-step esterification-transesterification process. The highest biodiesel yield of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biomass and Bioenergy Cocoa pod ash agricultural residue; Biofuel; Bio-based catalyst; Potash; Nigeria.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5492
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Coefficients of repair and maintenance costs of self-propelled combine harvesters in Italy CIGR Journal
Calcante, Aldo; Fontanini, Luca; Mazzetto, Fabrizio.
Purchasing and maintaining agricultural machines are two of the most considerable costs of the agricultural sector, which includes farm equipment manufacturers, farm contractors and farms.  In this context, repair and maintenance costs (R&M costs) generally constitute 10%-15% of the total costs related to agricultural equipment and tend to increase with the age of the equipment; hence, an important consideration in farm management is the optimal time for equipment replacement.  R&M cost estimation models, calculated as a function of accumulated working hours, are usually developed by ASAE/ASABE for the agricultural situation in the United States, which is considerably different than agricultural context of other countries.  So, the goal of this...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Agricultural mechanization Repair and maintenance costs; Self propelled combine harvesters; Cost estimation models..
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2512
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Combination of Black Shading Nets and Its Effect on Radiation Intensity and Quality CIGR Journal
dos Reis, Carlos Henrique Goulart; Pereira, Fabricio José.
The use of shading nets in agronomy is a common method to create protected environments for plant acclimation and production. Climate changes increased the use of shading nets and it is common to find builds with combined or overlapped layers whereas the resulting attenuation is unclear. This work aimed to study the radiation intensity and attenuation inside shaded environments created by combining black shading nets. Shading environments were build with a base 30% black shading net and the combinations of 30%+50% and 30%+70% nets, plus, shaded environments were compared to unshaded condition. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and five replicates. Radiation intensity was measured with a spectroradiometer at ultraviolet...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Protected environment; UV-Radiation; Light intensity; Photosynthetically active radiation.
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/7375
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Comparative analysis of exhaust gases from MF285 and U650 tractors under field conditions CIGR Journal
Rashid, Gholami; Hekmat, Rabbani; Ali Nejat, Lorestani; Payam, Javadikia; Farzad, Jaliliantabar.
Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations.  This work deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission.  The values of some exhaust gases (HC, CO, CO2, O2 and NO) from two common tractors (MF285 and U650) at three situations (use of ditcher, plowing and cultivator) were evaluated in the West of IRAN (Kermanshah).  In addition, engine oil temperature at operation conditions was measured.  Also results showed the values of exhaust HC and O2 of MF285 are lower than U650, while the other exhausts gases (CO, CO2, and NO) of MF285 are higher than U650.  Value of NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased.  All of exhaust gases except CO have a significant...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Environmental pollution; Exhaust gases; Tractors.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2363
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Comparative Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Two Varieties of Periwinkle Relevant to Its Processing Equipment Design CIGR Journal
EKOP, INEMESIT EDEM; Simonyan, Kayode Joshua; Onwuka, Udochukwu Nelson.
AbstractThis study was conducted to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of Tympanotonus  fuscatus and Pachymelania aurita varieties of periwinkle. The mechanical properties namely; rupture force, rupture energy, deformation and young’s modulus of periwinkle samples were determined. The average force to rupture of P. aurita under longitudinal and transverse loading orientations was higher than that of T. fuscatus.  It was also observed that the mean rupture energy of T. fuscatus under longitudinal and transverse loading orientations was lower than that of P. aurita. The mean deformation for T. fuscatus under longitudinal and transverse loading orientations was found to be lower than that of P. aurita. The deformation under transverse loading...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2022 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6071
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Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Hermetic Storage Models on the Quality of Soybean Seeds CIGR Journal
Orhevba, Bosede Adelola.
The comparative analysis of the effect of hermetic storage models on the quality of soybean seeds was studied. Freshly harvested soybean pods were depodded and the seeds were sundried at 330C temperature with an average relative humidity of 62% for three days. The seeds were then divided into three portions of 400g and each portion was poured into different storage models which were PVC bags of 400g, jars of one litre capacity and another jar (perforated) of one litre capacity which served as the control. The initial quality parameters of the soybean seeds were determined, while the storage models and control were kept for six weeks. Samples in each storage model and control were analysed for proximate composition and other quality parameters at the end of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Post Harvest Technology soybean; Hermetic; Storage; Hectoliter weight; Proximate Composition.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3952
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Comparative between different parameters under automate drip irrigation for cucumber CIGR Journal
Khattab, Yosria Kamal.
Abstract: Automate drip irrigation in greenhouse was conducted at Elhssen Agriculture Authriuts, Giza governorate, Egypt. The aim of this researcher is to use the new Laser Leaf Control Unit (LLCU) as a tool to operate the automate drip irrigation system in greenhouse. Comparative study between Laser Beam Transmit (LBT) build in the (LLCU), different temperature (dt) and Soil Moisture Content (SMC) were carried for irrigated cucumber. Three instruments used; 1) Laser Leaf Control Unit (LLCU); 2) Infrared Thermometer (IR) used to measure canopy temperature around plant leaf (Tc) and air temperature (Ta) to estimate dtc °C; 3) Soil Moisture Meter (SMM) to measure Soil Moisture Content (SMC). The result exhibited that there is a relationship between the LBT,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science; Cairo University Laser; Sensor; Water; Leaves; Automate; Irrigation; Wavelength; Cucumber.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4840
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Comparative evaluation of manual cassava harvesting techniques in Kerala, India CIGR Journal
Amponsah, Shadrack Kwadwo; Sheriff, J Thajudhin; Byju, Gangadharan.
Abstract: In India, cassava is consumed as a secondary staple along with the main staple, rice, and many rural poor consume it as the staple in different forms of preparations.  Though harvesting is known to be one of the most difficult and cost-intensive field operation in cassava cultivation, mechanisation of cassava harvesting is still very low in most cassava growing areas of India due to topographic constraints, methods and scale of cultivation.  The most viable solution to overcome these constraints is to promote the use of more efficient manual harvesting tools.  Thus, the main objective of this study was to field evaluate the efficiency of four manual cassava harvesting techniques under different land preparation methods in terms of field capacity,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Farm power and machinery; Agronomy cassava; Field capacity; Drudgery; Coppiced; Efficiency.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2793
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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MESH SIEVE PERFORMANCE OF A WET CEREAL SLURRY SIEVING MACHINE CIGR Journal
Anyanwu, Cosmas; Ibelegbu, Charity; Ugwu, Chinyere; Okonkwo, Valentine; Mgbemene, Chigbo.
This paper presents the design, construction and comparative performance evaluation a cereal slurry sieving machine. For the evaluation, wet slurries of maize, millet and sorghum were each sieved with three sieves of mesh sizes of 1.19 mm, 1.00 mm and 0.354 mm. The machine performed satisfactorily in the sieving of wet maize slurry, recording an efficiency of 85%. The output capacity was 22.07 kg/hr in comparison with 8.82 kg/hr achieved in the traditional manual method. The average sieving time for 1kg of maize slurry using the machine was about 2.5 times shorter than in manual sieving. The sieving capacity of the machine was about 2.4 times higher than that of the traditional manual method. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) carried out on the results...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Cereal; Slurry; Machine design; Sieving capacity; Mesh size; Efficiency.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5737
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Comparative evaluation of the performance of motorized and pole and Knife oil palm fruit bunch harvester CIGR Journal
Aramide, Basiru Philip; Owolarafe, Oseni Kehinde; Adeyemi, Nabeel A.
In this study the performance of a motorized palm fruit bunch harvester (MBH) was evaluated in comparison with the bamboo-pole-and-knife harvester (BPK). The MBH was first tested on Nigerian plantations for the palm trees it could reach. The average time taken to harvest a bunch and the time taken per hectare of plantation were determined. The best orientation and the cutting angle for the harvester were also determined. The exact height which the harvester could reach was also determined on the plantations. The harvester was later used in comparison with (BPK) method on palms of moderate height and the average time of harvest per bunch, field capacity, as well as cost of operation was determined for the two methods. Time study (TS) of the two methods was...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Farm Machenery and Processing oil palm harvesting; Motorized-harvester; ; Pole-and-knife; Efficiency.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3347
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