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Analysis of Selected Tractor Seats for Seating Dimensions in Laboratory CIGR Journal
K. K. Jain; College of Agric. Engineering & Technology,.
The tractor seat is one of the important component / assembly as far as the human machine system and comfort of tractor operator are concerned .With this in view, a field survey and laboratory study were conducted of selected popular tractors and tractor seats, respectively,with particular reference to seating dimensions. Dimensions for seat pan and backrest were measured and analyzed, according to BIS recommendations. The results highlighted that seat pan width was found 10.9% less, seat height was found 15.3% in excess, no vertical adjustments and backrest width was also found 20.4% less. This may cause discomfort for smaller as well as higher percentile tractor operators. Based upon the design of mounting arrangement of different tractor seats – a...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1243
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Analysis of straw bruising and sieving system on performance of modified wheat straw combine for better straw quality CIGR Journal
Dhimate, Ashish Satish; Mahal, Jaskarn Singh; Singh, Manjeet; Dixit, Anoop; Manes, Gursahib Singh; Khurana, Rohinish.
Wheat straw is a major feed source for ruminants. To retrieve the wheat straw and stubbles left after wheat harvesting operation with grain combines, another machine i.e. straw combine is used. But it was observed that the quality straw collected by straw combines contains dirt particles which increases total ash content of straw and that are harmful for animal health. To reduce energy requirement and to reduce total ash content, straw combine was developed with sieving system. Modified straw combine consisted of a 1.53×0.82 m screen with 0.208 mm opening sieving system, which was fixed below the bruising cylinder. Field evaluation of the modified straw combine carried out at two level of concave bar spacing (10 & 14 mm), three feed rate (14, 16.5...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Farm Machinery and Power Engineering Total ash content; Straw combine; Straw quality.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2878
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Analysis of the Environmental Effects of the Burning of the Straw for Energy Purposes CIGR Journal
Macak, Miroslav.
Long-term using of fossil fuels has caused global climatic changes. Using of the renewable energy sources based on the field crop biomass can be considered as a tool allowing compensating the negative consequences of the fossil fuels. Among different types of biomass based fuels the straw baled in the form of square bales plays an important role. Until now the research pays only small attention to the environmental effects related to the using of the straw for energy purposes. The aim of the paper was to analyze the effect of moisture content of the straw used for energy purposes. The straw has been baled to the form of large square bales. The straw bales were burned in special boiler. The quality of incineration process was monitored for different straw...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Baled straw for energy purposes; Laboratory experiments; Straw burning; Emission factors.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3081
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Analysis of the Phenol and Flavonoid Content from Basil Leaves (Ocimum Americanum L) Extract Using Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Pre-Treatment CIGR Journal
Hendrawan, Yusuf; Sabrinauly, Sabrinauly; Hawa, La Choviya; Argo, Bambang Dwi; Rachmawati, Muchnuria.
Basil leaves (Ocimum Americanum Linn) are commonly known to contain phenol and flavonoid compounds which can act as antimicrobial and antioxidants. In general, the bioactive compound can be obtained by conventional extraction method, maceration. To increase the amount of bioactive compounds which can be extracted, it is necessary to conduct pre-treatment using Pulsed Electric Field (PEF). PEF has an advantage in increasing the compound transfer contained in cells to be extracted from the plant tissues via electroporation mechanisms, without causing significant temperature changes. This study aims to determine the effect of electric field strength variations (2, 3, and 4 kV/cm) and duration of pre-treatment (1, 2, and 3 minutes) to total phenol and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering Basil leaves; Phenol; Flavonoid; Pulsed electric field.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5240
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Analytical development of bird pecking force equation for a self-metering poultry feeder CIGR Journal
Asoegwu, Sabbas N; Obasi, A. U.; Ohanyere, S. O.; Nwakuba, N. R..
The concept of a self-metering poultry feeder was developed.  The theoretical analysis of the forces involved in its operation was done and a generalized pecking force model was developed.  Mathematical expressions, logical assumptions, graphical relations and models as well as statistical analyses were adopted in the pecking force analysis. This pecking force relates to some design parameters like feed flow rate, hopper aperture, etc. The generalized equation was tested using a fabricated model of the equipment.  Experimental results show that the equation can be used to predict the performance of the machine reasonably and also the level of satiety and bird vigor determine the amount of pecking force which was described by a polynomial regression...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agric. and Bioresources Engineering/ Crop processing and Postharvest Engineering Pecking force; Self-metering; Poultry feeder; Feed rate; Pecking time..
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4125
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Ancient and Present Trends in Solar Drying Systems CIGR Journal
Prakash, Om; Kumar, Dr Anil.
The application of solar drying technology in agricultural area to preserve vegetables, fruits, and other crops has proved to be practical, economical and eco-friendly. In this communication, comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of many practically-realised designs of solar-energy drying systems is presented. Solar drying system is used to dry crops extensively in many countries. It improves the quality of product; minimizes waste and employs renewable energy sources. However, availability of suitable information is missing in many of the countries where solar drying systems are most needed. Such systems are available in varied range of sizes and designs and are used for drying various foods and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: 1. Solar drying system 2. Passive Solar energy dryers 3. Active Solar energy dryer 4. Renewable energy sources 5. Preserve crops.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2172
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Aniline effect on concrete steel rebar degradation in saline and sulfate media CIGR Journal
Olugbenga Adeshola Omotosho; Covenant University; Cleophas Akintoye Loto; Covenant University, Ota; Oluseyi Olanrewaju Ajayi; Covenant University, Ota; Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi; Covenant University, Ota.
Electrochemical potential monitoring experiments were performed on mild steel rebars embedded in concrete admixed with aniline inhibitor and fixed amount of sodium chloride salt partially immersed in sulfuric acid and sodium chloride solution.  The open circuit potential corrosion monitoring technique was employed and the potential readings were taken in accordance with ASTM C 876.  Repressive attribute and consistency of the inhibitor was then estimated by the Weibull probability density distribution as an extreme value statistical modeling approach to study performance effectiveness and to predict the most efficient inhibitor concentration in each media.  Aniline effect on the compressive strengths of the reinforced concrete samples was also investigated...
Palavras-chave: Potential; Concrete steel rebar; Aniline; Compressive strength; Weibull distribution; Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistics; Marine/microbial media..
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1830
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ANN Application for Prediction of Diesel Engine Heat with Nano-Additives on Diesel-Biodiesel Blends CIGR Journal
Hosseini, Seyyed Hassan; Taghizadeh Alisaraei, Ahmad; Ghobadian, Barat; Abbaszadeh-Mayvan, Ahmad.
     Biodiesel is renewable clean bioenergy as it can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and micro-algal oil and also it can be applied instead of diesel fuel without any special modifications to the engines. In recent years, Nano-catalysts or Nano-additives in fuels improve the thermo-physical properties of fuels. In this study, the Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) as additive were mixed with the B5 and B10 fuel blends to evaluate the cylinder head and cylinder block temperature of a CI single-cylinder engine with an artificial neural network. carbon Nanotubes with concentrations of 30, 60, and 90 ppm were used for each fuel blends. Assessed characteristics were cylinder head and cylinder block temperature for full load engine at three speeds of 1800,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4048
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Annual production of grass silage for biogas: effects of fibrolytic enzyme additives on ensilage efficiency and specific methane yields CIGR Journal
Nolan, Pearl; Doyle, Evelyn; O'Kiley, Padraig.
The aims of this study were to quantify the effects of fibrolytic enzyme additives applied to each of four consecutive cuts of unwilted grass at ensiling on ensilage characteristics and specific CH4 yields (SMY) per unit mass and per unit land area. In light of the importance of the primary growth yield, the effects of the timing of Cut 1 were also investigated. Furthermore, the mass-SMY and area-SMY effect of any effluent produced during ensilage was determined.At each of four cuts that comprised annual growth, samples from four replicate plots of Lolium perenne and of Phleum pratense were untreated (control) or were treated with either of two fibrolytic enzymes (ENZ 1 and ENZ 2) prior to ensiling for 120 days. The mass-SMY of silages and effluents were...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Grass yield; Silage; Fibre; Enzymes; Effluent; CH4 yield per unit land area.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4159
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Anpilpay 2.0: a New Human Powered Press for Producing Straw Bales for Load Bearing Constructions CIGR Journal
FRANCO, Walter; Anastasio, Dario; Ferraresi, Carlo; Gondino, Francesco; Quaglia, Giuseppe; Soprana, Lorenzo.
This paper provides the design method to realize a human-powered press for continuous production of high-density straw bales, necessary for the realization of load bearing housing modules. Particular attention is directed to the simplicity of the press mechanical structure, in order to make possible its construction in developing countries. The design process is fully described, then the use of a prototype press for the realization, with high-density rice straw bales, of a load bearing housing module is presented and the results are commented.
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Mechanical engineering; Load bearing straw bale construction; Slider crank mechanism synthesis; Human powered baler; Hand-operated machine; Post-emergency reconstruction; Appropriate building.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4256
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Anthropometric studies for designing to fit gari-frying workers CIGR Journal
aremu, olaniyi olateju; salami, ismaila olasunkanmi; Adetifa, Babatunde o; Onu, Livinus i; Adegbite, adeyemi E; olokoshe, abimbola a; Samuel, Taiwo Moses.
 Work system and product design require anthropometric data of the user population relevant to the facility in order to have safe operation in service as well as increase user satisfaction and efficiency. Designing to fit gari-frying workers in each of the southwestern states in Nigeria is geared towards this end. The age, weight and twenty-five body dimensions of 120 gari-frying workers in Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo and Ekiti, selected by random sampling, were measured. The body dimensions include stature, shoulder height, sitting height, eye height, forward grip reach, buttock-popliteal height, buttock-knee length, knee height, thigh clearance, forearm-to-forearm breadth, waist depth, elbow rest height, knuckle height, elbow grip length, hip breadth,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Ergonomics; Anthropometry anthropometry workstation gari-frying cassava processing design to fit BMI BSA.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3403
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Anthropometric survey of farm workers of Ladakh region of India and its application in equipment design CIGR Journal
DIXIT, JAGVIR; Namgial, Deldan; Sharma, Sushil; Lohan, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh.
Abstract: The environment and resultant discomfort has severe impact on overall working efficiency of human and machine while using farm tools and machinery in hills.  The Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir State of India is predominantly hilly.  Anthropometric data of agricultural workers is very essential for the safe and efficient design of farm machinery.  In the present studies, an anthropometric survey was carried out for agricultural workers of Ladakh region, wherein 90 male and female agricultural workers were selected and 79 body dimensions were precisely measured and recorded from each subject, thereafter analysed statistically.  For making the data comprehensive and more useful, a set of 23 body dimensions, which are having direct implications...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Farm Power Machinery Anthropometric survey body dimensions agricultural workers tool design.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2794
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Antifungal Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles Against Some Plant Pathogenic Fungi In Vitro. CIGR Journal
abd el-aziz, mahmoud.
The inhibitory affects of different concentrations of high and low molecular weight of chitosan (CH-HMw and CH-LMw, respectively) and chitosan nanoparticles (CH-HMw-NPs and CH-LMw-NPs, respectively) against linear growth and spores/sclerotia germination of the 18 phytopathogenic fungi of tomato, potato and green bean were evaluated in vitro. The studies showed that CH-HMw-NPs and CH-LMw-NPs were highly effective against all tested pathogenic fungi compared with CH-HMw and CH-LMw. Furthermore, CH-HMw-NPs and CH-LMw-NPs at concentrations 0.1% and 0.05% showed completely inhibited (100%) the mycelial growth of all tested pathogens. Meanwhile, Chitosan HMw and LMw at 1.0% caused 100% reduction of all tested pathogenic fungi. Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5425
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APPLE IDENTIFICATION IN FIELD ENVIRONMENT WITH OVER THE ROW MACHINE VISION SYSTEM CIGR Journal
Silwal, Abhisesh; Gongal, Aleana; Karkee, Manoj.
Accurate detection and identification of fruits is critically important for the success of developing automated apple harvesting system. Research has been conducted to identify apples in orchard environment with reasonable accuracy when apples are clearly visible or partially occluded. However, only limited work has been carried out to identify fruit in clusters, which is critically important as fruit clusters are common in field conditions. This work focused on accurately identifying partially visible apples and apples in clusters using a machine vision system. An over the row platform with tunnel structure and artificial lighting was used to increase uniformity in imaging environment. Iterative Circular Hough Transform (CHT) was used to detect clearly...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Mechanization and Automation apple identification; Clustering; Circular Hough Transform; Blob analysis.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3006
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Application of a non-parametric method to analyze energy consumption for orange production CIGR Journal
Qasemi Kordkheili, Peyman; Amin Asoodar, Mohammad; Kazemi, Navab.
Due to good climate condition and large cultivation area in Mazandaran province of Iran, orchard commodities products, especially orange production is widely improved in this region.  In this study, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to analyze the efficiency of farmers, discriminate efficient orchards from inefficient ones and to identify wasteful uses of energy for orange producers in Sari region.  Data were collected using face-to-face surveys from 86 orange orchardists and included the human power, machinery, diesel fuel, chemicals, fertilizer, farmyard manure, water for irrigation and electricity input sources used per hectare of orange production.  The data was organized and analyzed by DEA Techniques.  The results revealed that the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Technical efficiency; Energy saving; Orange production; Sari.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2554
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Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in predicting mechanical properties of canola stem under shear loading CIGR Journal
Azadbakht, Mohsen; Torshizi, Mohammad Vahedi; Ziaratban, Armin; Ghajarjazi, Ehsan.
In this study, at first the shear parameters including the maximum shear force, shear strength, shear energy and power consumption of canola stem were calculated through force-deformation curve; and then these mechanical properties were determined and predicted using artificial neural network.   For the tests, testing machine Instron (Model Santam STM-5) with 50 N load cell was used.  Stems were cut at 3 diameter levels (1 to 3, 3 to 5 and more than 5 mm), 3 cutting speed levels (75, 115 and 150 mm/min ), 3 cutting angles (0°, 30° and 60°) and three replicates.   Cutting parameters including maximum cutting force, shear strength; cutting energy; consumed power and cutting work were examined.  Tests lasted for each stem until the full cut.  Data...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Canola; Cutting energy; Stem; Shear strength; Power consumption; Artificial Neural Network (ANN).
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3785
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Application of date palm leaves compost (DPLC) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) for controlling faba bean root rot disease in New Valley, Egypt CIGR Journal
Abdel-Monaim, Montaser.
Abstract This study was designed to investigate the effect of date palm leaves compost (DPLC) individually and/or in combined with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria(PGPR) for controlling faba bean root rot disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani andFusarium solani under greenhouse and field conditions as well as plant growth and yield parameters. The obtained data indicate thatDPLC at different concentrations significantly decreased root rot incidence either under artificial infection in pot or natural infection in field as well as increased growth and yield parameters during growing season 2013-2014. Date palm leaves compost at 8 ton/feddan recorded the highest protection against root rot disease and gave the highest increased of plant growth and yield...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: M. F. Abdel-Monaim; Manal S. M. Khalil; Sahar H. Abdel-Baset Date palm leaves compost (DPLC); Faba bean; Growth and yield parameters; Nodulation; PGPR; Root rot disease.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4423
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Application of Mindstorms sensors in monitoring the fruit ripening process CIGR Journal
Grujicic, Rade; Mijanovic Markus, Marina; Andjic, Branko.
In the present study, investigations were conducted to analyse the possibility of using the Lego Mindstorms light and color sensors in agriculture. The appropriate design was made which consisting of these sensors and control units that provided the information on measured values. The changes in color of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) during maturation process were registered by using the appropriate color and light sensors with the analysis of the possibility of monitoring fruit ripening process and registration of any pathological changes of color. The values measured by sensors are presented in a graphical form, providing an analogy between the results given by Lego Mindstorms color sensor and Lego Mindstorms light sensor. The reliability...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Color sensor; Fruit ripening; Light sensor; Mindstorms.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3751
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Application of Neural Networks and multiple regression models in greenhouse climate estimation CIGR Journal
Taki, Morteza; Ajabshirchi, Yahya; Ranjbar, Seyed Faramarz; Matloobi, Mansour.
Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are biologically inspired computer programs designed to simulate the way in which the human brain processes information. After a comprehensive literature survey on the application of ANNs in greenhouses, this work describes the results of using ANNs to predict the roof temperature, inside air humidity, soil temperature and inside soil humidity (Tri, RHia, Tis, RHis), in a semi-solar greenhouse according to use some inside and outside parameters in the institute of renewable energy in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For this purpose, a semi-solar greenhouse was designed and constructed for the first time in Iran. The model database selected beside on the main and important factors influence the four above variables inside...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Artificial Neural Networks; Semi-solar greenhouse; Multiple linear regression model; Iran.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3672
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Application of nonparametric method to improve energy productivity and CO2 emission for barley production in Iran CIGR Journal
Ghasemi Mobtaker, Hassan; Taki, Morteza; Salehi, Marzie; Zarei Shahamat, Ebrahim.
The nonparametric method of data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to investigate the energy efficiency and CO2 emission of barley farm in Hamedan province of Iran.  The method was used based on eight energy inputs including human labor, machinery, diesel fuel, fertilizers, farmyard manure, biocide, electricity and seed energy and single output of barley yield and technical, pure technical, scale and cross efficiencies were calculated using CCR and BCC models.  The results showed that the average values of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency scores of farmers were 0.788, 0.941 and 0.833, respectively.  Also, energy saving target ratio for barley production was calculated as 11.45%, indicating that by following the recommendations of this...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Data envelopment analysis; Energy saving; Barley; Chemical fertilizers.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2618
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