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Backwash process in a sand filter prototype used in irrigation CIGR Journal
Cândido de Souza, Álvaro Henrique; Seron, Cássio de Castro; Lorenzoni, Marcelo Zolin; de Deus, Fábio Ponciano; Rezende, Roberto.
Backwash process of sand filters requests specific surface velocity to reach the recommended filter bed height expansion, however the expansion of the filter bed height is very influenced by their characteristics. This work had as aim to evaluate the effect of different sand particle size, static filter bed layer and expansion of the filter bed height on a prototype of sand filter during backwash process. The tests were accomplished using a sand filter prototype that had structural similarity and shape as commercial equipments (24 cm of height and 12.7 cm of diameter). The treatments consisted from combinations of five separate sand particle sizes (0.15; 0.33; 0.51; 0.72 e 0.92 mm of medium diameter), five static filter bed layer (5; 7; 9; 11 and 13 cm)...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Water treatment; Irrigation; Fertigation; Irrigation water treatment; Superficial velocity; Sand particle sizes; Filter bed layer.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4910
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Batch anaerobic digestion of banana waste - energy potential and modelling of methane production kinetics CIGR Journal
Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Brulé, Mathieu; Maurer, Claudia; Argyropoulos, Dimitrios; Müller, Joachim; Oechsner, Hans.
Different fractions of banana (stalk, peel, and flesh) as well as the whole unpeeled banana were studied in a laboratory Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) assay. After completion of 35-day digestion at 37°C in 2L-reactors, specific methane yields reached 0.256, 0.322, 0.367 and 0.349 m³/kg VS (volatile solids) for stalk, peel, flesh, and unpeeled banana respectively. Considering the country of Uganda, East Africa, the collection of peels and stalks from banana production would yield a theoretical potential of about 60 GWh of electrical energy per year in biogas plants. In order to verify the suitability of banana fractions to the biogas process, their chemical composition was analyzed, and their methane production kinetics was estimated with exponential...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Energy biogas; Anaerobic digestion; BMP assay; Model; Energy; Methane; Waste.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3244
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Batch drying of potato slices: Kinetic changes of quality parameters (colour & shrinkage) in response of uniformly distributed drying temperature CIGR Journal
Amjad, Waseem; Hensel, Oliver; Munir, Anjum.
Uniform quality drying throughout the drying chamber of a dryer is important for a quality oriented drying process. The final quality of dried products significantly depends upon the drying temperature. A batch type dryer was developed for uniform air distribution. ANSYS-fluent was used to analyse the temperature distribution in the dryer. To assess the effect of drying temperature homogeneity on quality parameters, color and shrinkage of potato slices (6 mm thick) at 60° C were measured. The color parameters were quantified in CIELAB color space system. The shrinkage of slices (20 mm round samples) was measured using image analysis software. The rate of color change was found uniform at all sections of drying chamber with high value of R2. The kinetics of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3265
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Beans cultivation and water regime on soil physical attributes CIGR Journal
Domingues, Rafael; Pereira, André Belmont; Pires, Luiz Fernando; Schiebelbein, Luis Miguel; Barbosa, Eduardo Augusto Agnellos; Auler, André Carlos.
Beans crop is an agricultural staple largely consumed in Brazil because it is part of the basic food of the population. Such a crop is usually grown by small growers and turns out to be of a great social and economical importance. The aim of the current manuscript was to scrutinize the effect of soil water status on its physical attributes, such as bulk density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, hydraulic conductivity under protected environment conditions on beans crop (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The effect of the soil physical attributes on the biological response of the plants was also investigated. The experiment was installed in March of 2016 in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme with four...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agronomy; Agrometeorology; Soil Physics; Irrigation Science Phaseolus vulgaris L; Hydraulic conductivity; Soil moisture; Macroporosity; Microporosity; Bulk density.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4585
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Best distribution and plotting positions of daily maximum flood estimation at Ona River in Ogun-Oshun river basin, Nigeria CIGR Journal
Temitayo Abayomi EWEMOJE; Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Ibadan; O. S. Ewemooje; Department of Statistics, University of Ibadan.
The paper discusses how Normal, Lognormal, and log-Pearson type 3 distributions were investigated as distributions for modelling at-site annual maximum flood flows using the Hazen, Weibull, and California plotting positions at Ogun-Oshun river basin in Nigeria.  All the probability distributions when matched with Weibull plotting position gave similar values near the center of the distribution but varied considerably in the tails.  The Weibull plotting position when matched with Normal, Log-normal and Log Pearson Type III probability distributions gave the highest coefficient of determinations of 0.967, 0.987, and 0.986 respectively.  Hazen plotting position gave minimal errors with the RMSE of 6.988, 6.390, and 6.011 for Normal, Log-normal, and...
Palavras-chave: Probability distributions; Plotting positions; Maximum flood; Estimation; Statistical modelling; Nigeria.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1380
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Best-fitted mathematical model to represent the moisture desorption characteristics of whole limes CIGR Journal
Basunia, Mohammad Ali.
Three commonly cited models for drying of agricultural products i.e. Page, Approximate form of diffusion, and Exponential were compared for their ability to the fit the experimental drying data of whole limes based on the root mean square error of estimate (RMSE) of the measured and simulated moisture contents. The comparison shows the Page model is the most suitable model having average RMSE = 0.046 wet-basis (decimal) while the Approximate form of diffusion and the Exponential models have 0.132  and 0.128 wet-basis (decimal),  respectively. This indicated that the Approximate form of diffusion and the Exponential models both have less fitting ability then the  Page model for the entire period (> 7 days) of drying in 30 tests at different...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Best-fitted; Mathematical model; Whole limes; Drying.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/6911
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Bin stored wheat temperature simulation under South Mediterranean climate CIGR Journal
Ben Nasr, Rima; El Melki, Mohamed Nejib; El Moueddeb, Khaled; Kairouani, Lakdhar.
Cereal quality preservation is traditionally the accountability of grain storekeepers who count on profound knowledge discovered through scientific research. The main purpose of this research study was to predict the evolution of wheat temperature in unaerated silo during storage period under Tunisia climate. First, a bidimensional mathematical combined model (silo wall model + heat transfer model in grain bulk), which describes the distribution of the unsteady temperature in a cylindrical grain storage system, was presented and simulated using the parabolic solver incorporated in the Matlab 2015a environment. Mesh refinement at the shortest boundaries, including triangular elements, was adopted to simulate storage temperatures. In this numerical model,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Grain storage; Grain temperature; Wheat; Numerical study; Experimental study; Mediterranean climate.
Ano: 2021 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/7137
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Biodegradable film from wild taro Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott starch CIGR Journal
tuates, andres MORALES.
The challenge today is to develop a biodegradable packaging material to partially substitute the conventional plastic. Biodegradable plastics made from starch-based are more environmental friendly and degrade faster than the traditional plastics. This study aimed to produce and characterize a biodegradable film from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott starch and glycerol plasticizer. Two levels of taro starch (5g and 10g) and three percentage of glycerol (2%, 3%, and 4%) were used in the production film.Results showed that taro  and glycerol based biodegradable film obtained a lowest density, water absorption and thickness swelling of 0.98 g/cm3, 51.53% and 9.29%. The highest tensile strength and elongation obtained are 9.51 MPa and 21.60%. After one week of...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2020 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4085
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Biodiesel Production From Bovine Tallow CIGR Journal
de Carvalho, Ricardo Oliano; Carrasco, Jonatan Larrosa; Alvarez, Luiz Everton; Cruz, Everton; da Luz, Maria Laura G. Silva; da Luz, Carlos Alberto Silveira; Gadotti, Gizele Ingrid; Gomes, Mário Conill.
Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and waste oils and fats. This is a newer experience, because in 2004 the National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (NPPB) was created by the Ministry of Agrarian Development (MDA), but released only in 2005. This study was a micro-scale plant to process beef tallow into biodiesel, to add value to these products. It also aims to bring a gain in environmental quality for the region, as a social and environmental program to collect and saturated fat frying in oil and neighborhood associations within the school community, restaurants and hotels will be implemented. This oil is also processed into biodiesel, which will be used by the fleet of the refrigerator itself, in Santa Vitoria do Palmar,...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Biodiesel; Tallow..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3108
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BIOLOGICAL RESPONSEVINESS OF BEANS UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL WATER REGIMES AT PROTECTED ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL CIGR Journal
Domingues, Rafael; Pereira, André Belmont; Schiebelbein, Luis Miguel; Rosa, Jadir Aparecido; Barbosa, Eduardo Augusto Agnellos; Pires, Luiz Fernando.
Climatic conditions and soil water requirement notably impinge upon agriculture in such a way as to galvanize scientists to come up with advanced research in order to assure a more sustainable production at a given site. Under protected environmental conditions water is the main factor to be controlled aiming at maximization of yield and grade of agricultural products. The productive potential of a crop is extremely conditioned by the local atmospheric conditions along with requirements for water and nutrients in the soil. The aim of the current work was to scrutinize the effect of soil water status on the ecophysiological parameters and yield components of two cultivars of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under tropical climatic conditions. The experiment...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Land and Water Engineering Phaseolus vulgaris L.; Soil water; Climate; Yield components; Ecophysiological parameters..
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4242
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Biomass Hydrolysis into Sugars via Activated Carbon-Supported Sulfonic Acid CIGR Journal
Kolar, Praveen.
An activated carbon-supported sulfonic acid catalyst was synthesized and employed as a hydrolysis agent for hydrolysis of model and real biomasses including cellulose, starch, cellobiose, and switchgrass.  Model biomasses including cellulose, starch, and cellobiose were hydrolyzed at 90 0C for 6 and 24 h while switchgrass was hydrolyzed at 75 and 90 0C for 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. For model biomasses, highest glucose was produced from cellobiose corresponding to 237. 1 ± 0.86 mg g-1 after 24 h, whereas switchgrass yielded a maximum glucose of 72.67 ± 1.03 mg g-1 after 18 h at  90 0C.   In addition, effects of physical (ultrasonication) and chemical (NaOH and H2SO4) treatments prior to hydrolysis of switchgrass were also studied. The data suggested that physical...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering; Biosystems Engineering Activated carbon sulfonic acid catalyst hydrolysis biomass switchgrass USA.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3898
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Biomass pellets from densification of tree leaf waste with algae CIGR Journal
Tippayawong, Nakorn.
Fallen tree leaves in urban or public areas are usually discarded or accumulated and piled in open spaces where blockages of drainage or accidental fire can occur, causing damages to public properties and the environment. These tree leaves are seasonally available biomass residues that may potentially be substituted or mixed with wood to produce biomass pellets. In this work, densification of eucalyptus and teak leaf waste was carried out using a cylindrical die. Several influential operating factors (temperature of 30 and 80oC, pressure of 100, 150 and 200 MPa, and addition of algae as binding agent at 10 to 20% w/w) were investigated with respect to mechanical properties of the biomass pellets such as mass and energy densities, and compressive strength....
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/4750
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Bioplastics production from agricultural crop residues CIGR Journal
Samer, Mohamed.
Bio-based plastics have a huge market and a wide range of applications and then have become increased in economy and research. Due to the environmental hazard on all organisms and the pollution that happens in all natural resources such as air, water, plants and soil pollution and the limitation of quantity of fossil resources on our planet, the future cannot depend on petro-plastics. All fossil products should be replaced by bio-based products. The petro-plastics are one of the fossil products which should be replaced by bio-based plastics. In this study, potato peels were used to produce bioplastics by the extraction of the starch from the peels and adding some ingredients such as water, glycerin, vinegar and industrial colors with different ratios and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bioresource Engineering; Biosystems Engineering; Bioengineering bioplastics; Bio-based plastics; Biodegradable plastics; Bioprocessing; Bio-based materials; Biopolymers; Agricultural wastes..
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5308
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Bit plane slicing technique to classify date varieties CIGR Journal
Thomas, Gabriel; Annamalai, Manickavasagan; Karuppannan, Ganeshmoorthy.
Varietal purity is an important parameter in the quality standards of dates. In general, variety identification is done by visual inspection method in grading and handling facilities. Online variety assessment using computer vision methods with minimum features and fast image processing and classification algorithms would be highly beneficial for the date industry. Three date varieties (Khalas, Fard and Madina) were classified using a single type of feature, Euler number, used on the eight bit planes available from gray scale images. An overall classification accuracy of 91.5% was achieved using a two layer neural network classifier with hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function. Additionally, image segmentation was performed using the two most...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Bit-plane slicing; Bit-plane segmentation; Euler feature.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/2855
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Box–Behnken design optimization of microwave postharvest treatment on peach quality in cold storage CIGR Journal
Azarpazhooh, Elham; Nikkhah, Shohreh.
The effect of microwave postharvest treatment on peach cv.“Mashhad SorkhoSefid” quality in cold storage was optimized using Box–Behnken response surface design coupled with numerical optimization technique. The individual and interactive effect of process variables (microwave power (MP), microwave exposure time (MET) and storage time (ST)) on the quality attributes (decay (%), weight loss (%) and firmness (N)) were studied. The results showed that, MET, MP and ST had significant effect on quality parameters of peaches. The experimental data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second-order polynomial models were developed using multiple regression analysis. The models developed from the experimental design were predictive and good fit with the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Researches Center; Agricultural Engineering Research Department microwave postharvest peach quality cold storage..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3361
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Brassica vegetable leaf residues as promising biofumigants for the control of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infecting cowpea CIGR Journal
El-Nagdi, wafaa M.A.; Youssef, Mahmoud M.A..
Abstract:  Under screenhouse conditions , two mashed leaves of plants belonging to the genus Brassica, cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L.) and kohlrabi (Brassica caulorapa   L.) were used as pre-and at sowing biofumigants at 20g/pot for managing root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)compared to metam potassium and metam sodium as chemical biofumigants as well as untreated check. It was found that, in general, there was a positive correlation between the time of the addition of the plant residue (10 and 5 days before sowing and at sowing time) and the percentage final nematode population reduction i.e., the highest percentages final nematode reduction (70.4 and 82.1%) oc­curred when Brassica oleracea and...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Brassica plants; Mashed leaves; Cowpea; Root knot nematode..
Ano: 2019 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/5050
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Bread-slicing machine CIGR Journal
Adesola, Oladejo Kolawole; Adekunbi, Taiwo Kehinde; Aderibigbe, Adetan Dare; Afolabi, Morakinyo Tunde.
This study developed a compact front loading machine for slicing loaves of bread.  The machine is fast, efficient, safe and easy to operate.  It was designed to accommodate a normal loaf of bread per pass.  It works on the principle of gravity loaf in-feed system and the up-and-down reciprocating motion of the blade frame that carries 22 parallel cutting blades spaced at a regular interval of 14.5 mm apart.  It is driven by a 2 horsepower electric motor via a V-belt power transmission system.  The moving components are born on self-lubricating bearings and specially designed vibration absorbers; it automatically stops to save running cost once the loaf is completely sliced.  It also incorporates a crumb collection tray to enhance the hygiene of the...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Post Harvest Technology and Food Processing Machine Development bread slicing; Sliced-bread; Slicing machine; Reciprocating blades.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3468
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Building sustainability: human aspects and territorial differences of agricultural buildings reused in tourism CIGR Journal
György Ängelkott Bocz.
This study examined how operators perceive the advantages and disadvantages of traditional agricultural buildings (ABs) used in tourism and whether territorial differences and the human aspect had an influence on the approaches of operators in the sustainable reuse of ABs from a building-related perspective.  A combined questionnaire-based survey and comparative case study revealed that operators are clearly aware of the advantages and disadvantages when reusing ABs in tourism.  Although sustainability was found to be a subjective term for many, building materials and construction technology were chosen according to sustainability principles.  Education, personal background, upbringing and interests, work experience and world view of the owner were major...
Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Rural architecture; Tourism studies rural construction technology material vernacular rural tourism Sweden.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/1892
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Business Rationale for Investment on Power Operated Maize Sheller in Bangladesh CIGR Journal
Swapan K Roy; Mike Albu; Abdur Rob.
A study was carried out to investigate the investment of a selected agro-machinery power operated Maize Sheller in the course of mechanization of Bangladesh. The analysis considers different types of Maize Sheller, and inter-regional differences in agro-economic factors that influence the business rationale for investment. Maize Shellers are increasingly needed to serve demand from poultry sector because manual shelling is very laborious. Comparing with manual shelling, results indicate that power operated Maize Shellers look like a wise investment (5 – 8 acres for 25% internal rate of return or IRR). However, it makes economic sense to operate shellers at higher capacities, and along with the high capital cost (Tk1 18,000 – 22,000) to save large numbers...
Ano: 1969 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/958
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Calibrating and validating AquaCrop model for maize crop in Northern zone of Nigeria CIGR Journal
Ezekiel, Oiganji; Igbadun, H. E.; Mudiare, O.J.; Oyebode, M.A..
Farmers in the northern Guinea Savannah ecological zone of Nigeria have been experiencing declining crop yield due to erratic water supply. In recent times, research on better water management and interaction between effects of climate, soil and field management on crop production is fast gaining grounds with the use of models. Models can be used to predict the impact of long-term climate variability, thus providing an opportunity of better techniques compared with the traditional multi-location trials. This study presents the calibration and validation of AquaCrop model for drip irrigated maize (Zea mays). Calibration was done using data of 2013, while validation across seasons was done with data of 2014. The modelling efficiency of grain yield, biomass...
Tipo: Info:eu-repo/semantics/article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Engineering/ soil and water conservation engineering growth stage; Deficit irrigation; Drip irrigation; Water management; Modelling.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://www.cigrjournal.org/index.php/Ejounral/article/view/3755
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