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Registros recuperados: 85
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A COMPARISON OF CAPITAL MEASURES IN U.S. AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M..
This study compares two panel data sets that measure capital input at the state-level in U.S. agriculture. Despite a number of similarities between the data sets, such as the composition of assets, aggregation procedures, and time frame, an examination of the final estimates of capital service flows reveals that they are drastically different for all 48 contiguous states. We examine the methods used to construct the capital series for each data set, consider some important differences in data sources and the types of data used to construct the capital measures, and outline the main assumptions concerning depreciation, service lives, interest rates, aggregation, and the scope of goods included in each of the data sets. The analysis indicates that an...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20153
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A DIFFERENTIATED GOODS MODEL OF THE EFFECTS OF EUROPEAN POLICIES IN INTERNATIONAL POULTRY MARKETS AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Scobie, Grant M..
The Common Agricultural Policy increases European poultry production costs, prohibits imports, increases domestic prices, and subsidizes exports. This policy has displaced some U.S. exports. However, the net impact in the U.S. has been quite modest, even assuming poultry is homogeneous, independent of source country. Costs to U.S. producers are almost entirely offset by gains to U.S. consumers. Effects in the U.S. are even smaller when imperfect substitutability between poultry from different countries is accounted for. A retaliatory U.S. export subsidy would have more dramatic effects in U.S. markets.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1987 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29306
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A META-ANALYSIS OF RATES OF RETURN TO AGRICULTURAL R & D: EX PEDE HERCULEM? AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie; Marra, Michele C.; Pardey, Philip G.; Wyatt, T.J..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16535
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A MODEL OF SUPPLY RESPONSE IN THE AUSTRALIAN ORANGE GROWING INDUSTRY AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Freebairn, John W.; Quilkey, John J..
A model of the Australian orange growing industry to explain changes in plantings, removals, the number and age composition of trees and orange production is developed and estimated. Most of the variation in plantings is explained by the expected profitability of growing oranges, the current stocks of bearing and nonbearing trees, and removals of trees last year. Estimates of the elasticities of response of plantings and production to price changes are low and there are long time lags. An illustrative application of the model projects future developments in the industry for alternative assumptions about the profitability of growing oranges.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 1980 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/22911
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A Note on the Effects of Non-Transferable Quotas on Supply Functions AgEcon
Alston, Julian M..
Marketing systems using non-transferable or imperfectly transferable quotas induce shifts in supply as well as shifts along supply functions. There are social costs associated with these shifts which are additional to those normally recognised in the literature. To reduce the size of the shifts in supply and the social costs, quotas should he efficiently transferable.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Marketing.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12238
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A Note on Victoria's Hen Quota Transfer System AgEcon
Alston, Julian M..
Hen quotas were virtually freely transferable within Victoria when they were first introduced in 1975. The 1980's have witnessed a series of changes to regulations over quota transfers. Initially these changes were components of a plan to phase out quotas but that is no longer on the policy agenda. Quotas remain but without the advantages of free transferability. It is well established that restrictions on quota transfers in general lead to production inefficiencies. Another undesirable side-effect is that the value of quota and magnitude of quota rent are more difficult to measure when quota transfers are restricted, adding to the difficulties of assessing the effects of the regulations. In the Victorian egg industry these general problems are confounded...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12419
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Agricultural R&D Policy: A Tragedy of the International Commons AgEcon
James, Jennifer S.; Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/10/09.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43094
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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE POLICY: CHANGING GLOBAL AGENDAS AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16588
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An Ex Ante Analysis of the Benefits from the Adoption of Corn Rootworm Resistant, Transgenic Corn Technology AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Hyde, Jeffrey; Marra, Michele C.; Mitchell, Paul D..
This study examined the potential economic impacts in the United States of the commercial adoption of a corn rootworm (CRW) resistant transgenic corn. Using a counterfactual approach, we estimated that if the technology had been made available in the year 2000 at a price that would equate per acre costs to those for insecticide-based corn rootworm control, and adopted on all of the acres treated for corn rootworm in that year, the total benefits would have been $460 million. This benefit includes $171 million to the technology developer and seed companies, $231 million to farmers from yield gains, and a further $58 million to farmers from reduced risk, time savings, and other nonpecuniary benefits associated with reduced use of insecticides. This is a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57828
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Are Agricultural Policies Making Us Fat? Likely Links Between Agricultural Policies and Human Nutrition and Obesity, and their Policy Implications AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Vosti, Stephen A..
Rates of obesity among adults and children in the U.S. are soaring, with potentially huge private and social costs. Increasing attention is being paid to agricultural policies as both the culprits through their perceived roles in reducing the relative prices of energy-dense foods, and as the potential saviors through their perceived ability to do the opposite. However, the effects of agricultural policies on human nutrition and obesity are not well understood. This paper considers (1) trends in agricultural commodity prices, and the contributions of commodity policies and agricultural R&D policies to those trends, (2) the links between changes in commodity prices and changes in food prices; and (3) the implications of price-induced changes in food...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: H5; Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q18; Q16; I0.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25343
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Assessing Accuracy of Livestock Market Reporters: Some Evidence on Pigs in Victoria AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Nguyen, S.T.; Tunstall, Allan W..
This paper explores the hypothesis that livestock market reporters tend to err towards the middle of the actual range when estimating carcass weight and fat depth. Trial data for pigs support the hypothesis and indicate that reporters' estimates may be significantly biased in some extreme weight and fat classes even when the average errors taken across all classes are trivial. Significant distortions in the reported premiums or discounts between some fat and weight classes are implied by the errors in estimating fat and weight.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12416
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ASSESSING AND ATTRIBUTING THE BENEFITS FROM VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH: EVIDENCE FROM EMBRAPA, BRAZIL AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie; Magalhaes, Eduardo Castelo; Vosti, Stephen A..
In general, reported rates of return to agricultural R&D are high, but questions have been raised about upward biases in the evidence. Among the reasons for this bias, insufficient attention to attribution aspects-matching of research benefits and costs-is a pervasive problem, the magnitude of which is illustrated here with new evidence for Brazil. Over the period 1981 to 2003, varietal improvements in upland rice, edible beans, and soybeans yielded benefits attributable to research of $14.8 billion in present value (1999 prices) terms; 6.1 percent of the corresponding value of crop output. If all of those benefits were attributed to Embrapa, a public research corporation accounting for more than half Brazil's agricultural R&D spending, the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Brazil; Agricultural R&D; Attribution; Soybeans; Rice; Beans; Benefit-cost ratios; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16103
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Assessing and Attributing the Benefits from Varietal Improvement Research in Brazil AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie; Magalhaes, Eduardo Castelo; Vosti, Stephen A..
As the number and variety of interconnected sources of agricultural innovations have continued to grow and evolve, so too have the demands for meaningful evidence of both the total payoff and the specific impacts of individual research providers. Important policy and practical funding decisions require a clear understanding of the shares of the overall benefits from investments in R&D attributable to domestic versus foreign and public versus private agencies, or even to individual agencies, as well as the total benefits accruing from innovation. This report provides a detailed economic assessment of the magnitude and sources of the economic benefits to Brazil since the early 1980s from varietal improvements in upland rice, edible beans, and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Research; Brazil; Economic aspects; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37894
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Asset Utilization and Bias in Measures of U.S. Agricultural Productivity AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Andersen, Matthew A.; Pardey, Philip G..
A common observation is that measures of productivity growth are pro-cyclical, meaning they are higher (or grow faster) on average during periods of economic expansion than during periods of economic contraction. This study focuses on measurement errors related to capital inputs as an explanation for the existence of pro-cyclical patterns in measures of agricultural productivity. Calculating a time series of capital inputs is difficult and prone to errors. Myriad assumptions are required to construct a typical measure of the capital stock, and further, sometimes related, assumptions must be made about the utilization of the stock to derive a measure of capital service flows. We test the hypothesis that unmeasured changes in the utilization of capital...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Financial Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21220
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CAN WE TAKE THE CON OUT OF MEAT DEMAND STUDIES? AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A..
Whimsy in specification choices leads to fragility of inference in econometric studies of structural change in meat demand. The literature contains a variety of results, with many contradictions, attributable largely to differences in specifications. This article reviews that literature, uses synthetic data to demonstrate the sensitivity of results to specification choices and to evaluate the power of nonparametric tests, and uses Canadian data to demonstrate a preferred approach to testing the hypothesis of structural change.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1991 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/32618
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Capital Service Flows: Concepts and Comparisons of Alternative Measures in U.S. Agriculture AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
Measures of capital services are used in studies of production and to inform policies related to growth and development. A variety of methods have been used to measure capital stocks and service flows. In this study we review methods commonly used to measure capital service flows, and outline important assumptions used in constructing such measures. We examine two recently constructed data sets that measure capital inputs in U.S. agriculture. Substantial differences in the measures appear to have been caused by the use of a fixed real interest rate versus a variable real market interest rate to calculate capital services.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capital measures; U.S. agriculture; State-level panel data; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50098
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Capital Services in U.S. Agriculture: Concepts, Comparisons, and the Treatment of Interest Rates AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
This is a substantially revised version of “Capital Service Flows: Concepts and Comparisons of Alternative Measures in U.S. Agriculture.” Andersen, Matt A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G., St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics; University of Minnesota, International Science and Technology Practice and Policy (InSTePP), 2009. (Staff paper P09-8; InSTePP paper 09-03)
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92801
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Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
This is a substantially revised version of “Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases.” Andersen, Matt A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G., St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics; University of Minnesota, International Science and Technology Practice and Policy (InSTePP), 2007. (Staff paper P07-06; InSTePP paper 07-02)
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: U.S. agriculture; Pro-cyclical productivity; Capital utilization; Primal productivity bias; Productivity Analysis; D24; C51; Q1; O4; O47.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93143
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Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
Measures of productivity growth are often pro-cyclical. This study focuses on measurement errors in capital inputs, associated with unobserved variations in capital utilization rates, as an explanation for the existence of pro-cyclical patterns in measures of agricultural productivity. Recently constructed national and state-specific indexes of inputs, outputs, and productivity in U.S. agriculture for 1949-2002 are used to estimate production functions in growth rate form that include proxy variables for changes in the utilization of durable inputs. The proxy variables include an index of farmers’ terms of trade and an index of local seasonal growing conditions. We find that utilization responses by farmers are significant and bias measures of productivity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7314
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Consequences of Deregulation in the Victorian Egg Industry AgEcon
Alston, Julian M..
There has been much discussion in recent times of alternative proposals for reform of egg industry regulations. This paper aims to describe, analyse and measure the effects of possible changes to egg industry regulations in Victoria. The conclusion is that there are significant potential net benefits to Victorians from eliminating hen quotas and arrangements for fixing egg prices. The significant losses to each of a small number of producers would be more than offset by the small benefits to each of a large number of consumers. The majority of these net benefits could be obtained, alternatively, by allowing free transferability of quota rather than eliminating quota; but then the benefits would all accrue to quota owners.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 1986 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12420
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