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A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Agricultural Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs in the Central Nebraska Basins Using Field-Level Area Study Data AgEcon
Lakshminarayan, P.G.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Mitchell, Paul D..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18373
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A MODEL OF PESTICIDE RESISTANCE AS A COMMON PROPERTY AND EXHAUSTIBLE RESOURCE AgEcon
Secchi, Silvia; Babcock, Bruce A..
A dynamic farm production model analyzes the interaction between the externalities caused by pest mobility and the development of pesticide resistance, a nonrenewable resource, in the context of agricultural biotechnologies. The model measures the effect of farmers' myopic behavior and the impact of pest mobility on the path of resistance.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Common property resource; European Corn Borer; Externalities; Pesticide resistance; Intertemporal optimization; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21664
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A Nonlinear Offset Program to Reduce Nitrous Oxide Emissions Induced by Excessive Nitrogen Application AgEcon
Rosas, Francisco; Babcock, Bruce A.; Hayes, Dermot J..
On average, U.S. farmers choose to apply nitrogen fertilizer at a rate that exceeds the ex post agronomically optimal rate. The technology underlying the yield response to nitrogen rewards producers who over apply in years when rainfall is excessive. The overapplication of nutrients has negative environmental consequences because the nitrogen that is not taken up by the plant will typically volatilize causing N2O emissions, or leach causing water pollution. We present a nonlinear offset program that induces farmers to reduce their nitrogen applications to the level that will be consumed by the plant in a typical year and, as a result, reduce N2O emissions from agriculture. The offset program is nonlinear because of the nonlinear relationship between N2O...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon offsets; Nitrogen fertilizer; Nitrous oxide; Pollution; Uncertainty; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103914
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Agricultural Land Elasticities in the United States and Brazil AgEcon
Barr, Kanlaya J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Nassar, Andre Meloni; Harfuch, Leila.
The elasticity of aggregate supply is one key to understanding the degree to which policy-induced increases in demand for biofuel feedstocks or agricultural CO2 offsets will result in higher prices or expanded supply. In this paper we report land supply elasticities for the United States and Brazil estimated directly from the observed changes in cropland and estimated changes in expected returns. The resulting aggregate implied land-use elasticities with respect to price are quite inelastic in the United States and more elastic in Brazil (0.007-0.029 and 0.382-0.895, respectively). However, with pasture land included in Brazil, implied elasticities become much less inelastic (0.007-0.245).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Acreage elasticity; Brazil; Indirect land-use change; Land-use elasticities.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58047
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Agricultural Production Clubs: Viability and Welfare Implications AgEcon
Langinier, Corinne; Babcock, Bruce A..
Consumers are in general less informed than producers about the quality of agricultural goods. To reduce he information gap, consumers can rely on standards (e.g., certification) that ensure quality and origin of the goods. These costly standards can be adopted by a group of producers of high-quality goods. We study the formation of such a group that we model as a club. We first investigate under what circumstances a club of a given size is desirable for producers, and for society. We then analyze the optimal size of the club when there exists a direct barrier to entry, and when there is no barrier. We find that for intermediate values of certification costs, the industry and a club of a given size of certified producers have divergent incentives....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Certification; Clubs; Quality; Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18606
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AN ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE US MIDWEST AgEcon
Monchuk, Daniel C.; Miranowski, John A.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Babcock, Bruce A..
In this paper we examine more closely some of the forces that underlie economic growth at the county level. In an effort to describe a much more comprehensive regional economic growth model, we address a variety of different growth hypotheses by introducing a large number of growth related variables. When formulating our hypotheses and specifying our growth model we make liberal use of GIS mapping software to “"paint"” a picture of where growth spots exist and why. Our empirical estimation indicates amenities, state and local tax burdens, population, amount of agricultural activity, and demographics have important economic growth impacts.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20369
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An Analysis of Regional Economic Growth in the U.S. Midwest AgEcon
Monchuk, Daniel C.; Miranowski, John A.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Babcock, Bruce A..
In this paper we examine some of the economic forces that underlie economic growth at the county level. In an effort to describe a much more comprehensive regional economic growth model, we address a variety of different growth hypotheses by introducing a large number of growth related variables. When formulating our hypotheses and specifying our growth model we make liberal use of GIS (geographical information systems) mapping software to "paint" a picture of where growth spots exist. Our empirical estimation indicates that amenities, state and local tax burdens, population, amount of primary agriculture activity, and demographics have important impacts on economic growth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Amenities; Fiscal policy; Rural income growth; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18552
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AN ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED DOHA ROUND MODALITIES AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Matthey, Holger; Isik, Murat; Tokgoz, Simla; Elobeid, Amani E.; Hart, Chad E.; Full, Frank.
The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) provided a continuing mandate for progressive reforms to liberalize world agricultural markets. A new round of negotiation was put into motion in early 2000 and later formalized in what is now called the Doha Round. The Doha Round negotiation follows the same principle laid out in the URAA, with the introduction of three reform anchors: market access, export competition, and reduction of domestic support. This paper specifies the new schedule of commitments for each member country under the proposed modalities and assesses the potential market impacts of these changes for world agricultural markets. We specifically focus on grains, oilseeds, sugar, cotton, livestock, poultry, and dairy markets.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18659
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An Economic and Environmental Evaluation of Farm Bill Policy Options Using the CEEPES-FAPRI Modeling System AgEcon
Lakshminarayan, P.G.; Babcock, Bruce A..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18489
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An Evaluation of Soil Test Information in Agricultural Decision Making AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Carriquiry, Alicia L.; Stern, Hal S..
The value of soil-test information in planning fertilizer application levels is determined by using agricultural field-plot data to estimate the posterior distribution of mean soil-nitrate concentrations at a give location. Optimal decisions concerning fertilizer application levels are made with respect to this posterior distribution. Average reductions in fertilizer application rates range from 15 to 41 percent, depending on the form of prior information that is available. These reductions are achieved by increasing the variability of application rates over time. Disregarding the uncertainty that remains after the soil testing significantly overstates the expected benefits of soil testing.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bayesian methods; Fertilizer rates; Posterior distributions; Soil tests; Farm Management.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18633
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An Exploration of Certain Aspects of CARB’s Approach to Modeling Indirect Land Use from Expanded Biodiesel Production AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Carriquiry, Miguel A..
This report provides insight into four aspects of modeling indirect land use caused by expanded biofuels production. The report was motivated by the National Biodiesel Board’s interest in better understanding how the California Air Resources Board (CARB) estimated an indirect land-use factor for soybean-based biodiesel of 66 gCO2e/MJ, which is more than three times greater than the direct emissions from the fuel. Four aspects of CARB’s modeling approach were examined: (1) why CARB estimates that more U.S. forest than pasture will be converted to cropland; (2) whether CARB’s predicted land-use changes are consistent with observed U.S. land-use changes in the past decade; (3) how CARB could account for double cropping; and (4) whether CARB’s assumption that...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: CET supply function; Double cropping; Idle cropland; Indirect land use.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57160
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An Insurance Approach to Risk Management in the Ethanol Industry AgEcon
Paulson, Nicholas D.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Hart, Chad E.; Hayes, Dermot J..
The vast majority of crop and revenue insurance policies sold in the United States are single-crop policies that insure against low yields or revenues for each crop grown on the farm. But, increasingly, producer income is based more on the value of crops that have been converted into a value-added product such as ethanol. Moreover, the recent increases in energy and com-modity price levels and volatilities emphasize the importance of risk management to ethanol investors. This paper uses an insurance approach to outline a risk management tool which mimics the gross margin level of a typical corn-based ethanol plant. The gross margin, pre-mium, and indemnity levels are calculated on a per bushel basis to enable producers/investors to utilize the product...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Corn-based ethanol; Insurance; Risk management; Correlation; Monte Carlo; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/44738
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Analysis of the Berlin Accord Reforms of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Beghin, John C.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Fuller, Frank H.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Chaudhary, Sudhir; Kaus, Phillip J.; Fang, Cheng; Hart, Chad E.; Kovarik, Karen.
This document briefly summarizes the impacts of the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms on the European agricultural sector and on international agricultural trade. Objectives of the CAP reform (as stated in EU Commission documents) are: to ensure the environmental viability of European agriculture, and to protect the livelihood of European farmers.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18282
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Are Loan Deficiency Payments Too Low in Iowa? AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Hayes, Dermot J.; Kaus, Phillip J..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18283
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Are U.S. Corn and Soybeans Becoming More Drought Tolerant? AgEcon
Yu, Tian; Babcock, Bruce A..
An objective drought index that measures the dry and hot conditions adversely affecting crop yields is used in a regression analysis to test whether corn and soybeans have become more drought tolerant. Results indicate that corn yield losses, whether measured in quantity terms or as a percentage of mean yield, have decreased. The null hypothesis that the absolute level of soybean yield losses due to drought has not changed cannot be rejected. But yield losses in percentage terms have decreased over time. Because drought is the primary cause of yield loss in the U.S. crop insurance program and because U.S. crop insurance rates assume that percentage of yield losses are constant over time, these results indicate that U.S. crop insurance rates in the Corn...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Corn; Crop insurance rates; Drought tolerance; Soybean; Yield risk; Crop Production/Industries; Productivity Analysis; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54147
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ARPA Subsidies, Unit Choice, and Reform of the U.S. Crop Insurance Program AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Hart, Chad E..
The Agricultural Risk Protection Act (ARPA) has largely met its objectives of inducing farmers to increase their use of the crop insurance program. Both insured acreage and coverage levels have increased dramatically in response to ARPA's large increase in premium subsidies. An unintended consequence of the larger subsidies is a dramatic increase in the incentive for farmers to insure their crops under optional units, that is, insurance at the field level rather than at the farm or crop level. The expected rate of return to farmers who choose to invest additional premium dollars to move to optional unit coverage ranges from a low of 61 percent at the 85 percent coverage level to 144 percent at the 65 percent coverage level. This explains why the majority...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Risk Protection Act (ARPA); Crop insurance; Optional units; Crop Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18297
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ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF CLOSING THE RIVER GULF GRAIN COMPANY ON LOCAL PRODUCERS OF CORN AND SOYBEANS AgEcon
Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Babcock, Bruce A..
Hotelling's classic model of spatial competition is used to estimate the impacts on price of the closure of one of three grain buyers on the Mississippi River in the vicinity of Scott County, Iowa. The customers of the buyer who is closing (River Gulf Grain Company) in Davenport, Iowa, are assumed to deliver their grain to a buyer in either Buffalo, Iowa, to the south or to a buyer in Clinton, Iowa, to the north. Calibration of Hotelling's framework to this situation leads to an estimated decline in grain bids of 1.5¢ per bushel for the buyer located in Clinton and by 2.5¢ per bushel for the buyer located in Buffalo. These estimates are based on an incremental transportation cost of 0.15¢ per mile between the seller's farm and the buyer. This price decline...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Grain transportation; Local monopsony; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18370
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Availability and Market Penetration of GMO Corn Soybeans AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Duffy, Michael D.; Wisner, Robert N..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18308
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Biofuels: Potential Production Capacity, Effects on Grain and Livestock Sectors, and Implications for Food Prices and Consumers AgEcon
Hayes, Dermot J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Tokgoz, Simla; Elobeid, Amani E.; Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward); Dong, Fengxia; Hart, Chad E.; Chavez, Eddie C.; Pan, Suwen; Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Dumortier, Jerome.
We examined four evolution paths of the biofuel sector using a partial equilibrium world agricultural sector model in CARD that includes the new RFS in the 2007 EISA, a two-way relationship between fossil energy and biofuel markets, and a new trend toward corn oil extraction in ethanol plants. At one extreme, one scenario eliminates all support to the biofuel sector when the energy price is low, while the other extreme assumes no distribution bottleneck in ethanol demand growth when the energy price is high. The third scenario considers a pure market force driving ethanol demand growth because of the high energy price, while the last is a policy-induced shock with removal of the biofuel tax credit when the energy price is high. Standard results hold where...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Biofuel; EISA; Ethanol; Tax credit; World agricultural sector model; Agribusiness; Consumer/Household Economics; Crop Production/Industries; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; Political Economy; Production Economics; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q13; Q18; Q38.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53093
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Biofuels: Potential Production Capacity, Effects on Grain and Livestock Sectors, and Implications for Food Prices and Consumers AgEcon
Hayes, Dermot J.; Babcock, Bruce A.; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Tokgoz, Simla; Elobeid, Amani E.; Yu, Tun-Hsiang (Edward); Dong, Fengxia; Hart, Chad E.; Chavez, Eddie C.; Pan, Suwen; Carriquiry, Miguel A.; Dumortier, Jerome.
We examine four scenarios for the evolution of the biofuel sector using a partial equilibrium model of the world agricultural sector. The model includes the new Renewable Fuels Standard in the 2007 energy act, the two-way relationship between fossil energy and biofuel markets, and a new trend toward corn oil extraction in ethanol plants. At one extreme, one scenario eliminates all support to the biofuel sector when the energy price is low, while the other extreme assumes no distribution bottleneck in ethanol demand growth when the energy price is high. Of the remaining two scenarios, one considers a pure market force driving ethanol demand growth because of the high energy price while the other is a policy-induced shock with removal of the biofuel tax...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuels; EISA; Ethanol; Tax credit; World agricultural sector model.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48597
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