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Registros recuperados: 16
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Active-passive synergy for interpreting ocean L-band emissivity: Results from the CAROLS airborne campaigns ArchiMer
Martin, A. C. H.; Boutin, Jacqueline; Hauser, D.; Dinnat, E. P..
The impact of the ocean surface roughness on the ocean L-band emissivity is investigated using simultaneous airborne measurements from an L-band radiometer (CAROLS) and from a C-band scatterometer (STORM) acquired in the Gulf of Biscay (off-the French Atlantic coasts) in November 2010. Two synergetic approaches are used to investigate the impact of surface roughness on the L-band brightness temperature (Tb). First, wind derived from the scatterometer measurements is used to analyze the roughness contribution to Tb as a function of wind and compare it with the one simulated by SMOS and Aquarius roughness models. Then residuals from this mean relationship are analyzed in terms of mean square slope derived from the STORM instrument. We show improvement of new...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00203/31410/29802.pdf
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Assessment of seasonal and year-to-year surface salinity signals retrieved from SMOS and Aquarius missions in the Bay of Bengal ArchiMer
Akhil, V. P.; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Durand, Fabien; Vialard, Jerome; Chaitanya, A. V. S.; Keerthi, M. G.; Gopalakrishna, V. V.; Boutin, Jacqueline; De Boyer Montegut, Clement.
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) exhibits a wide range of sea surface salinity (SSS), with very fresh water induced by heavy monsoonal precipitation and river run-offs to the north, and saltier water to the south. This is a particularly challenging region for the application of satellite-derived SSS measurements because of the potential pollution of the SSS signal by radio frequency interference (RFI) and land-induced contamination in this semi-enclosed basin. The present study validates recent level-3 monthly gridded (1° × 1°) SSS products from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Aquarius missions to an exhaustive in situ SSS product for the BoB. Current SMOS SSS retrievals do not perform better than existing climatologies. This is in stark contrast to...
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Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00319/42986/45003.pdf
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Errors in SMOS Sea Surface Salinity and their dependency on a priori wind speed ArchiMer
Yin, Xiaobin; Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Spurgeon, Paul; Vergely, Jean-luc; Gaillard, Fabienne.
The wind speed (WS) provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is used to initialize the retrieval process of WS and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) obtained by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. This process compensates for the lack of onboard instrument providing a measure of ocean surface WS independent of the L-band radiometer measurements. The SMOS-retrieved WS in the center of the swath (± 300 km) is adjusted regarding to its a priori estimate. The quality of the SMOS-retrieved SSS (SSSSMOS) is better at the center of the swath than at the edge of the swatch because the larger number of brightness temperature measurements available at the center of the swath reduces the effects of noise and because the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: SMOS; SSMIS; ECMWF; Wind speed; Salinity.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00158/26970/25261.pdf
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Increase of dissolved inorganic carbon and decrease in pH in near-surface waters in the Mediterranean Sea during the past two decades ArchiMer
Merlivat, Liliane; Boutin, Jacqueline; Antoine, David; Beaumont, Laurence; Golbol, Melek; Vellucci, Vincenzo.
Two 3-year time series of hourly measurements of the fugacity of CO2 (f CO2) in the upper 10 m of the surface layer of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea have been recorded by CARIOCA sensors almost two decades apart, in 1995-1997 and 2013-2015. By combining them with the alkalinity derived from measured temperature and salinity, we calculate changes in pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC increased in surface seawater by similar to 25 mu mol kg(-1) and fCO(2) by 40 mu atm, whereas seawater pH decreased by similar to 0.04 (0.0022 yr(-1)). The DIC increase is about 15 % larger than expected from the equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. This could result from natural variability, e.g. the increase between the two periods in the frequency and intensity...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00585/69695/67582.pdf
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Perspectives and Integration in SOLAS Science ArchiMer
Garcon, Veronique; Bell, Thomas G; Wallace, Douglas; Arnold, Steve R.; Baker, Alex R.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bange, Hermann W.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Bopp, Laurent; Boutin, Jacqueline; Boyd, Phili^w.; Bracher, Astrid; Burrows, John P.; Carpenter, Lucy J; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Fennel, Katja; Font, Jordi; Friedrich, Tobias; Garbe, Christoph S.; Gruber, Nicolas; Jaegle, Lyatt; Lana, Arancha; Lee, James D.; Liss, Peter S.; Miller, Lisa A.; Olgun, Nazli; Olsen, Are; Pfeil, Benjamin; Quack, Birgit; Read, Katie A.; Reul, Nicolas; Rodenbeck, Christian; Rohekar, Oliver; Saiz-lopez, Alfonso; Saltzman, Eric S.; Schneising, Oliver; Schuster, Ute; Seferian, Roland; Seinhoff, Tobias; Le Traon, Pierre-yves; Ziska, Franziska.
Why a chapter on Perspectives and Integration in SOLAS Science in this book? SOLAS science by its nature deals with interactions that occur: across a wide spectrum of time and space scales, involve gases and particles, between the ocean and the atmosphere, across many disciplines including chemistry, biology, optics, physics, mathematics, computing, socio-economics and consequently interactions between many different scientists and across scientific generations. This chapter provides a guide through the remarkable diversity of cross-cutting approaches and tools in the gigantic puzzle of the SOLAS realm. Here we overview the existing prime components of atmospheric and oceanic observing systems, with the acquisition of ocean–atmosphere observables either...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00171/28189/26428.pdf
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Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity From CAROLS L-Band Radiometer in the Gulf of Biscay ArchiMer
Martin, Adrien; Boutin, Jacqueline; Hauser, Daniele; Reverdin, Gilles; Parde, Mickael; Zribi, Mehrez; Fanise, Pascal; Chanut, Jerome; Lazure, Pascal; Tenerelli, Joseph; Reul, Nicolas.
A renewal of interest for the radiometric L-band Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) remote sensing appeared in the 1990s and led to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite launched in November 2009 and to the Aquarius mission (launched in June 2011). However, due to low signal to noise ratio, retrieving SSS from L-band radiometry is very challenging. In order to validate and improve L-band radiative transfer model and salinity retrieval method used in SMOS data processing, the Cooperative Airborne Radiometer for Ocean and Land Studies (CAROLS) was developed. We analyze here a coastal flight (20 May 2009), in the Gulf of Biscay, characterized by strong SSS gradients (28 to 35 pss-78). Extensive in-situ measurements were gathered along the plane track....
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: L-band; Microwave radiometry; Remote sensing; Retrieval method; Sea surface salinity (SSS); Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS); Wind speed.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00079/18997/16600.pdf
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Satellite Salinity Observing System: Recent Discoveries and the Way Forward ArchiMer
Vinogradova, Nadya; Lee, Tong; Boutin, Jacqueline; Drushka, Kyla; Fournier, Severine; Sabia, Roberto; Stammer, Detlef; Bayler, Eric; Reul, Nicolas; Gordon, Arnold; Melnichenko, Oleg; Li, Laifang; Hackert, Eric; Martin, Matthew; Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Hasson, Audrey; Brown, Shannon; Misra, Sidharth; Lindstrom, Eric.
Advances in L-band microwave satellite radiometry in the past decade, pioneered by ESA’s SMOS and NASA’s Aquarius and SMAP missions, have demonstrated an unprecedented capability to observe global sea surface salinity (SSS) from space. Measurements from these missions are the only means to probe the very-near surface salinity (top cm), providing a unique monitoring capability for the interfacial exchanges of water between the atmosphere and the upper-ocean, and delivering a wealth of information on various salinity processes in the ocean, linkages with the climate and water cycle, including land-sea connections, and providing constraints for ocean prediction models. The satellite SSS data are complimentary to the existing in situ systems such as Argo that...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Salinity; Remote sensing; Earth's observing systems; Future satellite missions; SMAP; SMOS; Aquarius.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00498/60985/64391.pdf
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Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: impact of rain ArchiMer
Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Reverdin, Gilles; Yin, Xiaoming; Gaillard, Fabienne.
The sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has recently been revisited by the European Space Agency first campaign reprocessing. We show that, with respect to the previous version, biases close to land and ice greatly decrease. The accuracy of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days, 100 x 100 km(2) in the open ocean and estimated by comparison to ARGO (Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography) SSS is on the order of 0.3-0.4 in tropical and subtropical regions and 0.5 in a cold region. The averaged negative SSS bias (-0.1) observed in the tropical Pacific Ocean between 5 degrees N and 15 degrees N, relatively to other regions, is suppressed when SMOS observations concomitant with rain events, as...
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Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00139/25073/23161.pdf
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Sea Surface Salinity Observations from Space with the SMOS Satellite: A New Means to Monitor the Marine Branch of the Water Cycle ArchiMer
Reul, Nicolas; Fournier, Severine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Hernandez, Olga; Maes, Christophe; Chapron, Bertrand; Alory, Gael; Quilfen, Yves; Tenerelli, Joseph; Morisset, Simmon; Kerr, Yann; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Delwart, Steven.
While it is well known that the ocean is one of the most important component of the climate system, with a heat capacity 1,100 times greater than the atmosphere, the ocean is also the primary reservoir for freshwater transport to the atmosphere and largest component of the global water cycle. Two new satellite sensors, the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius SAC-D missions, are now providing the first space-borne measurements of the sea surface salinity (SSS). In this paper, we present examples demonstrating how SMOS-derived SSS data are being used to better characterize key land–ocean and atmosphere–ocean interaction processes that occur within the marine hydrological cycle. In particular, SMOS with its ocean mapping...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Sea surface salinity; SMOS satellite; Passive microwave remote sensing; Oceanic freshwater cycle.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00152/26334/24430.pdf
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Sea surface salinity structure of the meandering Gulf Stream revealed by SMOS sensor ArchiMer
Reul, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Lee, T.; Donlon, Craig; Boutin, Jacqueline; Alory, G..
Measurements from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite acquired during 2012 in the western North Atlantic are used to reveal the evolution of the sea surface salinity (SSS) structure of the meandering Gulf Stream with an unprecedented space and time resolution. Combined with in situ surface and profile measurements, satellite-derived surface currents, sea surface height (SSH), surface temperature (SST), and chlorophyll (Chl) data, SMOS SSS observations are shown to coherently delineate meanders pinching off from the current to form well-identified salty- (warm-) and fresh- (cold-) core Gulf Stream rings. A covariance analysis at two locations along the separated Gulf stream path (south of Nova Scotia and in the Gulf Stream Extension) reveals a...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00188/29974/28427.pdf
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Sea surface salinity under rain cells: SMOS satellite and in situ drifters observations ArchiMer
Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Reverdin, Gilles; Morisset, S.; Yin, X.; Centurioni, L.; Reul, Nicolas.
We study the signature of rainfall on S1cm, the sea surface salinity retrieved from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission first by comparing SMOS S1cm with ARGO sea surface salinity measured at about 5 m depth in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and in the Southern Pacific Convergence Zone; second by investigating spatial variability of SMOS S1cm related to rainfall. The resulting estimated S1cm decrease associated with rainfall occurring within less than 1 h from the salinity measurement is close to −0.2 pss (mm h−1) −1. We estimate that rain induced roughness and atmospheric effects are responsible for no more than 20% of this value. We also study the signature of rainfall on sea surface salinity measured by surface...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00206/31735/30139.pdf
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SMOS salinity in the subtropical north Atlantic salinity maximum: 1. Comparison with Aquarius and in situ salinity ArchiMer
Hernandez, Olga; Boutin, Jacqueline; Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Reverdin, Gilles; Martin, Nicolas; Gaillard, Fabienne; Reul, Nicolas; Vergely, J. L..
Sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is validated in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. 39 transects of ships of opportunity equipped with thermosalinographs (TSG) crossed that region from 2010 to 2012, providing a large database of ground truth SSS. SMOS SSS is also compared to Aquarius SSS. Large seasonal biases remain in SMOS and Aquarius SSS. In order to look at the capability of satellite SSS to monitor spatial variability, especially at scales less than 300 km (not monitored with the Argo network), we first apply a monthly bias correction derived from satellite SSS and In Situ Analysis System (ISAS) SSS differences averaged over the studied region. Ship SSS averaged over 25 km is...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: SMOS; Salinity; Remote sensing; Subtropical North Atlantic.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00210/32150/34082.pdf
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SMOS: The Challenging Sea Surface Salinity Measurement From Space ArchiMer
Font, Jordi; Camps, Adriano; Borges, Andres; Martin-neira, Manuel; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Kerr, Yann H.; Hahne, Achim; Mecklenburg, Susanne.
Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, European Space Agency, is the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring sea surface salinity from space. It uses an L-band microwave interferometric radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) that generates brightness temperature images, from which both geophysical variables are computed. The retrieval of salinity requires very demanding performances of the instrument in terms of calibration and stability. This paper highlights the importance of ocean salinity for the Earth's water cycle and climate; provides a detailed description of the MIRAS instrument, its principles of operation, calibration, and image-reconstruction techniques; and presents the algorithmic approach implemented for the retrieval of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Aperture synthesis; Imaging; Microwave radiometry; Remote sensing; Salinity.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00004/11482/8066.pdf
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Surface salinity drifters for SMOS validation ArchiMer
Morisset, S.; Reverdin, Gilles; Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, N.; Yin, X.; Gaillard, Fabienne; Blouch, Pierre; Rolland, J.; Font, J; Salvador, J..
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Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00114/22552/20240.pdf
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The SMOS Mission: New Tool for Monitoring Key Elements of the Global Water Cycle ArchiMer
Kerr, Yann H.; Waldteufel, Philippe; Wigneron, Jean-pierre; Delwart, Steven; Cabot, Francois; Boutin, Jacqueline; Escorihuela, Maria-jose; Font, Jordi; Reul, Nicolas; Gruhier, Claire; Juglea, Silvia Enache; Drinkwater, Mark R.; Hahne, Achim; Martin-neira, Manuel; Mecklenburg, Susanne.
It is now well understood that data on soil moisture and sea surface salinity (SSS) are required to improve meteorological and climate predictions. These two quantities are not yet available globally or with adequate temporal or spatial sampling. It is recognized that a spaceborne L-band radiometer with a suitable antenna is the most promising way of fulfilling this gap. With these scientific objectives and technical solution at the heart of a proposed mission concept the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission as its second Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission. The development of the SMOS mission was led by ESA in collaboration with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) in France and the Centro para...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Interferometry; L-band; Sea surface salinity (SSS); Soil moisture; Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS); Vegetation water content.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00004/11483/8065.pdf
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Validation of Salinity Data from Surface Drifters ArchiMer
Reverdin, Gilles; Morisset, S.; Boutin, Jacqueline; Martin, Nicolas; Sena-martins, M.; Gaillard, Fabienne; Blouch, P.; Rolland, J.; Font, J.; Salvador, J.; Fernandez, Pili; Stammer, D..
Salinity measurements from 119 surface drifters in 2007-12 were assessed; 80% [Surface Velocity Program with a barometer with a salinity sensor (SVP-BS)] and 75% [SVP with salinity (SVP-S)] of the salinity data were found to be usable, after editing out some spikes. Sudden salinity jumps are found in drifter salinity records that are not always associated with temperature jumps, in particular in the wet tropics. A method is proposed to decide whether and how to correct those jumps, and the uncertainty in the correction applied. Northeast of South America, in a region influenced by the Amazon plume and fresh coastal water, drifter salinity is very variable, but a comparison with data from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite suggests that this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Surface observations; Surface layer; Data quality control; Buoy observations.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00190/30095/28748.pdf
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