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A New Approach to Humus Balancing in Organic Farming 21
Brock, Christopher; Hoyer, Uta; Leithold, Günther; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen.
Humus balances provide a profitable approach for humus dynamics assessment in farming practice. Nevertheless, there is a clear demand for methodological adaptation. This article presents a new approach to humus balancing using reproducible algorithms for the estimation of balance coefficients. Humus balance coefficients for crops and organic fertilizers are estimated according to a bipartite algorithm. Humus demand is calculated on the basis of crop yields referring to the nitrogen household in the plant-soil system. Humus supply is derived from organic matter input with plant material and fertilizers. The new approach facilitates the adaptation of the method to new situations.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/12077/1/Brock_12077_ed.doc
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A PRACTICE APPLICABLE MODEL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON ORGANIC MATTER IN ARABLE SOILS 21
Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
We present the HU-MOD-2 model for the assessment of management impact on organic matter levels in arable soils. The model aims at optimal applicability as a management support tool in framing practice and therefore requires only easily available input data. In validation, the tool proved to be capable of giving a rough estimate on soil organic matter changes in arable soils. Taking into account the low demand for input data, the modeling error seems tolerable for a practice applicable decision support tool.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop husbandry; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23956/1/23956_brock_leithold_owc14_MM.pdf
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Bodenumsatz von Getreidestroh und Gärresten unterschiedlicher Qualität aus der Strohvergärung 21
Knebl, Lucas; Blumenstein, Benjamin; Möller, Detlev; Wufka, André; Brock, Christopher; Gattinger, Andreas.
In einem Feldversuch auf zwei Standorten (Lehm, Sand) wurde in zwei Serien der Einfluss der Stroh-Aufbereitung auf dessen Umsatz im Boden untersucht. Die untersuchten Düngervarianten umfassten: Stroh (STR) sowie Stroh mit zusätzlicher Stickstoffgabe in Form von Hühnertrockenkot (STR+N), Rottemist (RM) und flüssigem, wie trockenem Gärrest (GRflüssig, GRtrocken) aus der Strohvergärung mit Hühnertrockenkot. Das Stroh der Varianten STR und STR+N wurde nach Ernte der Vorfrucht (Sommergetreide) eingearbeitet. Die restlichen Varianten wurden im Frühjahr appliziert. Um den Umsatz der Düngervarianten zu erfassen wurde die Produktion von CO2, N2O und CH4 in regelmäßigen Abständen an beiden Standorten gemessen. Zusätzlich erfolgte die Erhebung von Kohlenstoff- und...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36243/1/Beitrag_319_final_a.pdf
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Bringt „Öko“ mehr Humus? Einschätzung der aktuellen Humusbilanzen der ökologisch und der konventionell bewirtschafteten Ackerfläche in Deutschland 21
Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
We calculated humus balances for organic and conventional cropland in Germany and compared them to each other in order to find out whether organic farming comprises a better humus reproduction than conventional farming, as commonly assumed. Applying a dynamic humus balance model that was parametrized based on data from agrostatistical reports we yielded comparable balances for the two farming systems. The reason was mainly a considerably lower stocking on organic farms, and the low N supply. However: a superior cropland structure brought the balance to the same level as with conventional agriculture despite of these factors. Due to shortcomings in model parametrization caused by the available data base, results may not be over-interpreted. Still, it can be...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21557/1/21557_Brock.pdf
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Effects of Farm Type and Different Intensities of Soil Tillage on Cash Crop Yields and Soil Organic Matter 21
Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
An organic long-term field experiment has been carried out at the experimental station Gladbacherhof (Giessen University, Germany) since 1998 to survey the performance of agronomical, economical and ecological indicators dependant on farm type and tillage intensity. This article presents results on cash crop yields and changes in humus contents in the first two rotations of the experiment. It can be concluded that organic stockless farming without ley affects cash crop yields and demands special attention with regard to a sustainable humus management. Stockless farming with rotational ley on the other hand up to now showed a satisfactory performance when compared to a mixed farm type with livestock. As for the yields, reduced tillage systems could cope...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/11990/1/Schulz_11990_ed.doc
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Effekte unterschiedlicher Systeme der Grundbodenbearbeitung auf Erträge und Beikraut im Dauerfeldversuch Gladbacherhof 21
Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
An organic long-term-field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of different crop rotations combined with tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, twolayer- plough and tillage without plough) on plants, soil and weeds have been investigated. This article presents results on cash crop yields and weeds according to soil tillage. It can be concluded that, as for the yields, reduced tillage systems could cope with the regularly ploughed reference system if at least a shallow soil inversion was carried out. Concerning the lower yields in the soil tillage system without ploughing the impact of nutrient availability seems to be more important than the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Crop combinations and interactions; Weed management; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14272/1/Schulz_14272.pdf
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Effekte von Betriebssystem und Bodenbearbeitung auf die Segetalflora 21
Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
Auf dem Lehr- und Versuchsbetrieb für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität Gießen, Gladbacherhof, wird seit 1998 ein zweifaktorieller Dauerfeldversuch durchgeführt. Es werden die Effekt von 3 verschiedenen Betriebssystemen (mit und ohne Viehhaltung) in Kombination mit 4 Bodenbearbeitungsvarianten auf Pflanzen, Boden und Umwelt untersucht. In diesem Beitrag werden die Ergebnisse der Beikraut-Deckungsgrade und des Artenspektrums präsentiert. Zusammenfassend kann festgehalten werden, dass die Deckungsgrade, verglichen mit konventionellen Schadschwellen, generell relativ niedrig waren und nur ein begrenztes Artenspektrum der Ackerbegleitflora gefunden wurde. Aufgrund der intensiven mechanischen Maßnahmen zur Beikrautregulierung hatten die Wildpflanzen keinen...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/27153/1/27153_schulz.pdf
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Einfluss reduzierter Grundbodenbearbeitung auf Erträge und Bodenparameter im Dauerfeldversuch Gladbacherhof 21
Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
Auf dem Lehr- und Versuchsbetrieb für Ökologischen Landbau der Universität Gießen, Gladbacherhof, wurde seit 1998 ein 2-faktorieller Dauerfeldversuch durchgeführt. Der Einfluss verschiedener Fruchtfolgen und unterschiedlicher Systeme der Grundbodenbearbeitung (konventioneller Streichblechpflug, Zweischichtenpflug und pfluglose Bearbeitung) auf Pflanzen, Boden und Umwelt wurden untersucht. In diesem Artikel werden die Ergebnisse von Pflanzenerträgen und mehreren Bodenparametern bezüglich der Bodenbearbeitung vorgestellt. Zusammenfassend kann festgehalten werden, dass diejenigen Bodenbearbeitungssysteme, die eine Bodenwendung beinhalten, ertraglich auf einem Niveau liegen. Die Ursache für geringere Erträge in dem pfluglosen System scheint in der...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil tillage.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/17595/3/Schulz_17595.pdf
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Entwicklung der Humusgehalte in Abhängigkeit von Fruchtart/Anbausystem in einem Dauerfeldversuch 21
Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Prof.Dr. Günter; Schulz, Franz.
Year-to year changes of soil organic matter (SOM) have been surveyed in a long-term experiment in order to allow for crop/cropping system impact assessment. Legumes usually caused SOM build-up, which on the other hand only to a short extend remained during the succeeding years. Considerable SOM decrease could be found under potatoes. SOM dynamics under cereals varied strongly according to aspects of the respective cropping system, especially precrop and fertilization. Green manure but also farmyard manure obviously increased short-term decomposable fractions of SOM, promoting mineralization of SOM in the following period. Long-term changes of SOM in the experiment were somewhat less pronounced than year-to-year changes, pointing on the high...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Crop combinations and interactions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14564/1/Brock_14564.pdf
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Entwicklung einer praxisanwendbaren Methode der Humusbilanzierung im ökologischen Landbau 21
Brock, Christopher; Hoyer, Uta; Leithold, Günter; Hülsbergen, Kurt-Jürgen.
Ziele des Projektes waren die Untersuchung von systemspezifischen Besonderheiten und Anforderungen an die Humusreproduktion unter Bedingungen des ökologischen Landbaus, sowie die Anpassung oder Erarbeitung einer Humusbilanzmethode zur Anwendung im ökologischen Landbau. Die Untersuchungen wurden unter Einbeziehung von 8 Praxisbetriebspaaren (ökologisch vs. konventionell), 3 ökologischen Versuchsbetrieben und 16 Dauerfeldversuchen durchgeführt. Ergebnisse: 1. Eine Absicherung von Unterschieden in Niveau und Entwicklung der Humusgehalte unter konventioneller und ökologischer Bewirtschaftung war sowohl unter Praxisbedingungen, wie auch in den Dauerfeldversuchen kaum möglich. Hier wurde die Notwendigkeit einer differenzierten Betrachtung der...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Composting and manuring; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/16447/1/16447%2D03OE084%2Duni_giessen%2Dbrock%2D2008%2Dhumusbilanzierung.pdf
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Ergebnisse der Anwendung einer neuen Humusbilanzmethode in Dauerfeldversuchen 21
Brock, Christopher; Hoyer, Uta; Leithold, Prof.Dr. Günter; Hülsbergen, Prof.Dr. Kurt-Jürgen.
Humus balance methods aim at the assessment of humus reproduction in cropping systems as an effect of cropped plant species and management. They do not intend to predict actual humus dynamics, which are strongly dependent on land-use history and environmental site conditions. Therefore, the validation of humus balance methods is a methodical challenge. This paper presents results from the validation of a new method for humus balancing with different approaches. The first validation approach is relating humus balance saldi to humus content development in long-term field experiments. The second approach is relating humus balance saldi differences between field experiment treatments under similar site conditions to differences in humus dynamics...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects Nutrient turnover Education; Extension and communication.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14565/1/Brock_14565.pdf
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Ergebnisse zur Anwendbarkeit der neuen VDLUFA-Methode für die Humusbilanzierung im ökologischen Landbau 21
Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
Recently a revised version of the German standard method for humus balancing according to VDLUFA has been published. In contrast to the preceeding version, the method now shall be applicable not only in conventional, but also organic farming systems. In this contribution, we try to define the scope of the three levels of organic matter demand parameters for crops applied in the method, as an applicable definition is missing in the VDLUFA method description. We do so by calculating crop uptake of mineralized humus-N from the balance parameters, and by linking N uptake to yield levels of crops. Further, we calculate humus balances for farming system treatments in the Organic Arable Farming Experiment Gladbacherhof (Villmar,Germany) and test the ability of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Soil; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/27222/1/27222_brock.pdf
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Gemischtbetrieb mit Viehhaltung vs. viehloser Ökolandbau 3. Rotation im Dauerfeldversuch Gladbacherhof 21
Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Knebl, Lucas; Leithold, Günter.
An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Gießen. The effects of different farm types (with and without lifestock raising) combined with tillage treatments on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on soil fertility and cash crop yields according to the farm system especially in the 2nd and 3rd rotation. All in all, the superiority of a management system with cattle over stockless organic farming is demonstrated. The mixed farm type led to higher amounts of humus in the soil and to higher yields. Long term reduction of humus in stockless farming is not acceptable. Therefore it is advisable that every crop...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil biology; Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31955/1/Gemischtbetrieb%20mit%20Viehhaltung%20vs.%20viehloser%20%C3%96kolandbau.pdf
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Herleitung und Prüfung statischer Humusbilanzkoeffizienten für den ökologischen Landbau 21
Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
Humus balances are tools for the assessment of humus management in farming practice. We evaluate the coefficients for organic farming systems that are comprised in the actual draft revision of the German standard method for humus balancing by VDLUFA. Specific coefficients for organic farming are supported by the N balance in the soil-plant system under organic management, and the coefficients under survey relate to plausible yield levels. The evaluation of the balances without and with application of farming-system specific coefficients in four organic long-term field experiments in Germany showed overall weak correlations of all balances with the test criteria soil C change, winter wheat yield level, and N balance, but balancing with specific coefficients...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Soil; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/21587/1/21587_brock.pdf
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Humusbilanzmethoden als Prognose- und Bewertungsinstrumente im ökologischen Landbau – allgemeiner und spezieller Anpassungsbedarf 21
Brock, Christopher; Leithold, G..
Humus balances are intended to serve as instruments to support humus management in practice. Still, urgent need for adaptation especially with regard to apllication in organic farming has been stated. Results presented in this paper show that there in fact is a difference in humus repro-duction between conventional and organic farming that is not recognized in balance methods. In addition, the results exhibit a big uncertainty in balance results. They are pointing out basic problems of humus balance methods that are likely to be caused by an insufficient consideration of site-specific factors of the humus household and their interaction with farming.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/9348/1/9348_Brock_Vortrag.pdf
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Humusersatzstrategien aus ökonomischer Perspektive: Notwendiges Übel oder gewinnbringende Investition? 21
Blumenstein, Benjamin; Brock, Christopher; Dannehl, Theresa; Möller, Detlev.
Management measures to maintain or increase soil organic matter (SOM) are generally associated with additional costs and a decreasing profitability of crop rotations. However, certain SOM-enhancing strategies may have the potential to synergistically optimize also the economic output in the short or long term. We evaluated several crop rotations and green/straw manuring systems on diverging site properties in stockless farm systems for their effects on production economics. Benefits may especially derive from an increased spatio-temporal synchronization of crop nutrient demand and nutrient supply by turning green manures into mobile fertilizers, which can even result in short term economic benefits. However, as effects do not necessarily show instantly,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil biology.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31806/1/Humusersatzstrategien%20aus%20%C3%B6konomischer%20Perspektive1.pdf
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Humusersatzstrategien im viehlosen Ökolandbau 21
Brock, Christopher; Dannehl, Theresa; Blumenstein, Benjamin; Möller, Detlev.
Soil organic matter management is a challenge especially in stockless organic farming systems, as shares of fodder legumes in crop rotations are often small to provide more cash crop area, and farmyard manure as the most valuable source for organic matter supply to soils is not available. However, there are many different options for stockless farms to tackle this challenge. In this article we discuss strategies for organic matter supply to soils based on scenarios for different soil-climate regions in Germany. We conclude that the integration of fodder legumes into crop rotations is the most valuable option, as these crops do not only provide carbon but are able to replace mineralized soil organic matter nitrogen that has been exported with the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://orgprints.org/31807/1/Humusersatzstrategien%20im%20viehlosen%20%C3%96kolandbau.pdf
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Humusmanagement und Humusbilanz hessischer Öko-Betriebe 21
Brock, Christopher; Oltmanns, Meike; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin.
Mit dem Projekt „Humusmanagement und Humusbilanz hessischer Öko-Betriebe“ soll das Verständnis von Möglichkeiten und Grenzen des Humusmanagements unter Bedingungen des ökologischen Landbaus gefördert werden. Gleichzeitig bietet das Projekt Einblicke in die Humusbilanzierung und die daraus zu ziehenden Analysen und Bewertungen. Zielgruppen sind dabei gleichermaßen Praktiker, Berater und Wissenschaftler. Selbst in wissenschaftlichen Fachgruppen herrscht derzeit keine Einigung über die geeignete Methodik zur Humusbilanzierung und deren letztendliche Aussagekraft. Diese Broschüre bietet Praktikern und Beratern deshalb einen Überblick über die Methodik und damit eine Handreichung für die wichtigsten Fragen zur Humusbilanz und -versorgung: Wie berechne und...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions; Composting and manuring; Nutrient turnover; Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/22605/1/LLH_Humusmanagement.pdf
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LIVESTOCK IN ORGANIC FARMING – HOW IMPORTANT IS IT FOR SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT? 21
Schulz, Franz; Brock, Christopher; Leithold, Günter.
Stockless management is increasing even in organic farming, but it is not known until now, whether organic matter supply is sufficient in such systems, or which measures are necessary to achieve a sustainable soil organic matter (SOM) management. Results from the long-term Organic Arable Farming Experiment Gladbacherhof (OAFEG) show that after two 6 y rotations, only a “mixed farm” treatment (MF) with fodder legumes in the rotation and cattle manure application corresponding to 1 LU ha-1 was able to maintain, and in the long term perhaps increase, SOM levels. The “stockless farm” with fodder legumes as green manure ley (SFL) was barely able to maintain the SOM level, while the “stockless cash crop farm” where organic matter supply relied on green manure...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Crop combinations and interactions; Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23963/1/23963_MM.pdf
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Messung und Modellierung von Änderungen der organischen Bodensubstanz in einem Kurzzeit-Feldversuch 21
Knebl, Lucas; Leithold, Günter; Brock, Christopher.
Aim of the study was to determine to what extend data collected in a short term field experiment can be used in the validation of a humus balance model. The „hudycrop“ short term field experiment comprised different cropping systems with a uniform previous crop (spring barley), followed by winter wheat, potatoes, red clover (3 cuts/harvested or mulched), all without additional fertilizer application. The sampling design of the experiment was small scaled, assessing biomass as well as soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil total nitrogen (STN) changes (0 - 30 cm soil depth) in miniplots (each 1 m²). Soil organic matter (SOM) changes were calculated with consideration to bulk density. Parallel to this, SOM change, based on SOC and STN inputs and outputs, was...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/27253/1/27253_knebl.pdf
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