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Registros recuperados: 23
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Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Assessing the Consequences for Developing Countries AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan.
Recent analyses suggest that the impact of agricultural trade liberalization on developing countries will be very uneven. Simulations suggest that the effects of agricultural trade liberalization will be small, overall, and are likely to be negative for a significant number of developing countries. The Doha Round focuses on tariff issues, but these countries currently have practically duty-free access to European and North American markets under preferential regimes. Multilateral liberalization will erode the benefits of these preferences, which are presently rather well utilized in the agricultural sector. The main obstacles to the exports of the poorest countries appear to be in the non-tariff area (sanitary, phytosanitary standards) which increasingly...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade liberalization; WTO; Developing countries; International Development; International Relations/Trade; F13; Q17.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24628
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Agricultural Trade Restrictiveness in the European Union and the United States AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Salvatici, Luca.
This paper provides a summary measure of the Uruguay Round tariff reduction commitments in the European Union and the United States, using the Mercantilistic Trade Restrictiveness Index (MTRI) as the tariff aggregator. We compute the index for agricultural commodity aggregates assuming a specific (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) functional form for import demand. The levels of the MTRI under the actual commitments of the Uruguay Round are computed and compared with two hypothetical cases, the Swiss Formula leading to a 36 percent average decrease in tariffs and a uniform 36 percent reduction of each tariff. This makes it possible to infer how reducing tariff dispersion would help improve market access in future trade agreements.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural prices; Income; International agricultural trade; Policy analysis; Tariffs and tariff factors; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18594
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Bridging Micro- and Macro-Analyses of the EU Sugar Program: Methods and Insights AgEcon
Gohin, Alexandre; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25799
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Concessions and Exemptions for Developing Countries in the Agricultural Negotiations: The Role of the Special and Differential Treatment AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan.
The main provisions of the special and differential treatment (SDT) granted to developing countries in the agriculture and food sector under the present World Trade Organization agreements are presented. The different provisions seem to have had a limited impact on developing countries, and revision is needed. The positions of the various developing countries regarding the SDT in the negotiations are summarized. Recent simulations of the consequences of a plausible agreement under the Doha negotiations suggest that there is a case for a special treatment for poorest countries, but also for a subset of countries that are likely to lose at multilateral liberalization, because of the erosion of existing preferences. Suggestions are made in order to make...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Developping countries; Agricultural trade; WTO; Trade preferences; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18858
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EUROPEAN FOOD-LABELING POLICY: SUCCESSES AND LIMITATIONS AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Valceschini, Egizio.
The EU policy on voluntary food labeling emphasizes the geographical origin of the products. Specialty products from a given area (e.g., wine) benefit from a reputation premium that is well-identified by consumers. Public authorities allow exclusive use of the appellation to a group of producers in exchange for commitments on production techniques, certification and control, and obligation of a collective use of the name. In spite of many successful aspects, the future of this policy is uncertain in a globalized environment. Caveats in the regulation (moral hazard, bureaucracy), lack of international readability of the labels, and competition from registered brand names are the main limitations of the EU policy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/27048
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Food Security and Agricultural Protection in South Korea AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Park, Sung Joon.
As part of its food security policy, South Korea has been pursuing food self-sufficiency using high tariffs and high administrative prices in key agricultural and food markets. Using a dual approach to trade and trade restrictiveness indices, we analyze the impact of these market distortions on welfare and trade volume. Then, we compute optimum distortions, which minimize the welfare costs of observed self-sufficiency and production objectives. We rationalize these optimum distortions to what could be claimed as legitimate protection under a "food security" (FS) box in World Trade Organization negotiations. FS-box protection is sensitive to changes in the definition and the extent of the FS objectives. We show that FS via production targets and reliance on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural distortions; Food security; Korea; Protection; Targeting; WTO negotiations; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18547
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Freer International Trade and the Consequences for EU rural areas AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
General equilibrium models estimated by various authors and institutions show that, although trade liberalization leads to aggregate welfare gains, there are winners and losers when it comes to the distribution. The aim of this article is to determine to what extent rural regions have won or lost in the trade opening process that has been underway since the 1990s. The economic literature on international trade and regional development suggests the presence of opposing forces, making the global impact of international trade liberalization on rural areas ambiguous. Using a series of empirical studies, in particular the DREAM model (CEPII), the author assesses the impact of trade opening on the European Regions, observing a significant proportion of losers...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Trade liberalization; European Rural regions; Rural development policies; International Relations/Trade; O18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7995
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ISSUES IN REFORMING TARIFF-RATE IMPORT QUOTAS IN THE AGREEMENT ON AGRICULTURE IN THE WTO AgEcon
de Gorter, Harry; Abbott, Philip C.; Barichello, Richard R.; Boughner, Devry S.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Choi, Jung-Sup; Coleman, Jonathan R.; Herrmann, Roland; Kramb, Marc Christopher; Sheldon, Ian M.; Liapis, Peter S.; MacLaren, Donald; Moennich, Christina; Morse, B. Adair; Skully, David W.; Sumner, Daniel A.; Tangermann, Stefan.
Contents: The Economics of Tariff Rate Quotas and the Effects of Trade Liberalization; TRQs and GATT Rules; An Overview of Tariffs, Quotas and Imports Worldwide; TRQs in the European Union; U.S. TRQs for Sugar, Tobacco and Peanuts; Dairy TRQs in the United States; Tariff Rate Quota Implementation and Administration by Developing Countries; Management of Tariff Rate Quotas in Korea and Japan; Tariff Rate Quota Administration in Canadian Agriculture; The Case of Australia and New Zealand Facing TRQs; The 1999 WTO Panel Report on the EU's Common Market Organization for Bananas; Assessment
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14617
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Prospects for EU Biofuel Production and Trade AgEcon
Bamiére, Laure; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Guinde, Loic; Guyomard, Herve; Jacquet, Florence; Treguer, David.
The paper provides background information regarding the EU policy on biofuels. The purpose is to assess whether this policy may lead to an increased use of European agricultural products to provide energy, or whether it is more likely that the EU will shift towards imports of biofuels. The paper first describes the EU support policy for energy crops, i.e. tax exemption for biofuels and mandatory incorporation taxes in some member states, the impact on demand and supply of biofuels. It then focuses on the prospects for the production and utilization of biofuels in the EU. The paper addresses the three related issues of energy efficiency, environmental benefits and cost competitiveness of EU biofuels and presents simulations regarding the competition between...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7221
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Quality Signaling and International Trade in Food Products AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Gozlan, Estelle; Marette, Stephan.
Focusing on the issue of food safety, we consider a framework of repeated purchases under the scenario of imperfect information on product quality (adverse selection and experience goods). A firm in a northern country can more easily detect tainted products than can a southern one. When imports are banned, the northern firm does not always signal the actual quality of its products. Competition from imports may lead the northern firm to test the quality of its products as a way to differentiate itself from foreign competitors. Consumers benefit from the disclosure of information on quality, even though borders are open to products of uncertain quality. However, competition from imports also increases the cost of signaling high quality. This can be...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Adverse selection; North-south trade; Signaling; Trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18636
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Quantification of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, and Technical Barriers to Trade for Trade Policy Analysis AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
This paper presents promising methodologies for modeling and quantifying nontariff barriers (NTB) to trade in the agricultural and food sectors. We limit the analysis to sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical regulations that can have an impact on trade and to methods that provide some quantitative estimates of the impact of such barriers on market equilibrium, trade flows, economic efficiency, and welfare. Given the heterogeneous nature of these regulations, a unifying methodology does not exist. Quantification of the effects of such measures has focused on a particular product and has relied on methods that belong to different fields of the economic literature. We provide a concise description and evaluation of the various methods available for a more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Non-tariff barriers; NTB; Policy; Sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; TBT; Technical barriers to trade; Trade; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18620
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Recent developments and prospects for the production of biofuels in the EU: Can they really be "Part of Solution"? AgEcon
Jacquet, Florence; Bamiére, Laure; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Guinde, Loic; Guyomard, Herve; Treguer, David.
The European Union has launched an ambitious policy aiming at increasing the use of biofuels in land transport “with a view to contributing to objectives such as meeting climate change commitments, environmentally friendly security of supply and promoting renewable energy sources”. Another motivation, at least for some member states, is that the development of biofuels is expected to provide larger outlets for domestic farm products and new employment opportunities in rural areas and make future adjustments of the Common agricultural policy easier. The EU policy of support to energy crops, tax exemption for biofuels and mandatory incorporation targets in some member states, has resulted in a significant increase in the demand and supply of biofuels. The...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48772
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Shipping the good beef out: EU trade liberalization to Mercosur exports AgEcon
Ramos, Maria Priscila; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Salvatici, Luca.
The European Union tariff schedule includes a large number of specific and composite tariffs as well as many tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), which affect the composition of imports. By altering price ratios between products with different unit values, both can generate the typical Alchian-Allen ’shipping the good apples out’ effect in foreign countries’ exports to the EU. Different patterns of trade liberalization, either through tariff reduction or an expansion in preferential-access quotas, might have different consequences for producers and consumers because of changes in the composition of trade. We illustrate the issues at stake in the beef sector, focusing on Mercosur exports to the EU. We model import demand for different qualities in the presence of a...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Mercosur; European Union; Quality; Trade; Tariff; Tariff-rate quota; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; F13; F15; F17; Q17.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7215
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Sugar Market Liberalization: Modeling the EU Supply of "C" Sugar AgEcon
Gohin, Alexandre; Bureau, Jean-Christophe.
The various assessments of the effects of a liberalization of world sugar markets are largely inconsistent. One cause seems to be the modeling of the EU supply response. We investigate three possible linkages between production quota sugar and the out-of-quota or "C" sugar supply: i/ the existence of fixed costs covered by the in-quota sugar; ii /the "overshooting" behavior as prevention against poor yields; iii/ the production of C sugar as "reference building" in view of expected reforms. Modeling these effects results in the introduction of an implicit cross-subsidy between in quota sugar and C sugar. The resulting specification is included in a detailed model of EU agricultural sector so as to account for intersectoral linkages. We simulate the effects...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Common Agricultural Policy; Sugar; Modeling; General equilibrium models; Agricultural and Food Policy; D58; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24740
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TARIFF RATE QUOTAS IN THE EU AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Tangermann, Stefan.
The European Union has opened tariff rate quotas (TRQs) after the Uruguay Round (UR), following the agreement that minimum access should be provided and current access not be restricted. The EU TRQs are described and their origin is explained. Descriptive statistics are provided in order to assess the implementation of the market access provisions of the 1994 UR Agreement. Transparency of the EU TRQ system and fill rates of TRQs are examined. Overall, the EU's record in the area of TRQs is relatively satisfactory, compared with those of other countries. Concerns remain, however, as to the exact articulation of the (regional) Europe Agreement and some quotas under minimum access.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31327
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THE CALIBRATION OF INCOMPLETE DEMAND SYSTEMS IN QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Drogue, Sophie.
We introduce an easily implemented and flexible calibration technique for partial demand systems, combining recent developments in incomplete demand systems and a set of restrictions conditioned on the available elasticity estimates. The technique accommodates various degrees of knowledge on cross-price elasticities, satisfies curvature restrictions, and allows the recovery of an exact welfare measure for policy analysis. The technique is illustrated with a partial demand system for food consumption in Korea for different states of knowledge on cross-price effects. The consumer welfare impact of food and agricultural trade liberalization is measured.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Calibration; Exact welfare measure; Incomplete demand systems; Policy analysis.; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25820
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THE CALIBRATION OF INCOMPLETE DEMAND SYSTEMS IN QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Drogue, Sophie.
We introduce an easily implemented and flexible calibration technique for partial demand systems, combining recent developments in incomplete demand systems and a set of restrictions conditioned on the available elasticity estimates. The technique accommodates various degrees of knowledge on cross-price elasticities, satisfies curvature restrictions, and allows the recovery of an exact welfare measure for policy analysis. The technique is illustrated with a partial demand system for food consumption in Korea for different states of knowledge on cross-price effects. The consumer welfare impact of food and agricultural trade liberalization is measured.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Calibration; Exact welfare measure; Incomplete demand systems; Policy analysis; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18462
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The Consequences of Agricultural Trade Liberalization for Developing Countries AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Jean, Sebastien; Matthews, Alan.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25471
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The Cost of Food Self-Sufficiency and Agricultural Protection in South Korea AgEcon
Beghin, John C.; Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Park, Sung Joon.
As part of its food security policy, South Korea has been pursuing food self-sufficiency using high tariffs and high administrative prices in key agricultural and food markets. Using a dual approach to trade and trade restrictiveness indices, we analyze the impact of these market distortions on welfare and trade volume. Then, we compute optimum distortions, which minimize the welfare cost of observed self-sufficiency and production objectives. We rationalize these optimum distortions to what could be claimed as legitimate protection under a "food security" (FS) box in World Trade Organization negotiations. FS-box protection is sensitive to changes in the definition and the extent of the FS objectives. We show that FS via production targets and reliance on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural distortions; Food security; Korea; Protection; Targeting; WTO negotiations; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24879
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The Utilisation of EU and US Trade Preferences for Developing Countries in the Agri-Food Sector AgEcon
Bureau, Jean-Christophe; Chakir, Raja; Gallezot, Jacques.
We calculate various indicators of the utilisation of preferences granted to developing countries by the EU and the US in the agricultural, food and fisheries sector. We conclude that only a very small proportion of the imports eligible to these preferences is actually exported outside a preferential regime. The rate of utilisation is therefore high. However, the flow of imports from poorest countries remains very limited in spite of rather generous tariff preferences, which leads to question the overall impact of the preferential agreements. In addition, preferential regimes overlap, and in such cases some regimes are systematically preferred to others. We use econometric estimates of the (latent) cost of using a given preference in order to explain why...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18867
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