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Registros recuperados: 21
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A global perspective on the trophic geography of sharks 5
Bird, Christopher S.; Verissimo, Ana; Magozzi, Sarah; Abrantes, Katya G.; Aguilar, Alex; Al-reasi, Hassan; Barnett, Adam; Bethea, Dana M.; Biais, Gerard; Borrell, Asuncion; Bouchoucha, Marc; Boyle, Mariah; Brooks, Edward J.; Brunnschweiler, Juerg; Bustamante, Paco; Carlisle, Aaron; Catarino, Diana; Caut, Stephane; Cherel, Yves; Chouvelon, Tiphaine; Churchill, Diana; Ciancio, Javier; Claes, Julien; Colaco, Ana; Courtney, Dean L.; Cresson, Pierre; Daly, Ryan; De Necker, Leigh; Endo, Tetsuya; Figueiredo, Ivone; Frisch, Ashley J.; Hansen, Joan Holst; Heithaus, Michael; Hussey, Nigel E.; Iitembu, Johannes; Juanes, Francis; Kinney, Michael J.; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Klarian, Sebastian A.; Kopp, Dorothee; Leaf, Robert; Li, Yunkai; Lorrain, Anne; Madigan, Daniel J.; Maljkovic, Aleksandra; Malpica-cruz, Luis; Matich, Philip; Meekan, Mark G.; Menard, Frederic; Menezes, Gui M.; Munroe, Samantha E. M.; Newman, Michael C.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; Pethybridge, Heidi; Plumlee, Jeffrey D.; Polo-silva, Carlos; Quaeck-davies, Katie; Raoult, Vincent; Reum, Jonathan; Torres-rojas, Yassir Eden; Shiffman, David S.; Shipley, Oliver N.; Speed, Conrad W.; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Teffer, Amy K.; Tilley, Alexander; Valls, Maria; Vaudo, Jeremy J.; Wai, Tak-cheung; Wells, R. J. David; Wyatt, Alex S. J.; Yool, Andrew; Trueman, Clive N..
Sharks are a diverse group of mobile predators that forage across varied spatial scales and have the potential to influence food web dynamics. The ecological consequences of recent declines in shark biomass may extend across broader geographic ranges if shark taxa display common behavioural traits. By tracking the original site of photosynthetic fixation of carbon atoms that were ultimately assimilated into muscle tissues of 5,394 sharks from 114 species, we identify globally consistent biogeographic traits in trophic interactions between sharks found in different habitats. We show that populations of shelf-dwelling sharks derive a substantial proportion of their carbon from regional pelagic sources, but contain individuals that forage within additional...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00420/53141/54249.pdf
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Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cu, and Zn in the Azores triple junction hydrotherinal vent fields food web 5
Colaco, Ana; Bustamante, Paco; Fouquet, Yves; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Serrao Santos, R.
In this work, mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations and tissue distribution are determined in seven benthic invertebrates species (the key species) from the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal vent fields. The samples were collected from three hydrothermal vent fields - Menez Gwen, 840 m;, Lucky Strike, 1700 m and Rainbow, 2300 m - near the Azores Triple Junction. These fields are characterized by different depths, geological context and chemical composition of the hydrothermal fluid, particularly the metal content, which is reflected by the metal concentrations in the organisms. Indeed, our results show that organisms from Menez Gwen presented the highest Hg concentrations, while those from Lucky Strike and Rainbow were richer in Cu and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mid Atlantic Ridge; Trophic relations; Trophic transfer; Biomagnification; Vent ecosystems; Heavy metals.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2006/publication-2305.pdf
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delta C-13 signature of hydrothermal mussels is related with the end-member fluid concentrations of H2S and CH4 at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal vent fields 5
Colaco, Ana; Dehairs, F; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Le Bris, Nadine; Sarradin, Pierre-marie.
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Ano: 2002 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/10027/7494.pdf
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Distribution and spatial variation of hydrothermal faunal assemblages at Lucky Strike (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) revealed by high-resolution video image analysis 5
Cuvelier, Daphne; Sarrazin, Jozee; Colaco, Ana; Copley, Jon; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Glover, Adrian G.; Tyler, Paul; Santos, Ricardo Serrao.
Whilst the fauna inhabiting hydrothermal vent structures in the Atlantic Ocean is reasonably well known, less is understood about the spatial distributions of the fauna in relation to abiotic and biotic factors. In this study, a major active hydrothermal edifice (Eiffel Tower, at 1690 m depth) on the Lucky Strike vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR)) was investigated. Video transects were carried out by ROV Victor 6000 and complete image coverage was acquired. Four distinct assemblages, ranging from dense larger-sized Bathymodiolus mussel beds to smaller-sized mussel clumps and alvinocaridid shrimps, and two types of substrata were defined based on high definition photographs and video imagery. To evaluate spatial variation, faunal distribution was mapped...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Vent ecology; Mid Atlantic Ridge; Hydrothermal vent; Lucky Strike; Video analysis; Faunal assemblages; Spatial distribution; Community structure.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-7328.pdf
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Ecology of the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge Azores Triple Junction) 5
Colaco, Ana; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Comtet, Thierry; Alayse, Anne-marie.
Tipo: Text
Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00178/28967/27388.pdf
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EMSO-Azores : Monitoring seafloor and water column processes at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge 5
Cannat, Mathilde; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Blandin, Jerome; Ballu, Valérie; Barreyre, Thibaut; Chavagnac, Valérie; Colaco, Ana; Crawford, Wayne; Daniel, Romuald; Escartin, Javier; Legrand, Julien; Matabos, Marjolaine; Rommevaux, Céline; Roullet, Guillaume; Reverdin, Gilles; Sarrazin, Jozee.
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00353/46444/46194.pdf
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EXtreme ecosystem studies in the deep OCEan: Technological Developments. EXOCET/D 5
Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Sarrazin, Jozee; Cadiou, Jean-francois; Olu, Karine; Desbruyeres, Damien; Rigaud, Vincent; Drogou, Jean-francois; Lecornu, Fabrice; Rolin, Jean-francois; Vuillemin, Renaud; Cambon-bonavita, Marie-anne; Sauter, E; Von Juterzenka, K; Boetius, A; Santos, Rs; Colaco, Ana; Pascoal, A; Oliveira, Paulo; Shillito, Bruce; Zal, F; Schultz, A; Taylor, P; Lane, D; Loke, Rob; Du Buf, H; Waldmann, C; Cormack, A; Sanfilippo, L; Masson, M.
The general objective of EXOCET/D is to develop, implement and test specific instruments aimed at exploring, describing, quantifying and monitoring biodiversity in deep-sea fragmented habitats as well as at identifying links between community structure and environmental dynamics. Onboard experimental devices will complement the approach, enabling experiments on species physiology. The EXOCET/D working fields include: video and acoustic imagery, in situ analysis of physico-chemical factors, quantitative sampling of macroand micro-organisms, in vivo experiments, integration of multidisciplinary data, implementation on European deep-submersibles and a final phase of technical and scientific validation
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Deep sea; Ecosystem; Imagery; In situ analysis; Faunal sampling; Submersibles; Observatory.
Ano: 2004 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3600.pdf
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Food-web complexity across hydrothermal vents on the Azores triple junction 5
Portail, Marie; Brandily, Christophe; Cathalot, Cecile; Colaco, Ana; Gelinas, Yves; Husson, Berengere; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Sarrazin, Jozee.
The assessment and comparison of food webs across various hydrothermal vent sites can enhance our understanding of ecological processes involved in the structure and function of biodiversity. The Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow vent fields are located on the Azores triple junction of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These fields have distinct depths (from 850 to 2320 m) and geological contexts (basaltic and ultramafic), but share similar faunal assemblages defined by the presence of foundation species that include Bathymodiolus azoricus, alvinocarid shrimp and gastropods. We compared the food webs of 13 faunal assemblages at these three sites using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (SIA). Results showed that photosynthesis-derived organic matter is a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mid-Atlantic Ridge; Hydrothermal vents; Food webs; Stable isotopes; Functional traits.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00414/52551/53732.pdf
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Hydrothermal faunal assemblages and habitat characterisation at the Eiffel Tower edifice (Lucky Strike, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) 5
Cuvelier, Daphne; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Sarrazin, Jozee; Colaco, Ana; Copley, Jon T.; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Glover, Adrian G.; Santos, Ricardo Serrao; Tyler, Paul A..
The Eiffel Tower edifice is situated in the Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field at a mean depth of 1690 m on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). At this 11-m-high hydrothermal structure, different faunal assemblages, varying in visibly dominant species (mussels and shrimp), in mussel size and in density of mussel coverage, were sampled biologically and chemically. Temperature and sulphide (Sigma S) were measured on the different types of mussel-based assemblages and on a shrimp-dominated assemblage. Temperature was used as a proxy for calculating total concentrations of CH4. Based on the physico-chemical measurements, two microhabitats were identified, corresponding to (i) a more variable habitat featuring the greatest fluctuations in environmental variables...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Faunal assemblage; Hydrothermal vent; Microhabitat; Mid-Atlantic Ridge; Physico-chemical characterisation.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00035/14648/13996.pdf
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Mixotrophy in the deep sea: a dual endosymbiotic hydrothermal mytilid assimilates dissolved and particulate organic matter 5
Riou, Virginie; Colaco, Ana; Bouillon, Steven; Khripounoff, Alexis; Dando, Paul; Mangion, Perrine; Chevalier, Emilie; Korntheuer, Michael; Santos, Raphael; Dehairs, Frank.
Bathymodiolus azoricus mussels thrive 840 to 2300 m deep at hydrothermal vents of the Azores Triple Junction on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Although previous studies have suggested a mixotrophic regime for this species, no analysis has yet yielded direct evidence for the assimilation of particulate material. In the present study, tracer experiments in aquaria with C-13- and N-15-labelled amino acids and marine cyanobacteria demonstrate for the first time the incorporation of dissolved and particulate organic matter in soft tissues of vent mussel. The observation of phytoplanktonic tests in wild mussel stomachs highlights the occurrence of in situ ingestion of sea-surface-derived material. Particulate organic carbon fluxes in sediment traps moored away from...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bathymodiolus azoricus; Particulate and dissolved material; Nitrogen and carbon assimilation; Deep sea; Hydrothermal vent; Mussel.
Ano: 2010 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00005/11589/8230.pdf
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MoMAR-D: a technological challenge to monitor the dynamics of the Lucky Strike vent ecosystem 5
Colaco, Ana; Blandin, Jerome; Cannat, M.; Carval, Thierry; Chavagnac, V.; Connelly, D.; Fabian, M.; Ghiron, S.; Goslin, Jean; Miranda, J. M.; Reverdin, G.; Sarrazin, Jozee; Waldmann, C.; Sarradin, Pierre-marie.
The MoMAR (monitoring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge) project was initiated in 1998 by the InterRidge programme to promote and coordinate long-term multidisciplinary monitoring of hydrothermal vents at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). The major objective of the project is to study vent ecosystem dynamics using a multidisciplinary approach from geophysics to microbiology over a period of a few decades. MoMAR-D is a demonstration project of MoMAR, partially funded by the European network of excellence ESONET (http://www.esonet-noe.org/). MoMAR-D aims to deploy and manage a multidisciplinary observing system at the Lucky Strike vent field for 1 year. This large hydrothermal field is located at the centre of one of the most volcanically active segments of the MAR. The...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hydrothermal vents; Long-term studies; Lucky Strike vent field; MoMAR; Monitoring experiments; Ocean observatories; Technical infrastructure.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00021/13246/13439.pdf
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Out of the deep-sea into a land-based aquarium environment: Investigating innate immunity in the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus 5
Bettencourt, Raul; Costa, Valentina; Laranjo, Mario; Rosa, Domitilia; Pires, Luis; Colaco, Ana; Sarradin, Pierre Marie; Lopes, Humberto; Sarrazin, Marie Josée; Santos, Ricardo Serrao.
Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are considered as some of the most adverse environments in the world, yet the animals dwelling around the vent sites exhibit high productivity and therefore must cope with unusual levels of heavy metals, pH, temperature, CO2 and sulfide, in addition to environmental microbes. In an attempt to understand the physiological reactions of animals normally set to endure extreme conditions we investigated molecular indicators of acclimation processes during which the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus was maintained over long periods of time under without methane and/or sulfide supplementation, vent mussels seem to endure well aquarium conditions. The presence and induction of a Rel Homology Domain containing gene was investigated along...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bathymodiolus azoricus; Innate immunity; Gene expression; IPOCAMP; Physiological adaptation; Hydrothermal vent.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00019/13042/10154.pdf
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Particle flux in the Rainbow hydrothermal vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge): Dynamics, mineral and biological composition 5
Khripounoff, Alexis; Vangriesheim, Annick; Crassous, Philippe; Segonzac, Michel; Colaco, Ana; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Barthelemy, Roxane.
In order to provide information about the export and the distribution of hydrothermal particulate material to the surrounding deep ocean, four moorings were deployed in the vicinity of the hydrothermal Rainbow vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36 degrees 14'N, 2250 m depth). The first mooring was a sediment trap with a current meter deployed at 2 m from a chimney of the Rainbow vent field and 1.5 m above the bottom (a.b.) for 16 days. It represented the reference for the initial composition of particles produced by the vent. The total mean mass particle flux (6.9 g m(-2) d(-1)) was distinctly higher than the flux measured at the shallower hydrothermal vents on the MAR segment. This particulate flux showed a high temporal variation at the scale of a few days...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Zooplankton; Biochemistry; Geochemistry; Particle flux; Hydrothermal vent.
Ano: 2001 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/publication-801.pdf
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Polar lipid fatty acids as indicators of trophic associations in a deep-sea vent system community 5
Colaco, Ana; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Guezennec, Jean.
The polar lipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of invertebrates living in chemosynthetic communities can indicate the degree to which these animals depend on specific types of bacteria. To identify the nutritional sources of various species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a Principal Component Analysis was performed using individual PLFA profiles as descriptors. Two associations representing different feeding groups were identified: (i) mussels, commensal polychaetes and gastropods, (ii) shrimps and crabs. The first association relies more on sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, while the second one has more anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria biomarkers. Other small invertebrates reveal different diets. The polychaete Amathys lutzi shows...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mid Atlantic Ridge; Biomarkers; Hydrothermal vents; Fatty acids.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-2538.pdf
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Potential Mitigation and Restoration Actions in Ecosystems Impacted by Seabed Mining 5
Cuvelier, Daphne; Gollner, Sabine; Jones, Daniel Ob; Kaiser, Stefanie; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Menzel, Lena; Mestre, Nelia C.; Morato, Telmo; Pham, Christopher; Pradillon, Florence; Purser, Autun; Raschka, Uwe; Sarrazin, Jozee; Simon-lledo, Erik; Stewart, Ian M.; Stuckas, Heiko; Sweetman, Andrew K.; Colaco, Ana.
Mining impacts will affect local populations to different degrees. Impacts range from removal of habitats and possible energy sources to pollution and smaller-scale alterations in local habitats that, depending on the degree of disturbance, can lead to extinction of local communities. While there is a shortage or even lack of studies investigating impacts that resemble those caused by actual mining activity, the information available on the potential long-lasting impacts of seabed mining emphasise the need for effective environmental management plans. These plans should include efforts to mitigate deep-sea mining impact such as avoidance, minimisation and potentially restoration actions, to maintain or encourage reinstatement of a resilient ecosystem. A...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Deep sea; Mining; Restoration; Mitigation; Impacts; Assisted recovery; (re-)colonisation.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00470/58209/60711.pdf
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Relationship between metal levels in the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and local microhabitat chemical characteristics of Eiffel Tower (Lucky Strike) 5
Martins, Ines; Cosson, Richard P.; Riou, Virginie; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Sarrazin, Jozee; Santos, Ricardo S.; Colaco, Ana.
The turbulent mixing of hydrothermal hot fluid with cold seawater creates large chemical gradients at a small spatial scale that may induce variable physiological and biochemical adaptations within the vent fauna. The adaptation to such a variable environment by the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus relies on a dual symbiosis hosted in the gills, and digestion of particulate organic matter. The surrounding environment not only provides the necessary energy sources and suspended organic particles for the vent mussel nutrition, but also potentially toxic compounds such as metals. Our main goal was to see if there is a relation between metal accumulation in mussel organs and the chemical characteristics of their close environment. Mussels were collected at...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Metals; Metallothioneins; Bathymodiolus azoricus; Hydrothermal vent; Environmental conditions; Physiological condition; Spatial distribution.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00030/14097/11327.pdf
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Resilience of benthic deep-sea fauna to mining activities 5
Gollner, Sabine; Kaiser, Stefanie; Menzel, Lena; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Brown, Alastair; Mestre, Nelia C.; Van Oevelen, Dick; Menot, Lenaick; Colaco, Ana; Canals, Miguel; Cuvelier, Daphne; Durden, Jennifer M.; Gebruk, Andrey; Egho, Great A.; Haeckel, Matthias; Marcon, Yann; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Morato, Telmo; Pham, Christopher K.; Purser, Autun; Sanchez-vidal, Anna; Vanreusel, Ann; Vink, Annemiek; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez.
With increasing demand for mineral resources, extraction of polymetallic sulphides at hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts at seamounts, and polymetallic nodules on abyssal plains may be imminent. Here, we shortly introduce ecosystem characteristics of mining areas, report on recent mining developments, and identify potential stress and disturbances created by mining. We analyze species’ potential resistance to future mining and perform meta-analyses on population density and diversity recovery after disturbances most similar to mining: volcanic eruptions at vents, fisheries on seamounts, and experiments that mimic nodule mining on abyssal plains. We report wide variation in recovery rates among taxa, size, and mobility of fauna. While...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Deep ocean; Disturbance; Minerals; Mining; Abyssal plains; Hydrothermal vents; Seamounts; Resilience; Recovery; Benthos.
Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00382/49291/49690.pdf
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Size-dependent variations on the nutritional pathway of Bathymodiolus azoricus demonstrated by a C-flux model 5
Martins, Irene; Colaco, Ana; Dando, Paul R; Martins, I; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Sarradin, Pierre-marie; Marques, J; Serrao Santos, R.
Bathymodiolus azoricus is a mussel from vent fields in the south-west of the Azores Triple junction (Mid-Atlantic Ridge-MAR). Experimental evidence indicates that B. azoricus is a mixotrophic organism, which obtains energy from a dual endosymbiosis and filter-feeding. Yet the relative contribution of symbiosis and filter-feeding to B. azoricus nutrition is still unclear. To address this question, we developed and individual-based model which describes sulphide and methane uptake by endosymbionts, the energy gained through microbial oxidations, the transfer of energy from endosymbionts to B. azoricus, filter-feeding of particulate organic matter (POC) by B. azoricus and the energetic wastes of the mytilid with respiration. The model accounts for...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Carbon flux model; Organic matter; Size; Filter feeding; Endosymbiosis; Bathymodiolus azoricus.
Ano: 2008 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4541.pdf
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Societal need for improved understanding of climate change, anthropogenic impacts, and geo-hazard warning drive development of ocean observatories in European Seas 5
Ruhl, Henry A.; Andre, Michel; Beranzoli, Laura; Cagatay, M. Namik; Colaco, Ana; Cannat, Mathilde; Danobeitia, Juanjo J.; Favali, Paolo; Geli, Louis; Gillooly, Michael; Greinert, Jens; Hall, Per O. J.; Huber, Robert; Karstensen, Johannes; Lampitt, Richard S.; Larkin, Kate E.; Lykousis, Vasilios; Mienert, Jurgen; Miguel Miranda, J.; Person, Roland; Priede, Imants G.; Puillat, Ingrid; Thomsen, Laurenz; Waldmann, Christoph.
Society's needs for a network of in situ ocean observing systems cross many areas of earth and marine science. Here we review the science themes that benefit from data supplied from ocean observatories. Understanding from existing studies is fragmented to the extent that it lacks the coherent long-term monitoring needed to address questions at the scales essential to understand climate change and improve geo-hazard early warning. Data sets from the deep sea are particularly rare with long-term data available from only a few locations worldwide. These science areas have impacts on societal health and well-being and our awareness of ocean function in a shifting climate. Substantial efforts are underway to realise a network of open-ocean observatories around...
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Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00044/15557/15923.pdf
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Temporal change in deep-sea benthic ecosystems: a review of the evidence from recent time-series studies 5
Glover, A. G.; Gooday, A. J.; Bailey, D. M.; Billett, D. S. M.; Chevaldonne, P.; Colaco, Ana; Copley, J.; Cuvelier, Daphne; Desbruyeres, Daniel; Kalogeropoulou, V.; Klages, M.; Lampadariou, N.; Lejeusne, C.; Mestre, Nelia; Paterson, G. L. J.; Perez, T.; Ruhl, H.; Sarrazin, Jozee; Soltwedel, T.; Soto, E. H.; Thatje, S.; Tselepides, A.; Van Gaever, S.; Vanreusel, A..
Societal concerns over the potential impacts of recent global change have prompted renewed interest in the long term ecological monitoring of large ecosystems The deep sea is the largest ecosystem on the planet the least accessible and perhaps the least understood Nevertheless deep sea data collected over the last few decades are now being synthesised with a view to both measuring global change and predicting the future impacts of further rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations For many years it was assumed by many that the deep sea is a stable habitat buffered from short term changes in the atmosphere or upper ocean However recent studies suggest that deep seafloor ecosystems may respond relatively quickly to seasonal inter annual and decadal...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mid atlantic ridge; East pacific rise; Gulf of Mexico; Hydrothermal vent communities; Long term change; Portuguese continental margin; Abyssal northeast pacific; Azores triple junction; Cold seep ecosystems; Dark submarine caves.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00030/14120/12727.pdf
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