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A multidisciplinary approach to improve the quality of organic wheat-bread chain Organic Eprints
Abecassis, Joël; David, Christophe; Fontaine, Laurence; Taupier-Létage, Bruno; Viaux, P..
The main challenge for organic farmers, millers and bakers is to fulfill consumers’ expectations of providing healthy and safe products. The quality of organic grain can be modulated by agronomic modifications on genotypes, crop management, crop rotation and soil fertility, but the milling process and finally the baking process are also key factors in producing bread of high baking quality, nutritional value, taste and flavour. Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient in achieving acceptable yield levels of sufficient bread-making quality, but previous results have shown that organic wheat tends to have lower protein content, dough mixing tolerance and loaf volume. The selection of genotypes with high N use efficiency, weed competitiveness and disease resistance...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food systems.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/12529/1/12529.pdf
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A sequential approach for improving AZODYN crop model under conventional and low-input conditions Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène.
Advances in scientific understanding of the plant and soil behaviour in a cultivated field led to the design of numerous soil-crop models simulating crop growth. The frequent low predictive quality of these models is linked to uncertainties in inputs, parameters and equations. The AZODYN crop model predicting wheat grain yield and grain protein content was previously developed to support decision for N management of conventional and organic wheat crops. This paper outlines a sequential approach to improve the predictions of the AZODYN model by testing various formalisms. This study is based on the comparison of 38 versions of the model assessed in multi-environment trials carried out under conventional or low-input conditions. This paper describes and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Composting and manuring Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/19494/1/David_et_Jeuffroy%2C_2009.pdf
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Agronomic and environmental factors explaining Grain Protein Content variability in organic winter wheat Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Etienne, Catherine; Makowski, David; Valantin-Morison, Muriel; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène.
A regional agronomic diagnosis was implemented to identify factors responsible for low values of Grain Protein Content (GPC) in a network of 35 organic winter wheat fields in South-Eastern France. The influence of water nutrition, radiation and temperature, weed density at flowering, nitrogen (N) status of crop at flowering and variety type were studied. Two statistical methods were used successively: classical linear regression and a mixing model approach based on a weighted sum of all possible linear combinations of explanatory variables. GPC was significantly related to variety type, crop N status and weed density. An analysis of variance showed that weed density was related to soil type and nitrogen supply.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/11825/1/Casagrande_11825_ed.doc
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AGTEC-Org Agronomy Handbook of Methods Organic Eprints
Celette, Florian; Peigne, Joséphine; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Carcea, Marina; Aveline, Anne; Hellou, Guénaëlle; Mäder, Paul; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Mayer, Jochen; Dubois, David; Thommen, Andreas; Schweinzer, Agnes; Friedel, Juergen K.; David, Christophe.
A common handbook was conceived in the CORE Organic AGTEC-Org project in order to give some elements of field trial monitoring.
Tipo: Working paper Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Composting and manuring Soil tillage Soil Crop health; Quality; Protection Weed management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/16461/1/AGTEC_Agronomy_Handbook_of_Methods.pdf
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Associating wheat crop and undersown forage legumes in organic agriculture: Incidence of forage legumes species Organic Eprints
Celette, Florian; Goulevant, Gael; Amosse, Camille; David, Christophe.
One of the key issues of organic arable systems is to increase use of N2 fixation from legume plants while enhancing autonomy by the limitation of off-farm inputs. Wheat yield in organic agriculture is generally low and variable. Grain yield and protein content are strongly affected by N deficiency and weed competition (Casagrande et al., 2009). Previous research had clearly demonstrated the benefits of forage legumes to improve N balance and preserve weed infestation (den Hollander et al., 2007). Several authors highlighted the interest of crop mixtures combining cereal and legumes to provide higher overall productivity, enhance ecological services and improve economical profitability (Malezieux et al., 2008). Nevertheless, previous research also...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/18891/1/Celette_2011_18891_conference_paper.pdf
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CORE Organic pilot project AGTEC-Org - presentation at mid-term: AGronomical and TEChnological methods to improve wheat quality Organic Eprints
David, Christophe.
Presentation of the project with experience from the participants, including main results at mid-term, research ideas, experience with transnational research.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Knowledge management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15938/1/CORE_AGTEC_8June.pdf
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DIVERSITY OF CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES AMONG EUROPEAN ORGANIC FARMERS “TILMAN-ORG SESSION” Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers for adopting conservation agriculture practices is currently growing. But, there are few technical and scientific references available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices. The main objectives of this study are (1) to explore the diversity of crop management practices using conservation agriculture methods among European farmers, and (2) to identify main farmers’ strategies. We carried out a survey of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a multi factor analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of spring and winter crop managements. Organic farmers in Europe,...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Crop combinations and interactions; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23910/1/23910_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Effects of sampling and extraction on deoxynivalenol quantification Organic Eprints
Hallier, Arnaud; Celette, Florian; David, Christophe.
Deoxynivalenol was extracted from wheat grain and quantified by GC-ECD. The quantification of deoxynivalenol can be critical, for example in certifying the amount of the mycotoxin in a lot and determining if this amount is over or under a fixed limit. Thus, an objective was to obtain representative samples to monitor DON quantification variability. We show that among the different steps of analysis the critical one is grain sampling. We also show that we were able to significantly improve the extraction rate without increasing the variability by using a longer extraction time with a magnetic agitator, and a grinding process which takes into account both the heterogeneous repartition of deoxynivalenol within wheat grains and different extraction rates...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Produce chain management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/18893/2/Hallier_et_al.pdf
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État des lieux de la collecte du blé biologique panifiable en France Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Joud, Stéphane.
The collect sector of the organic winter wheat is in deep evolution following a widening of the outlets, on arrival of new operators resulting from the conventional sector and with a strong fluctuation in prices. The technological quality of organic wheat is predicted, in a restrictive way, from the protein content of the grains. The requirements of food safety and traceability lead to an increase in controls, beyond the constraints of certification. The consolidation of the wheat-flour-bread chain in France induces (I) a reinforcement of the partnerships amongst the actors, (II) the definition of new criteria to assess the quality adapted to organic production but also, (III) new investments from collectors to guarantee technological quality and safety...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Markets and trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/19481/1/David_%26_Joud_2008_19481_Journal_Paper.pdf
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Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach. Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Valantin-Morison, Muriel; Makowski, David; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène.
Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein content. There is a crucial need for better understanding the variability of grain protein content, because millers require batches with values over 10.5% of dry matter. Here, a regional agronomic diagnosis was carried out to identify the limiting factors and crop management practices explaining the variability of grain protein content. The studied field network was a set of 51 organic winter wheat plots in south-eastern France. The mixed-model method was used for...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil Crop health; Quality; Protection Produce chain management.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/22523/1/Casagrande_2012_%2322523_Journal%20Paper.pdf
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How organic farmers practice conservation agriculture in Europe Organic Eprints
Peigne, Joséphine; Casagrande, Marion; Payet, Vincent; David, Christophe; Sans, F. Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José M.; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beechman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Matt, Darja; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
The interest of organic farmers in adopting conservation agriculture principles, including minimal soil disturbance, permanent soil cover and crop rotation has been growing since the early 2000s. However, currently there is no network for organic farmers practicing conservation agriculture, and a lack of knowledge on how organic farmers implement conservation agriculture in practice. Consequently, few technical references are available for organic farmers when they start applying conservation agriculture practices, in particular on controlling weeds without the use of herbicides. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to explore the diversity of conservation agriculture techniques (i.e., reduced tillage, no-tillage and green manures) practiced among...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil quality; Environmental aspects; Europe.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/31244/1/peigne-etal-2015-Howorganicfarmerspractice-RAaFS-31-1-p72-85.pdf
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Improvement of the soil-crop model AZODYN under conventional, low-input and organic conditions Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène; Valentin Morison, Muriel; Herbain, Céline.
The use of mechanistic crop modelling, simulating the dynamics of crop N requirements and nitrogen supply from the soil and fertilizers, can provide sound advice to users. This paper describes a methodological way to improve soil-crop modeling used for N management of conventional and organic wheat.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Farm nutrient management Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/10310/1/david%2Detal%2D2007%2Dsoil%2Dcrop%2Dmodel_azodyn.pdf
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Improving baking quality, nutritional value and safety of organic winter wheat / Améliorer la qualité technologique, nutritionnelle et sanitaire du blé biologique, Principaux leviers agronomiques et technologiques Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Abecassis, Joël; Carcea, M.; Celette, Florian; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle; Friedel, J.; Hiltbrunner, J.; Mäder, Paul; Messmer, Monika; Narducci, V.; Peigne, Joséphine; Thomsen, I. K..
The organic bread wheat market has been diversified over time through the emergence of different sale channels. Processors require organic bread wheat of higher quality and safety in order to meet the consumers’ demand. The overall objective of the AGTEC-Org project was to identify agronomical and technological ways to improve the performance of organic wheat and flour. The findings would contribute to enhanced baking quality and nutritional value of organic flour, as well as prevention of mycotoxin contamination. The project involved 9 research centers or universities from 5 European countries for a total budget of about 1.5 million €. More than 400 experimental treatments were analyzed from 23 agronomic trials and 4 lab-experiments on food technology....
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Food security; Food quality and human health Composting and manuring Processing; Packaging and transportation.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/26013/1/David_2013_CIAG_Vol32.pdf
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Incidence of limiting factors on organic winter wheat performance Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Valantin-Morison, Muriel; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène.
French organic farmers are asked to increase Grain Protein Content (GPC) of organic winter wheat to guarantee the breadmaking quality required from millers. Facing with the recent depletion of organic products, farmers also need to stabilize and increase the yield performance. The aim of our study is to give the explanations of the yield and GPC variability generally observed in organic production. A diagnostic method will be implemented on a network of ca. 10 fields per year during two crop years added with previous field network (77 fields) and experi-ments (4 experiments on cultivars). We will under-stand yield and GPC performance from environmental and agronomic conditions and relate the observed limiting factors with crop management, climatic...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/7358/1/ShortpaperMarionCasagrande.rtf
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Incidence of soil N fertility on the performance of organic forage legume-wheat mixtures. Organic Eprints
Celette, Florian; Goulevant, Gael; Amosse, Camille; David, Christophe.
One of the key issues of organic arable systems is to bring enough nitrogen in the crop rotation to ensure satisfying crop nutrition. Wheat yield in organic agriculture are generally low and variable. Grain yield and grain protein content are strongly affected by N deficiency and weed competition (Casagrande et al., 2009). Nevertheless, the autonomy of the organic cropping systems has to be improved while off-farm inputs have to be limited. The use of N2 fixation from legume plants should then be improved. Previous research had clearly demonstrated the benefits of forage legumes in association to improve N balance and control weed seed bank. However, it is also well known that legume N2 fixation could be limited depending on the soil N fertility. The...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop combinations and interactions Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/18892/1/Celette_2011_18892_paper.pdf
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Indicators of weed competition on Organic Winter Wheat Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; David, Christophe; Valentin Morison, Muriel; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène.
Organic winter wheat production is limited by climatic and agronomic factors, including weed competition. The incidence of weeds on yield limitation can be characterized through various early indicators to predict weed occurrence and competition. A network of 10 fields of organic winter wheat was implemented in the South East of France in 2005-2006. Results showed that weed density, dynamics and diversity are good indicators for weed occurrence and competition.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Weed management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/10311/1/casagrande%2Detal%2D2007%2Dwinterwheat.pdf
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New challenges to improve organic bread wheat production in Europe Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Celette, Florian; Abecassis, Joël; Carcea, Marina; Friedel, Jürgen K.; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Messmer, Monika; Peigne, Joséphine; Samson, Marie-Françoise; Schweinzer, Agnes; Thomsen, I.K.; Thommen, Andreas.
The total organic area in the EU-27 had an annual average growth rate of nearly 15% from 1998 to 2006 with winter wheat being the most important cereal crop. Wheat yield in organic farming is around 30% to 70% of yield of conventional farming but higher premia for organic wheat may to some extent compensate for this. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems and four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation are considered to be the most serious threat in organic wheat production. Organic wheat producers will have to fulfil the technological needs of bakers although the requirements differ widely from small artisan bakers to large enterprises handling the organic bread...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19483/1/OWBread_ISOFAR2011_David_et_al2011.pdf
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ORGANIC FARMERS IN EUROPE: MOTIVATIONS AND PROBLEMS FOR USING CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE PRACTICES. "TILMAN-ORG Session" Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Peigne, Joséphine; David, Christophe; Sans, Francesc Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Cooper, Julia; Gascoyne, Kate; Antichi, Daniele; Bàrberi, Paolo; Bigongiali, Federica; Surböck, Andreas; Kranzler, Andreas; Beeckman, Annelies; Willekens, Koen; Luik, Anne; Peetsmann, Elen; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Mäder, Paul.
As conservation agriculture and organic farming are currently considered as environmentally friendly options for producing food, this study explores the motivations and problems of organic European farmers that apply at least two of the following techniques: (i) no-tillage, (ii) reduced tillage and/or (iii) green manures conservation practices. We carried out a survey about motivations and problems of 159 farmers located in 10 European countries with a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Data were analysis with a principal component analysis followed by clustering to identify groups of farmers that share the same type of motivations and problems. The most important motivations are related to soil preservation concerns and problems are mainly linked...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Surveys and statistics; Social aspects; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/23939/1/23939_revised%20version_MM.pdf
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Organic farmers’ motivations and challenges for adopting conservation agriculture in Europe Organic Eprints
Casagrande, Marion; Peigne, Joséphine; Payet, Vincent; Mäder, Paul; Sans, F. Xavier; Blanco-Moreno, José Manuel; Antichi, Daniele; Barberi, Paolo; Beeckmann, Annelies; Bigongiali, Federica; Cooper, Julia; Dierauer, Hansueli; Gascoyne, Kate; Grosse, Meike; Heß, Jürgen; Kranzler, Andreas; Luik, Anne; Peetsmann, Elen; Surböck, Andreas; Willekens, Koen; David, Christophe.
Conservation agriculture and organic farming are considered as promising sustainable agricultural system for producing food, while minimizing environmental impacts. Despite an increasing number of experimental data on organic conservation practices and various studies dealing with the adoption of conservation agriculture by farmers, none of those studies have specifically addressed conservation agriculture adoption under organic conditions in Europe. We carried out a survey with 159 farmers located in 10 European countries. These farmers had applied at least two of the following conservation practices: (i) no-tillage, (ii) reduced tillage and (iii) green manures. Each farmer assessed socio-economic, agronomic and environmental motivations and problems for...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Soil tillage; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2015 URL: http://orgprints.org/29478/1/casagrande-etal-2015-OrganicAgriculture-p1-15-OrgFarmersMotivations.pdf
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Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks: a meta-analysis Organic Eprints
Cooper, Julia; Baranski, Marcin; Stewart, Gavin; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha; Barberi, Paolo; Fliessbach, Andreas; Peigne, Joséphine; Berner, Alfred; Brock, Christopher; Casagrande, Marion; Crowley, Oliver; David, Christophe; De Vliegher, Alex; Döring, Thomas F.; Dupont, Aurélien; Entz, Martin; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Halde, Caroline; Hammerl, Verena; Huiting, Hilfred; Leithold, Günter; Messmer, Monika; Schloter, Michael; Sukkel, Wijnand; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.; Willekens, Koen; Wittwer, Raphaël; Mäder, Paul.
Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the results from both published and unpublished research comparing deep or shallow inversion tillage, with various categories of reduced tillage under organic management. Shallow refers to less than 25 cm. We found that (1) division of reduced tillage practices into different classes with varying degrees of intensity allowed us to assess the trade-offs between reductions in tillage intensity, crop yields, weed incidence, and soil C stocks. (2) Reducing tillage intensity in...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil tillage.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://orgprints.org/29974/1/Cooper-etal-2016-ASD-36_22.pdf
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