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A practical inference method with several implicative gradual rules and a fuzzy input : one and two dimensions Inra
Jones, H.; Dubois, D.; Guillaume, S.; Charnomordic, B..
A general approach to practical inference with gradual implicative rules and fuzzy inputs is presented. Gradual rules represent constraints restricting outputs of a fuzzy system for each input. They are tailored for interpolative reasoning. Our approach to inference relies on the use of inferential independence. It is based on fuzzy output computation under an interval-valued input. A double decomposition of fuzzy inputs is done in terms of alpha-cuts and in terms of a partitioning of these cuts according to areas where only a few rules apply. The case of one and two dimensional inputs is considered.
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: INFERENCE STATISTIQUE; LOGIQUE FLOUE; ALGORITHME FUZZY LOGIC; STATISTIC INFERENCE; ALGORITHM.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD20086af29f07&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2008/08/
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Agronomical techniques to improve technological and sanitary quality Organic Eprints
David, C.; Celette, F.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.; Dubois, D.; Friedel, J.K.; Hellou, G.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Mäder, P.; Thomsen, I.K..
In spite of variable grain protein contents, baking quality of organic wheat was found to be acceptable to good. Mycotoxin (DON) infestation was generally low on tested grain samples. Choice of wheat cultivar was the most efficient way to obtain higher grain quality. Fertilization with readily available nitrogen and, to a lower extent, association with legumes and green manures with mixtures containing fodder legumes also improved grain quality. Reduced tillage affected soil quality and wheat yield but had little effects on grain quality.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21100/1/AGTEC_farmers_leaflet_Final_VJune12.pdf
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Basal organic phosphorus mineralization in soils under different farming systems Organic Eprints
Oehl, F.; Frossard, E.; Fliessbach, A.; Dubois, D.; Oberson, A..
Soil organic P (Po) mineralization plays an important role in soil P cycling. Quantitative information on the release of available inorganic P (Pi) by this process is difficult to obtain because any mineralized Pi gets rapidly sorbed. We applied a new approach to quantify basal soil Po mineralization, based on 33PO4 isotopic dilution during 10 days of incubation, in soils differing in microbiological activity. The soils originated from a 20 years old field experiment, including a conventional system receiving exclusively mineral fertilizers (MIN), a bioorganic (ORG) and bio-dynamic (DYN) system. Indicators of soil microbiological activity, such as size and activity of the soil microbial biomass and phosphatase activity, were highest in DYN and lowest in...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/2791/1/Oehl_et_al_2004_SBB_36.pdf
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Einfluss der Bewirtschaftungsform, der Vorfrucht und der Düngung auf den Befall von Winterweizenkörnern mit Pilzkrankheiten im DOK-Versuch Organic Eprints
Gunst, Lucie; Krebs, Heinz; Dubois, D.; Forrer, H.-R..
In the DOK long-term field trial in Switzerland comparing bio-dynamic, bio-organic, and conventional farming systems, the occurrence of Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale on grains of wheat was investigated from 1997 to 2003. Although no differences between the farming systems were found, the previous crop, the fertilisation level, and the year significantly influenced the disease incidence. In 2003, the effect of the pre-crops potatoes versus silage-maize on fusaria was compared. As expected, the incidence of fusaria was significantly higher after maize compared with potatoes. However, the main responsible species was not F. graminearum but F. poae. This species is known for the production of hazardous toxins. A greater input of fertiliser resulted...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Crop combinations and interactions Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Composting and manuring.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3781/1/3781.pdf
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Einfluss ökologischer Bewirtschaftung und verschiedener Kulturen auf die Regenwurmfauna Organic Eprints
Dubois, D.; Jossi, W.; Pfiffner, L.; Tschachtli, R.; Zihlmann, U..
Problemstellung/Ziele:Vorkommen und Artenzusammensetzung der Regenwurmpopulation haben eine grosse Bedeutung im nachhaltigen Ackerbau. Als Architekten und Bauarbeiter des Bodens beeinflussen die Regenwürmer verschiedene Parameter der Bodenfruchtbarkeit und damit das Wachstums der Kulturpflanzen. Der Landwirt beeinflusst das Regenwurmvorkommen bei vorgegebenem Standort und Fruchtfolge vor allem durch Bewirtschaftungsmassnahmen wie Düngung, Pflanzenschutz und Bodenbearbeitung. Um Richtung und Ausmass dieser Einflüsse zu erkennen untersuchten wir von 1997 bis 2001 die Regenwurmpopulationen im ökologischen und den integrierten Anbausystemen des Vergleichsversuches Burgrain (D. Dubois, 1999). Fazit: Ökologische Bewirtschaftung förderte auf Burgrain...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Crop health; Quality; Protection Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://orgprints.org/2756/1/dubois%2Det%2Dal%2D2003%2Dregenwurmfauna.pdf
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Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Organic Eprints
Oehl, F.; Sieverding, E.; Mäder, Paul; Dubois, D.; Ineichen, K.; Boller, T.; Wiemken, A..
Previous work has shown considerably enhanced soil fertility in agroecosystems managed by organic farming compared to conventional farming. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in nutrient acquisition and soil fertility. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of AMF in the context of a long-term study in which replicated field plots, at a single site in Central Europe (DOK-Trial. Therwil, Switzerland), had been cultivated for 22 years according to two "organic" and two "conventional" farming systems. In the 23rd year, the field plots, carrying an 18-month-old grass-clover stand, were examined in two ways with respect to AMF diversity. Firstly, AMF spores were isolated and morphologically identified from soil samples....
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/2811/1/no-document-rft.rtf
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Incorporation of Nitrogen-15-Labeled Amendments into Physically Separated Soil Organic Matter Fractions Organic Eprints
Bosshard, C.; Frossard, E.; Dubois, D.; Mäder, P.; Manolov, I.; Oberson, A..
Physically separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions may take different functions in soil N dynamics. We studied the effect of long-term organic matter (OM) management and different soil biological activity on the incorporation of N added with organic and mineral amendments into aggregate fractions and size density fractions. We applied 15N-labeled sheep feces, urine, and mineral fertilizer to microplots installed in plots of conventional (CONMIN) and bio-organic (BIOORG) cropping systems. Soil sampled 112 d after amendment was separated into macro-, microaggregates, and microstructures. Aggregates were then fractionated into free light fraction (LF), intra-aggregate particulate organic matter (iPOM),and the mineral-associated organic matter fraction...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/26387/1/Bosshard_et_al_2008_SSSAJ_72_POM.pdf
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Koordinierter Wissensaustausch für Innovationen und Forschung im biologischen Landbau Organic Eprints
Strasser, F.; Alföldi, T.; Baumann, D.; Charles, R.; Dubois, D.; Fried, P.M.; Gallmann, P.; Kaufmann, R..
To optimize the spreading of knowledge in different fields of organic farming and to support its transfer to the different stakeholders, Agroscope (the 6 Swiss Federal Agricultural Research Stations) and FiBL (the Research Institute of Organic Farming) meet at a regular bases to coordinate their research. The main task is to identify research needs together with farmers and other interested groups and to help with the implementation of research projects. Knowledge transfer is done mainly by annual meetings in cooperation with local organic farmer organisations and once a year a specific workshop/meeting is organized for researchers.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Switzerland; Technology transfer.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/3451/1/3451.pdf
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Méthode d'inférence générique avec plusieurs règles implicatives et une entrée floue Inra
Jones, H.; Dubois, D.; Guillaume, S.; Charnomordic, B..
Cet article propose une méthode générique d’inférence avec des règles implicatives graduelles et des entrées floues. Les règles graduelles permettent de représenterdes contraintes sur un ensemble de possibles et sont très intéressantes pour leur capacité d’interpolation. Nousproposons une méthode d’inférence basée sur la notion de système bien conditionné. Elle s’appuie sur l’inférence à partir d’entrées rectangulaires dont le calcul s’avèresimple. Elle utilise une double décomposition : par a-coupes pour se ramener à des entrées rectangulaires et parpartitionnement de ces coupes en régions rectangulaires où seules deux règles s’appliquent à la fois.
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: REGLES IMPLICATIVES GRADUELLES; ENTREES FLOUES; INFERENCE; SYSTEME BIEN CONDITIONNE; DECOMPOSITION IMPLICATIVE GRADUAL RULES; FUZZY INPUTS; WELL CONDITIONED SYSTEM.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD200743a00d3f&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2008/02/
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Phosphorus budget and phosphorus availability in soils under organic and conventional farming Organic Eprints
Oehl, F.; Oberson, A.; Tagmann, H.U.; Besson, J.M.; Dubois, D.; Mäder, P.; Roth, H.-R.; Frossard, E..
The aim of this work was to assess to which extent organic farming practices would affect the accumulation of total and available phosphorus (P) in a cropped soil in comparison to conventional practices. In order to achieve this, soil samples were taken from a long-term field trial comparing a non-fertilised control (NON), two conventionally cultivated treatments (MIN, CON), and two organically cultivated treatments (ORG, DYN). Soil samples were taken from each treatment at two depths (0-20 and 30-50 cm) before starting the field trial (1977) and at the end of every three crop rotations (1984, 1991 and 1998). They were then analysed for total P (Pt ), total inorganic P (Pi ), total organic P (Po) and isotopically exchangeable Pi . After 21 years, the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/26761/1/Oehl_et_al_2002_NCA.pdf
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Practical inference with systems of gradual implicative rules Inra
Jones, H.; Charnomordic, B.; Dubois, D.; Guillaume, S..
A general approach to practical inference with gradual implicative rules and fuzzy inputs is presented. Gradual rules represent constraints restricting outputs of a fuzzy system for each input. They are tailored for interpolative reasoning. Our approach to inference relies on the use of inferential independence. It is based on fuzzy output computation under an interval-valued input. A double decomposition of fuzzy inputs is done in terms of a-cuts and in terms of a partitioning of these cuts according to areas where only a few rules apply. The case of 1-D and 2-D inputs is considered, as well as higher dimensional cases. An application to H cheese-making process illustrates the approach.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: REGLE FLOUE; REGLES IMPLICATIVES GRADUELLES; ENTREES FLOUES; METHODE D’INFERENCE FUZZY INPUTS; FUZZY RULES; GRADUAL IMPLICATIVE RULES; INFERENCE METHOD; INPUT DECOMPOSITION;  .
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD2009f2490d99&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/12/
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Practical use of fuzzy implicative gradual rules in knowledge representation and comparison with Mamdani rules Inra
Jones, H.; Guillaume, S.; Charnomordic, B.; Dubois, D..
Thanks to their ability to model natural language, fuzzy rules are very popular in expert knowledge representation. Mamdani fuzzy systems are widely used for process simulation or control. Nevertheless, fuzzy implicative rules, and especially gradual rules, provide another kind of knowledge representation, which can be very useful in approximate reasoning. In this paper, the two types of rules are compared according to their behavior in some typical situations such as rule interpolation, combination of a specific rule with a more generic one. The comparison is carried out with regard to the output possibility distribution, the crisp inferred value and the rule base consistency. Finally, we discuss the complemental aspects of these rules and we show how...
Tipo: Conference Paper Palavras-chave: LOGIQUE FLOUE; SIMULATION; REGLES DE MANDANI FUZZY LOGIC; CONJUNCTIVE RULES; MAMDANI RULES; IMPLICATIVE RULES; GRADUAL RULES; INTERPOLATION.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201076a78004&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2011/01/
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Symbiotic N2 fixation by soybean in organic and conventional cropping systems estimated by 15N dilution and 15N natural abundance Organic Eprints
Oberson, A.; Nanzer, S.; Bosshard, C.; Dubois, D.; Mäder, P.; Frossard, E..
Nitrogen (N) is often the most limiting nutrient in organic cropping systems. N2 fixing crops present an important option to improve N supply and to maintain soil fertility. In a field experiment, we investigated whether the lower N fertilization level and higher soil microbial activity in organic than conventional systems affected symbiotic N2 fixation by soybean (Glycine max, var. Maple Arrow) growing in 2004 in plots that were since 1978 under the following systems: bio-dynamic (DYN); bio-organic (ORG); conventional with organic and mineral fertilizers (CON); CON with exclusively mineral fertilizers (MIN); non-fertilized control (NON). We estimated the percentage of legume N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) by the natural abundance (NA) method. For...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13460/1/oberson-etal-2007-plant-and-soil_290_69-83.pdf
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Techniques to improve technological and sanitary quality Organic Eprints
David, C.; Celette, F.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.; Dubois, D.; Friedel, J.K.; Hellou, G.; Jeuffroy, M.-H.; Mäder, P.; Thomsen, I. K..
Agronomical ways for better quality and safety Choice of cultivar is an efficient way to obtain higher grain quality. Intercropping legumes (grain or forage) improves weed competition and N availability for wheat crop or succeeding crop. Green manure can be an effective alternative to farmyard manure. Fertilization with readily available nitrogen improves yield and quality when water is available. Reduced tillage affects soil fertility and wheat yield but has little effects on grain quality. Technological ways for better quality and safety Milling process strongly influences flour characteristics. Stone milling improves nutritive value; characteristics remain very stable independent of the milling yield. Flour characteristics from roller milling...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20851/1/AGTEC_general_leaflet__FVMarch12.pdf
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Techniques to improve technological and sanitary quality Organic Eprints
David, C.; Celette, F.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.; Dubois, D.; Friedel, J. K.; Hellou, G.; Jeuffroy, M.-H.; Mäder, P.; Thomsen, I. K..
The demand for high quality organic bread cereals is increasing. In spite of variable grain protein contents, baking quality of organic wheat was found to be acceptable to good. Mycotoxin (DON) contents were generally low on tested grain samples. Choice of the wheat cultivar is the most efficient way to obtain higher grain quality. Fertilization with readily available nitrogen and, to a lower extent, association with legumes and green manuring with mixtures containing fodder legumes can also improve grain quality. Reduced tillage affects soil quality and wheat yield but has little effects on grain quality.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20850/1/AGTEC_farmers_leaflet_v3March12.pdf
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Technological quality of organic wheat in Europe Organic Eprints
David, C.; Celette, F.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.; Dubois, D.; Friedel, J. K.; Hellou, G.; Jeuffroy, M.-H.; Mäder, P.; Thomsen, I. K..
The demand for high quality organic bread wheat is increasing. The quality level of organic wheat harvested in EU is mainly dependant on variety, environmental conditions and agronomic practices. In some countries, protein content and composition, influencing technological value, are equivalent to those produced under conventional practices. Beside agronomical techniques, technological processes can help to maintain a good quality. Pre-treatments before milling such as debranning were found to be efficient in reducing DON contamination. The project highlighted the necessity to redefine the methods to assess the quality of organic wheat.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/20852/1/AGTEC_technological_leaflet_April_12FV.pdf
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The role of players’ identification in the population on the trusting and the trustworthy behaviour: an experimental investigation Inra
Dubois, D.; Willinger, M.; INRA, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (FRA).
We study to what extent identification does matter for trustfulness and trustworthiness to emerge in a population of players. Our experimental protocol is designed for isolating the effects of trustees’ identification. Trustees’ identification is a necessary condition for introducing a reputation mechanism. We run three treatments. In each treatment groups 6 players interact repeatedly and randomly and play a 30 periods investment game (Berg & al. 1995). In the first treatment players can’t identify each other, in the second one players can identify each other as trustee and in the third one players identify each other both as trustee and trustor. We show that, according to the expectation, trustees’ identification has a positive effect on reciprocity....
Tipo: Book Palavras-chave: JEU D'INVESTISSEMENT; CONFIANCE; RECIPROCITE; ECONOMIE EXPERIMENTALE; REPUTATION; JEU DE REPETITION.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://www.prodinra.inra.fr/prodinra/pinra/doc.xsp?id=PROD201036113057&uri=/notices/prodinra1/2010/08/
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Wheat quality in organic and conventional farming: results of a 21 year field experiment Organic Eprints
Mäder, P.; Hahn, D.; Dubois, D.; Gunst, L.; Alföldi, T.; Bergmann, H.; Oehme, M.; Amadô, R.; Schneider, H.; Graf, U.; Velimirov, A.; Fließbach, A.; Niggli, U..
Consumers have become more aware of healthy and safe food produced with low environmental impact. Organic agriculture is of particular interest in this respect, as manifested by 5.768 million hectares managed pursuant to Council Regulation (EEC) 2092/91 in Europe. However, there can be a considerable risk that the avoidance of chemical inputs in organic farming will result in poor food quality. Here the results of a study on the quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a 21 year agrosystem comparison between organic and conventional farming in central Europe are reported. Wheat was grown in a ley (grass/clover) rotation. The 71% lower addition of plant-available nitrogen and the reduced input of other means of production to the organic field plots...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/13316/1/Maeder_etal_2007_J_Sci_Food_Agr.pdf
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