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Registros recuperados: 33
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A Paradox for Agro-Environmental Land Policy AgEcon
Hennessy, David A.; Feng, Hongli.
A regulator with a fixed budget to spend on securing environmental benefits from farmed land has to choose between how many acres to enroll and the extent of benefits to require of each enrolled acre. Here we consider, given heterogeneous land, what properties of the environmental benefit-to-cost ratio imply for the choice of optimal program as the available budget varies. Conditions are found such that a program of high benefits on few acres is preferred for any budget level. It is also possible that a program delivering low benefits per acre at low cost is preferred on each land type, and yet a high benefit program is optimal policy, a variant of Simpson’s paradox.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit-to-cost ratio; Environmental policy; Land heterogeneity; Simpson’s paradox.; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53934
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Allocating Nutrient Load Reduction across a Watershed: Implications of Different Principles AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Jha, Manoj K.; Gassman, Philip W..
A watershed based model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), along with transfer coefficients is used to assess alternative principles of allocating nutrient load reduction in the Raccoon River watershed in central Iowa. Four principles are examined for their cost-effectiveness and impacts on water quality: absolute equity, equity based on ability, critical area targeting, and geographic proximity. Based on SWAT simulation results, transfer coefficients are calculated for the effects of nitrogen application reduction. We find both critical area targeting and downstream focus (an example of geographic proximity) can be more expensive than equal allocation, a manifestation of absolute equity. Unless abatement costs are quite heterogeneous across the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21131
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ALTERNATIVE INTERTEMPROAL PERMIT TRADING REGIMES WITH STOCHASTIC ABATEMENT COSTS AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Zhao, Jinhua.
We examine the social efficiency of alternative intertemporal permit trading regimes. Banking with a 1-to-1 ratio and with a non-unitary intertemporal trading ratio (ITR) are compared with each other and with the no-banking permit trading regime. The more industry-wide shocks vary, and/or the more they are negatively correlated across time, the more efficient is a bankable permit regime. When the slope of the benefit function is greater than the slope of the damage function, banking with ITR=1+r is more efficient than a no-banking regime. Banking with ITR=1 can be more efficient than a no-banking regime. However, whether ITR=1 or ITR=1+r is better depends on the covariance structure of the shocks and the benefit and damage functions.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Bankable permits; Permit banking; Borrowing; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18543
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CARBON SEQUESTRATION, CO-BENEFITS, AND CONSERVATION PROGRAMS AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Kling, Catherine L.; Gassman, Philip W..
Land use changes to sequester carbon also provide "co-benefits," some of which (for example, water quality) have attracted at least as much attention as carbon storage. The non-separability of these co-benefits presents a challenge for policy design. If carbon markets are employed, then social efficiency will depend on how we take into account co-benefits, that is, externalities, in such markets. If carbon sequestration is incorporated into conservation programs, then the weight given to carbon sequestration relative to its co-benefits will partly shape these programs. Using the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) as an example, we show that CRP has been sequestering carbon, which was not an intended objective of the program. We also demonstrate that more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Co-benefits; Conservation Reserve Program; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18336
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Carbon Sequestration, Co-Benefits, and Conservation Programs AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Kling, Catherine L.; Gassman, Philip W..
Land retirement and other agricultural conservation actions contribute greenhouse gas offsets and water quality improvements and reduce erosion and nitrogen runoff. Shifting the programmatic focus to carbon would enhance C sequestration and reduce nitrogen runoff, but would likely increase erosion.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94004
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Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture: an Offset Program versus Other Conservation Programs AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Kling, Catherine L..
In this paper, we study the social efficiency of private carbon markets that include trading in agricultural soil carbon sequestration when there are significant co-benefits (positive environmental externalities) associated with the practices that sequester carbon. Likewise, we investigate the efficiency of government run conservation programs that are designed to promote a broad array of environmental attributes (both carbon sequestration and its co-benefits) for the supply of carbon. Finally, policy design and efficiency issues associated with the potential interplay between a private carbon market and a government conservation program are studied. Empirical analyses for an area that represents a significant potential source of carbon sequestration and...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19177
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Carbon Sequestration in Agriculture: Value and Implementation AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Zhao, Jinhua; Kling, Catherine L..
We investigate the value of carbon sequestration in a dynamic model, demonstrating that it is only a fraction of the value of emission abatement unless the sequestration, the natural decay rate of carbon and the discount rate. We also show that to optimally reduce the carbon stock, sinks should be utilized as early as possible. Further, we propose and assess three mechanisms to efficiently introduce sequestration into a carbon permit trading market, a pay-as-you-go system. We show that, although the three mechanisms may not be equally feasible to implement, they are all efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18380
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Conservation Payments: Challenges in Design and Implementation AgEcon
Babcock, Bruce A.; Beghin, John C.; Duffy, Michael D.; Feng, Hongli; Hueth, Brent; Kling, Catherine L.; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Schneider, Uwe A.; Secchi, Silvia; Weninger, Quinn; Zhao, Jinhua.
As Congress develops new farm legislation, some are lobbying for a new partnership between U.S. taxpayers and farmers. In exchange for an annual transfer of $10 to $20 billion from taxpayers to agriculture, farmers would do much more to enhance environmental quality. An attractive feature of a new partnership is that paying for an improved environment provides a clear and justifiable rationale for farm program payments, something that is lacking under current farm programs. By changing management practices and land use, farmers can provide cleaner water, cleaner air, better wildlife habitat, lower net greenhouse gas emissions, and improved long-run soil quality. Private profit maximizers largely ignore the value of these environmental goods. Hence, the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36920
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Economic and Environmental Co-benefits of Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils: Retiring Agricultural Land in the Upper Mississippi River Basin AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Kling, Catherine L.; Gassman, Philip W..
This study investigates the carbon sequestration potential and co-benefits from policies aimed at retiring agricultural land in the Upper Mississippi River Basin, a large, heavily agricultural area. We extend the empirical measurement of co-benefits from the previous focus on environmental benefits to include economic transfers. These transfers have often been mentioned as a co-benefit, but little empirical work measuring the potential magnitude of these transfers has previously been undertaken. We compare and contrast five targeting schemes, each based on maximizing different physical environmental measures, including carbon sequestration, soil erosion, nitrogen runoff, nitrogen leaching, as well as the area enrolled in the program. In each case, the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon sequestration; Co-benefits; Co-effects; Economic transfers; Environmental benefits targeting; Upper Mississippi River Basin; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18423
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ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE: LAND RETIREMENT VERSUS CHANGING PRACTICES ON WORKING LAND AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Kling, Catherine L.; Gassman, Philip W..
The study develops a conceptual framework for analyzing the allocation of conservation funds via selectively offering incentive payments to farmers for enrolling in one of two mutually exclusive agricultural conservation programs: retiring land from production or changing farming practices on land that remains in production. We investigate how the existence of a pre-fixed budget allocation between the programs affects the amounts of environmental benefits obtainable under alternative policy implementation schemes. The framework is applied to a major agricultural production region using field-scale data in conjunction with empirical models of land retirement and conservation tillage adoption, and a biophysical process simulation model for the environmental...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Conservation Reserve Program; Land retirement; Working land; Environmental Economics and Policy; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18627
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Factors influencing CDM locations in China AgEcon
Kim, Jiwoong; Feng, Hongli.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61627
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Geographic Determinants of Preferences along U.S. Crop Insurance Subsidy Schedule AgEcon
Du, Xiaodong; Hennessy, David A.; Feng, Hongli.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124190
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GREEN PAYMENTS AND DUAL POLICY GOALS AgEcon
Feng, Hongli.
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/27/07
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Asymmetric information; Cost effect; Green payments; Income support; Information rent; Mechanism design; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18550
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GREEN PAYMENTS AND DUAL POLICY GOALS AgEcon
Feng, Hongli.
This paper analyzes the efficient design of green payments. Green payments can generate environmental benefits and support farmers' income. We extend a standard adverse selection model by incorporating dual policy goals into the design of green payments: conservation and income support. We also introduce heterogeneity into conservation efficiency type. The results of our dual-goal model and the standard adverse selection model are significantly different. The differences arise from two aspects. First, since farmers may receive green payments for conservation, or income support, or both, the incentive structure in the standard adverse selection model can be significantly altered. Second, information rent is no longer just a cost to induce truthful...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19697
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Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Ethanol from Iowa Corn AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A..
As the United States begins to move towards putting an economic value on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the need for improved accounting standards becomes acute. Lifecycle analysis (LCA), which involves the systematic collection and interpretation of material flow in all relevant processes of a product, has become the accepted procedure to use to determine greenhouse gas emissions of products ranging from transportation fuels, to building materials, to food production (Farrell et al., 2006; Hill et al., 2006; Owen, 2004). The basic motivation of LCA is that, to conduct a fair assessment of the environmental impacts of a product, it is necessary to take into account all of the processes throughout the product’s lifespan, including the extraction...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49101
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Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Ethanol from Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis versus System-wide Accounting AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A..
Life cycle analysis (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, it is increasingly recognized that LCA results do not account for some impacts including land use changes that have important implications on GHGs. Thus, an alternative accounting system that goes beyond LCA is needed. In this paper, we contribute to the literature by laying out the basics of a system-wide accounting (SWA) method that takes into account all potential changes in GHGs resulting from biofuel expansion. We applied both LCA and SWA to assess the GHG impacts of ethanol based on Iowa corn. Growing corn in rotation with soybeans generated 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Corn ethanol; Greenhouse gas; Life cycle analysis; System-wide accounting; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6503
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Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Ethanol from Iowa Corn: Life Cycle Analysis versus System-wide Accounting AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A..
Life cycle analysis (LCA) is the standard approach used to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits of biofuels. However, it is increasingly recognized that LCA results do not account for some impacts—including land use changes—that have important implications on GHGs. Thus, an alternative accounting system that goes beyond LCA is needed. In this paper, we contribute to the literature by laying out the basics of a system-wide accounting (SWA) method that takes into account all potential changes in GHGs resulting from biofuel expansion. We applied both LCA and SWA to assess the GHG impacts of ethanol based on Iowa corn. Growing corn in rotation with soybeans generated 35% less GHG emissions than growing corn after corn. Based on average corn production,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Corn ethanol; Greenhouse gas; Life cycle analysis; System-wide accounting; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6312
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Impacts of Ethanol on Planted Acreage in Market Equilibrium AgEcon
Feng, Hongli; Babcock, Bruce A..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/15/08.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biofuels; Complements in supply; Ethanol; (in)direct land use changes; Substitutes in supply; Yield increases..
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37406
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Land Retirement Program Design and Empirical Assessments In the Presence of Crop Insurance Subsidies AgEcon
Hennessy, David A.; Miao, Ruiqing; Feng, Hongli.
The U.S. Federal Government implements environmental, biofuels and crop insurance programs that influence land use. They are not well-integrated in that cost savings from crop insurance subsidies are not acknowledged when screening land for retirement or when calculating the cost of land retirement programs. We identify and evaluate an optimal benefit index for enrollment in a land retirement program that includes a sub-index to rank land according to insurance subsidy savings. All else equal, land ranked higher in the Lorenz stochastic order should be retired first. Empirical analysis based on field level data will be provided.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agro-environmental policy; Budget; Conservation reserve program; Crop failure; Environmental benefit index; Lorenz order; Land Economics/Use; Risk and Uncertainty; Q18; Q28.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/104002
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Land Use Consequences of Crop Insurance Subsidies AgEcon
Miao, Ruiqing; Feng, Hongli; Hennessy, David A..
There have long been concerns that federal crop insurance subsidies may significantly impact land use decisions. It is well known that classical insurance market information asymmetry problems can lead to a social excess of risky land entering crop production. Our conceptual model shows that the problem will arise absent any information failures. This is because the subsidy is i) proportional to acres planted, and ii) greatest for the most production risky land. Using farm-level data, we follow this observation through to establish the implications of subsidies for the extent of crop production, with particular emphasis on U.S. regions where the cropland growth is likely to have marked adverse environmental impacts. Simulation results show that when...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Crop insurance; Land use; Crop yields; Yield risk measurement; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries; Land Economics/Use; Q15; Q18; Q24.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103891
Registros recuperados: 33
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
 

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