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Registros recuperados: 17
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A Weakening Global Economy Interrupts Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Gehlhar, Mark J.; Dohlman, Erik.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/124155
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AGRICULTURAL POLICY REFORM IN THE WTO: THE ROAD AHEAD AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Elbehri, Aziz; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Gibson, Paul R.; Leetmaa, Susan E.; Mitchell, Lorraine; Nelson, Frederick J.; Nimon, R. Wesley; Normile, Mary Anne; Roe, Terry L.; Shapouri, Shahla; Skully, David W.; Smith, Mark; Somwaru, Agapi; Trueblood, Michael A.; Tsigas, Marinos E.; Wainio, John; Whitley, Daniel B.; Young, C. Edwin.
Agricultural trade barriers and producer subsidies inflict real costs, both on the countries that use these policies and on their trade partners. Trade barriers lower demand for trade partners' products, domestic subsidies can induce an oversupply of agricultural products which depresses world prices, and export subsidies create increased competition for producers in other countries. Eliminating global agricultural policy distortions would result in an annual world welfare gain of $56 billion. High protection for agricultural commodities in the form of tariffs continues to be the major factor restricting world trade. In 2000, World Trade Organization (WTO) members continued global negotiations on agricultural policy reform. To help policymakers and others...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/34015
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Agricultural Trade and Economic Integration in the Western Hemisphere: Current Status AgEcon
Valdes, Constanza; Wainio, John; Gehlhar, Mark J..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50813
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Are Competitors' Free Trade Agreements Putting U.S. Agricultural Exporters at a Disadvantage? AgEcon
Wainio, John; Dyck, John H.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Vollrath, Thomas L..
The growing number of free trade agreements among U.S. competitors has prompted questions about whether U.S. agricultural exporters may lose a share of the global market. ERS research shows that the recently created ASEAN-China and ASEANAustralia/ New Zealand free trade agreements are likely to have modest adverse impacts on U.S. agricultural exports. The Mercosur-Colombia free trade agreement has reduced U.S. agricultural exports to Colombia; U.S. grain sellers face increasingly stiff competition due to preferential tariffs granted to Mercosur exporters.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121095
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Bilateral Protection and Other Determinants of Trade: A Gravity Model Approach AgEcon
Vollrath, Thomas L.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Hallahan, Charles B..
Replaced with revised version of paper 10/03/07.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9804
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Developing Country Trade: Implications of China’s Changing Trade and Competitiveness in Intensive and Extensive Margin Goods AgEcon
Somwaru, Agapi; Tuan, Francis C.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Diao, Xinshen; Hansen, James M..
This paper delves into China’s differential growths in trade flows with high income and developing countries by focusing on bilateral content of trade data over the time period 1978-2005. Unlike other studies, we account for end use of traded goods ranging from primary, intermediate, and finished goods because China’s policies impact all segments China’s trade flows. In the last 28 years, China has specialized in deficits in the upstream production segments (parts and components) and rapid diversification in consumption goods (extensive margin). While in the late 1970s China’s export and import growth on all goods with major high income countries is outstanding in the most recent years China’s trade growth with developing countries has taken the lead...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: China; International trade; Growth; Intensive; Extensive margins; Developing countries; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6239
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Effects of Increased Biofuels on the U.S. Economy in 2022 AgEcon
Gehlhar, Mark J.; Somwaru, Agapi; Somwaru, Agapi.
Achieving greater energy security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum is a goal of U.S. energy policy. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) calls for a Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS-2), which mandates that the United States increase the volume of biofuel that is blended into transportation fuel from 9 billion gallons in 2008 to 36 billion gallons by 2022. Long-term technological advances are needed to meet this mandate. This report examines how meeting the RFS-2 would affect various key components of the U.S. economy. If biofuel production advances with cost-reducing technology and petroleum prices continue to rise as projected, the RFS-2 could provide economywide benefits. However, the actual level of benefits (or costs) to the...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Bioenergy; Economywide; Ethanol; Petroleum; Trade; Macroeconomic factors; RFS-2; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/96758
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Forces behind China's Surging Trade: Competitiveness or Policy Driven? AgEcon
Somwaru, Agapi; Tuan, Francis C.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Diao, Xinshen; Langley, Suchada V..
This paper delves into China's differential growths in trade flows with high income countries by focusing on bilateral content of trade data over the time period 1962-2005. Unlike other studies, we account for end use of traded goods ranging from primary, intermediate, and finished goods because China's policies impact all segments China's trade flows. China's trade growth patterns with major high income countries clearly indicate that the adjacency-neighborhood partners alone is unlikely to explain its unprecedented growth in exports and imports. China's outstanding performance in trade growth can be traced back to the 1970s with changes in its policies and increased involvement in the international segmentation of production processes and preferential...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: China; International trade; Growth; Policies; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9907
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Global Growth, Macroeconomic Change, and U.S. Agricultural Trade AgEcon
Gehlhar, Mark J.; Dohlman, Erik; Brooks, Nora L.; Jerardo, Alberto; Vollrath, Thomas L..
After a decade of uneven export growth and rapidly growing imports, U.S. agriculture has begun to reassert its position in global trade markets. Rising exports and signs of moderating demand for imports mark a departure from previous trends. This report places past trends and emerging developments in perspective by spotlighting the role of two specific factors that help steer U.S. agricultural trade patterns: global growth and shifts in foreign economic activity that affect U.S. exports, and macroeconomic factors underlying the growth of U.S. imports. Consistent with actual changes in the level and destination of U.S. exports, model simulations corroborate the contention that renewed export growth can be sustained by expanding incomes and growing food...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Trade balance; Income growth; Economic development; Population; Macroeconomics; Exchange rates; Current account; Growth projections.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; International Development; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55963
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How Is Global Food Trade Shifting? What's Behind It All? (Power Point Presentation) AgEcon
Gehlhar, Mark J..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33351
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Macroeconomic and Global Growth Influences on the U.S. Agricultural Trade Balance AgEcon
Gehlhar, Mark J.; Dohlman, Erik.
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/20/06.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21324
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MARKET ACCESS FOR HIGH-VALUE FOODS AgEcon
Regmi, Anita; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Wainio, John; Vollrath, Thomas L.; Johnston, Paul V.; Kathuria, Nitin.
Market access remains a major impediment for expansion of global trade in high-value foods, particularly processed foods. Countries use tariffs and other measures that effectively stimulate imports of relatively unprocessed agricultural commodities at the expense of processed products. Tariff escalation, in which tariffs rise with the level of processing, discourages trade in high-value foods, and trade remedy measures, such as antidumping duties, are concentrated among high-value products. Globalization has provided countries with easier access to capital and technology needed to produce processed food, further affecting trade patterns and markets for high-value foods. A uniform cut in tariffs increases trade in high-value foods more than trade in raw...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food trade; Processed food; High-value foods; Tariff; Tariff escalation; Trade remedy measures; Sanitary and phytosanitary measures; Safeguard measures; Revealed comparative advantage; Trade complementarities; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33999
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NORTH AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL TRADE DURING 1975-98: A BACKGROUND PAPER ON TRADE FLOWS AgEcon
Zahniser, Steven; Gehlhar, Mark J..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16841
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RECONCILING BILATERAL TRADE DATA FOR USE IN GTAP AgEcon
Gehlhar, Mark J..
Bilateral trade flows are reported by both importers and exporters. Large discrepancies in reported import/export trade flows can be found when these two reports are compared. The GTAP database requires consistency between the export flow and its corresponding import flow for all partner pairs. Therefore, bilateral trade data in its reported form cannot be directly used for GTAP. Various methods can be used to produce a consistent set of bilateral trade flows. However, achieving consistency alone does not necessarily provide credible trade flows. Matrix balancing using trade totals published by international agencies is not appropriate since these totals are not reconciled but are simply totals from country-reported flows. A method is developed with...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28714
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Selected Trade Agreements and Implications for U.S. Agriculture AgEcon
Wainio, John; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Dyck, John H..
Since 2001, the United States has concluded negotiations with 13 countries, resulting in 8 trade agreements (TAs). Three additional agreements have been negotiated but not yet ratified by Congress, as of March 2011. Other countries have become increasingly active in negotiating their own trade pacts. This proliferation of TAs between key U.S. trading partners and competitors may have raised concerns among U.S. exporters, whose share in established markets could be eroded by such deals. In this study, ERS examines how recently concluded TAs between ASEAN (Southeast Asia) countries and China and Australia/New Zealand, as well as pending TAs between the United States and Korea, Colombia, and Panama, will likely affect U.S. agricultural trade. Model results...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Market access; Free trade agreements; Tariffs; Trade agreements; Trade creation; Trade diversion; Trade promotion agreements; GTAP model.; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/102754
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UNDERSTANDING THE DETERMINANTS OF STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN WORLD FOOD MARKETS AgEcon
Coyle, William T.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Hertel, Thomas W..
This study assesses the interaction between climate change and agricultural trade policies. We distinguish between two dimensions of agricultural trade policy: market insulation and subsidy levels. Building on the previous work of Tsigas, Frisvold and Kuhn (1997) we find that, in the presence of current levels of agricultural subsidies, increased price transmission --as called for under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture-- reduces global welfare in the wake of climate change. This is due to the positive correlation between productivity changes and current levels of agricultural support. Increases in subsidized output under climate change tend to exacerbate inefficiencies in the global agricultural economy in the absence of market insulation....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Industrial Organization.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28694
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U.S. Dairy at a Global Crossroads AgEcon
Blayney, Donald P.; Gehlhar, Mark J.; Bolling, H. Christine; Jones, Keithly G.; Langley, Suchada V.; Normile, Mary Anne; Somwaru, Agapi.
Current dynamics in world dairy markets and the potential for global and domestic trade policy reform are bringing the U.S. dairy sector to a new crossroads as it faces competitive forces from outside its borders. Those forces—demand for new products by consumers in industrialized countries, changes in technology, rapid economic growth in emerging developing countries, particularly in Asia, and the increasing role of multinational firms in domestic and global dairy markets—are leading to increased dairy consumption, more opportunities for dairy product trade, and foreign direct investment benefiting both U.S. consumers and producers. As global demand for milk and new dairy products expands, the roles of policies that support prices are diminishing, while...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: International dairy markets; Dairy trade; Dairy policy; Tariffs; Production quotas; Foreign direct investment; Cheese; Butter; Dry milk powders; Agribusiness; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7209
Registros recuperados: 17
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