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Registros recuperados: 19
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A Preliminary Empirical Assessment of the Effect of Phytosanitary Regulations on US Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Imports AgEcon
Karov, Vuko; Roberts, Donna; Grant, Jason H.; Peterson, Everett B..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49345
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Agriculture and the World Trade Organization: Does Membership Make a Difference? AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Boys, Kathryn A..
Recent empirical studies have estimated the trade flow effect of membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). One important, although largely untested, conclusion from this literature is that the GATT/WTO has worked well if we ignore trade in agriculture – one of the institution’s seemingly apparent failures. This article investigates this conclusion using a large panel of agricultural and non-agricultural trade flows, the latter of which serves as our benchmark. The results are impressive: the multilateral institution has delivered significant positive effects on members’ agricultural trade relative to trade between non-members. Further, despite their special and differential...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: WTO; Membership; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90886
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An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System of Fresh Tomatoes in the U.S. AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Foster, Kenneth A..
Previous studies of fresh market tomatoes in the U.S. have focused on the supply side and welfare effects of NAFTA. Very few studies have focused on the demand side, however, because fresh tomatoes do not have any close substitutes. In this study we draw on the fact that Mexican and Canadian fresh tomatoes may be close substitutes to U.S. fresh tomatoes. An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System of the NAFTA fresh tomato market is estimated where fresh tomatoes differ by country of origin. The results indicate that NAFTA tomatoes are substitutable but the degree of substitutability varies widely depending on the season. Quantity changes in the U.S. fresh tomato market can result in significant retail price changes. This study has specific policy implications...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19193
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Does the World Trade Organization Promote Trade? An Empirical Assessment of Agricultural and Non‐Agricultural Trade Flows AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Boys, Kathryn A..
In this paper we ask whether the GATT/WTO has actually failed to increase members’ agricultural trade. Surprisingly, there is very little empirical econometric support to shed light on this question despite the fact that agricultural trade is often at the forefront of multilateral negotiations. We address this issue by considering GATT/WTO effects across agricultural and non‐agricultural sectors. Despite much ‘hoopla and hype’ that the GATT/WTO has done nothing to boost members’ agricultural trade, our results suggest that the multilateral institution has delivered significant positive effects on agricultural trade over the period 1980‐2004. Moreover, in many cases the trade flow effect of membership in the GATT/WTO exceeds that of non‐agriculture,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49510
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Economic Significance of Specific Export Promotion on Poverty Reduction and Inter- Industry Growth of Ethiopia AgEcon
Chala, Zelalem T.; Norton, George W.; Grant, Jason H..
Micro simulated general equilibrium approach was used to analyze the economic significance of the current export promotion policy of Ethiopia. Simulation results, in general, indicated little achievements of economic growth and poverty reduction under selective export promotion. In this policy approach, only rural households were able to acquire higher income and lower poverty incidence. These achievements however were transmitted to small and big urban households when export promotion was assumed to be implemented across the board of all agricultural activities. Significant economic and inter-industrial growths were attained when the coffee industry was given equal policy treatments like other export agriculture
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Selective export promotion policy; Computable general equilibrium; Poverty reduction; Foreign direct investment; Land Economics/Use; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61739
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Extending General Equilibrium to the Tariff Line: U.S. Dairy in the DOHA Development Agenda AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Rutherford, Thomas F..
Market access has been at the core of eight negotiating rounds of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Yet, agricultural trade remains a heavily protected sector, characterized by higher tariffs relative to industrial goods, large tariff dispersions, numerous specific tariffs and systems of tariff-rate-quotas. This has made the analysis of trade liberalization a formidable task among policy analysts. Previous studies of agricultural trade liberalization have used partial or general equilibrium models of trade. However, each of these modeling strategies has their drawbacks. General equilibrium (GE) models have been criticized because they face serious aggregation issues and miss much of the policy detail that occurs at the tariff line. Partial...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Mixed-complementarity problem; Partial equilibrium; General equilibrium; Doha Development Agenda; WTO; International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries; F01; F17; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25305
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Extending General Equilibrium to the Tariff Line: U.S. Dairy in the Doha Development Agenda AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Rutherford, Thomas F..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21409
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HAS THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION PROMOTED SUCCESSFUL REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS? AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Parmeter, Christopher F..
This study uses econometric gravity equations to test whether the WTO has promoted successful regional trade agreements (RTA). Two important findings emerge. First, we find that two countries that are members of the GATT/WTO and enter into a regional trade agreement stimulate trade. However, the effect on trade is not nearly as large as that between two RTA members that belong to the GATT/WTO. Contrary to the findings in Rose (2004), this result tends to support the fact that the GATT/WTO has liberalized multilateral trade, outside of RTAs. In other words, the effect of an RTA on countries’ trade who are not party to the GATT/WTO should generate a large RTA trade response due to relatively large pre-existing trade distortions. Second, we show that the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6551
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IMPORT SAFEGUARDS: PROTECTIONIST MEASURES OR A LIBERALIZATION STRATEGY? AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Meilke, Karl D..
The Doha Trade Round maintains that a considerable effort will be given to take into account better the particular needs of developing nations. Many low-income countries argue that the flexibility to invoke a special safeguard mechanism when faced with volatile commodity markets is a necessary condition for further market access reform. The implications of a safeguard for developing agriculture as a trade-off for lowering their tariff rates, is an important empirical question. Two stochastic simulation experiments are developed using wheat as a case study to estimate the marginal effects of a safeguard in terms of domestic market stability and on developed exporting nations. The results reveal that a safeguard for developing agriculture is minimally...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20236
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ISO 14000 STANDARDS: VOLUNTARY ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE AS A TRADE FACILITATION STRATEGY? AgEcon
Boys, Kathryn A.; Grant, Jason H..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61855
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ISO 9000 Standards: Implicit Barrier or Trade Facilitation Strategy? AgEcon
Boys, Kathryn A.; Grant, Jason H..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49525
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Regionalism in World Agricultural Trade: Lessons from Gravity Model Estimation AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Lambert, Dayton M..
Relative to trade in non-agricultural goods, progress in achieving agricultural trade liberalization under the GATT/WTO has been slow. Agricultural trade is characterized by persistently high levels of protection on a scale that is uncommon in non-agricultural trade. Article XXIV of the GATT, 1994 permits a group of countries to form a trade union whereby trade barriers are reduced or removed on all sectors of trade. Within regional trade agreements however, agricultural trade often receives special treatment, and in some cases, agriculture is completely exempt. Typically, debates over the effects of regional trade agreements have focused on welfare. In this study we seek to answer a more fundamental question of what effect these agreements have had on...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19269
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The Latest Wave of Regionalism: Does Outsider Status Affect the Competitiveness of U.S. and Canadian Agricultural Exports? AgEcon
Grant, Jason H..
The degree to which countries are pursuing regional trade agreements (RTAs) has been nothing short of extraordinary. The latest wave of regional integration, however, is “breeding concern” among academics and policymakers as to the extra‐regional effects of these agreements and their impact on North American agricultural exporters who are party to relatively few RTAs in world trade. This study constructs and uses an updated database of agricultural trade flows from 1992‐2008 to shed light on the degree to which outsiders status affects U.S. and Canadian agricultural exports and its competing suppliers. Regarding outsider status, the existing dummy‐variable approach is modified by incorporating region‐specific extra‐bloc trade flow variables to examine the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Regionalism; WTO; Trade; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Development; International Relations/Trade; Political Economy.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90888
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THE NEW WAVE OF REGIONALISM: DOES OUTSIDER/INSIDER STATUS AFFECT THE COMPETITIVENESS OF U.S. AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS? AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Vollrath, Thomas L..
The degree to which countries are pursuing regional trade agreements (RTAs) has been nothing short of extraordinary. The topic of regional integration is “breeding concern” among academics and policymakers as to the intra- and extra-regional effects of these agreements. This study constructs and uses an updated database of agricultural trade flows from 1992-2008 to shed light on the degree to which insider and outsiders status affects U.S. agricultural exporters and its competing suppliers. Regarding outsider status, we modify the existing approach by incorporating region-specific extra-bloc trade flow variables to examine the degree to which RTAs divert trade from specific regions of the world. The results are quite illuminating. While RTAs may not be...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61144
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THE SPECIAL SAFEGUARD MECHANISM IN THE DOHA DEVELOPMENT AGENDA: A CASE STUDY OF SOYBEANS AgEcon
Weeks, Heather; Grant, Jason H.; McConnell, Michael; Meilke, Karl D..
The Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) proposed for developing countries has become a thorny issue in the Doha Development Agenda’s (DDA) agricultural negotiations. Proponents of the mechanism argue that it is a necessary compromise to counter sharp price declines or rapid import surges in staple commodity markets of developing nations. Opponents of the SSM, which include many developed exporters, contend that the policy flexibility contained in current SSM proposals would severely limit market access if the mechanism is triggered. The impact of the SSM depends on a number of parameters: the number of times the SSM is triggered, whether the price or volume SSM is triggered, the size of current tariffs, the magnitude with which tariffs are reduced in the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61762
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The WTO Special Safeguard Mechanism: A Case Study of Wheat AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Meilke, Karl D..
A special safeguard mechanism is an attractive policy tool for low income importing countries because it is automatic and does not require an injury test. Exporters might accept a safeguard for low income countries if it results in larger tariff cuts than in its absence. Using wheat as a case study the effects of a special safeguard mechanism on market stability and welfare are evaluated. The results show that a safeguard mechanism is not very trade distorting and costs less than 20 percent of the world welfare gain that would be realized if developing countries were not granted a safeguard.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24158
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Trade and Welfare Impacts of Partial Liberalization of U.S. Sugar TRQs: The Application of a PE/GE Modeling Approach AgEcon
Meade, Birgit Gisela Saager; Grant, Jason H.; Regmi, Anita.
The sugar sector is one of the most heavily protected commodities in agriculture using a system of tariff rate quotas (TRQs) with a complex set of administration procedures. General equilibrium models are not suitable to analyze trade liberalization scenarios that involve numerous tariff-rate quotas across narrowly defined product lines. We use the Rutherford/Grant/Hertel modeling approach by embedding a detailed, partial equilibrium (PE) model into a standard, global general equilibrium (GE) framework. We use this PE/GE model to compare trade and welfare outcomes of two liberalization scenarios: Increasing quota levels by 25% and cutting over tariffs by 50%, versus increasing quota levels by 50% and cutting over-quota tariffs by 25%. We find that lowering...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61657
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Triggers, Remedies, and Tariff Cuts: Assessing the Impact of a Special Safeguard Mechanism for Developing Countries AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Meilke, Karl D..
The WTO negotiations broke down on July 30th, 2008 because members could not bridge their differences over the operation of a Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM). This article evaluates the latest SSM proposal using the world wheat market as our case study. Whether low-income WTO members should be allowed to breach their pre-Doha bound tariffs is a key element of our analysis. The SSM leads to sizeable additional duties but is not very trade distorting, even when pre-Doha bound rates are breached. Moreover, the extent to which low-income countries should be allowed to exceed pre-Doha bound rates depends heavily on the product under consideration, the ambition of the tariff cutting exercise, and the gap between members’ bound and applied tariffs.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Doha Development Agenda; July Package; Special Safeguard Mechanism; World Trade Organization; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50103
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Triggers, Remedies and Tariff Cuts: Assessing the Impact of a Special Safeguard Mechanism for Developing Countries AgEcon
Grant, Jason H.; Meilke, Karl D..
On July 30, 2008, the WTO negotiations broke down because Members could not bridge their differences on the operation of a Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) for low-income countries. This study evaluates two scenarios concerning the recent July (2008) SSM proposal – one in which low-income countries are allowed to breach their pre-Doha bound tariffs and one in which they are not -- using a global, stochastic, partial equilibrium model of world wheat markets. We find that the July (2008) SSM proposal is not very trade distorting despite leading to sizeable SSM duties. Moreover, the question of whether developing countries should be allowed to exceed their pre-Doha bound tariffs depends heavily on the product under consideration, the extent of tariff cuts to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: WTO; SSM; Special safeguard mechanism; Doha; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/46627
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