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AN ECONOMETRIC MODEL OF THE SADC MAIZE SECTOR 31
Cutts, Michela; Hassan, Rashid M..
In almost all of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) countries maize is cropped on a commercial basis except in Mauritius and Seychelles. Maize meal is the most important food staple in Southern and Eastern Africa. This is one of the main reason many governments in the region implement various policies to protect the maize sector. With adoption of the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture (URAA) in the late 1990s, there has been a wave of market liberalization in the region. Maize production and marketing have seen major reforms with the URAA, market liberalization, and the Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs). Private sector participation in the supply of maize inputs (improved seed and fertilizer) and grain marketing has steadily...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19075
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An environmental accounting approach to valuing the services of natural forests and woodlands in Swaziland 31
Ngwenya, P.; Hassan, Rashid M..
Economists and statisticians constructing the national income accounts usually overlook the many benefits derived by communities from natural forests and woodlands. This study attempted to impute a value for the ecosystem services of these resources in Swaziland employing an environmental accounting framework. The current measure of national income was found to underestimate GDP by 2% and under value national savings by 10% by not accounting for the flow and asset values of natural forests and woodlands. The study also revealed a very high dependence of the rural communities in Swaziland on natural forests and woodlands for their livelihoods as they derive more than 50% of the value of total household consumption expenditure from these resources. These...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31695
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Creating a new valuation tool for South African agricultural cooperatives 31
Geyser, Mariette; Hassan, Rashid M..
Long-term shareholder wealth is equally important for all profit seeking organizations, regardless of their size. This paper examines introducing Economic Value Added (EVA) as a performance measure for agribusinesses and co-ops in South Africa. EVA is an effective measure of the quality of managerial decisions as well as a reliable indicator of an enterprise's value growth in future. The question posed is whether South African agribusinesses and cooperatives are capable of creating shareholder and member value after the deregulation of the agricultural markets.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9504
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Determinants of adoption and intensity of use of improved maize varieties in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia: A Tobit analysis 31
Alene, Arega D.; Poonyth, Daneswar; Hassan, Rashid M..
This study employed a Tobit model to examine factors that influence the adoption and intensity of utilisation of improved maize varieties in the West Shoa Zone in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The estimated results indicate that level of education, household labour, farm size, extension services, farm income, and timely availability of improved maize seeds significantly influence the adoption and intensity of use of improved maize. It also showed that the impact of off-farm income and age of the household head on adoption and intensity of use of improved maize seed was insignificant.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54223
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Determinants of African farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change: Multinomial choice analysis 31
Hassan, Rashid M.; Nhemachena, Charles.
This study analyzed determinants of farm-level climate adaptation measures in Africa using a multinomial choice model fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey of over 8000 farms from 11 African countries. The results indicate that specialized crop cultivation (mono-cropping) is the agricultural practice most vulnerable to climate change in Africa. Warming, especially in summer, poses the highest risk. It encourages irrigation, multiple cropping and integration of livestock. Increased precipitation reduces the probability of irrigation and will benefit most African farms, especially in drier areas. Better access to markets, extension and credit services, technology and farm assets (labor, land and capital) are critical for helping African farmers adapt...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climate change; Impacts; Adaptation; Agriculture; Africa; Farm Management; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/56969
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Determinants of fertilizer use on maize in Eastern Ethiopia: A weighted endogenous sampling analysis of the extent and intensity of adoption 31
Fufa, B.; Hassan, Rashid M..
Factors influencing the extent and intensity of fertilizer adoption on maize production in Ethiopia were analyzed. A Weighted Endogenous Sampling Maximum Likelihood estimator was used in the specification of a Probit and Tobit fertilizer adoption models. The results have important implications for the formulation of policies and programs targeted to promotion of fertilizer use in small-scale maize production. Those include improved road infrastructure, consideration of weather related crop failure insurance programs, development of drought tolerant cultivars and targeting particular farmer groups.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31734
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Economic Impact of Climate Change on Irrigated Rice Agriculture in Nigeria 31
Ajetomobi, Joshua Olusegun; Abidun, Ajiboye; Hassan, Rashid M..
This study employed the Ricardian approach to test the relative importance of climate normals (average long-term temperature and precipitation) in explaining net revenue from Nigerian rice agriculture under irrigation and dry land conditions. A survey was done by interviewing 1200 rice farmers from 20 rice producing states in Nigeria. The states covered all the six geopolitical zones in the country. The results showed that increase in temperature will reduce net revenue for dry land rice farms while net revenue rises with increase in temperature for irrigated rice farms. Precipitation had similar effects on rice net revenue. Increase in precipitation will cause reduction in revenue for dry land rice farms whereas it will cause increase in revenue for...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Climate change; Irrigation; Net Revenue; Nigeria; Crop Production/Industries; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q12; Q25.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/95778
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Impact of Alternative Land Management Options on Soil Fertility and Erosion in Uganda 31
Birungi, Patrick; Hassan, Rashid M..
Using a data set collected in eight districts of Uganda, this study investigates how investment in soil fertility management (SFM) and conservation practices may affect natural resource outcomes, particularly the extent and level of soil erosion and soil nutrient loss. The study used ordered probit models and the results suggest that investment in SFM and conservation practices greatly improves soil fertility and reduces soil erosion. From a policy perspective, public investment to encourage use of SFM and conservation technologies would help the country achieve sustainable agricultural production.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Land Management; Soil Fertility; Ordered Probit; Erosion; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/8010
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IS AGRICULTURAL SECTOR GROWTH A PRECONDITION FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH? THE CASE OF SOUTH AFRICA 31
Poonyth, Daneswar; Hassan, Rashid M.; Kirsten, Johann F.; Calcaterra, M..
In this paper a simple growth model is adapted to explain the effect of the agricultural sectors' growth on the non-agricultural sector. The empirical results suggest that for a 1% growth in the agricultural sector, the non-agricultural sector responds by more than 1%. The results also confirm that productivity difference exists, the non-agricultural sector being more efficient in terms of input use. The empirical results support the argument of President T. Mbeki, that South Africa should follow an "agricultural-led" growth strategy for successful development.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18044
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MAIZE BREEDING RESEARCH IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA: CURRENT STATUS AND IMPACTS OF PAST INVESTMENTS MADE BY THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS, 1966-97 31
Hassan, Rashid M.; Mekuria, Mulugetta; Mwangi, Wilfred.
This report documents the impacts of international maize breeding research in eastern and southern Africa. It draws on information from a comprehensive 1998/99 survey of public and private maize breeding and seed production organizations active in the region. In many countries of eastern and southern Africa, policy reforms introduced in the 1980s and 1990s encouraged private sector participation in the maize seed industry. The private sector now supplies most of the maize seed in the region, spends more on research, and generates a larger number of maize releases than the public sector. Hybrids dominate varietal releases and seed sales, a trend that may negatively affect subsistence-oriented farmers who lack resources to buy fresh seed every season....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agribusiness.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23723
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Measuring the impact of climate change on South African agriculture: The case of sugar-cane growing regions 31
Deressa, T.; Hassan, Rashid M.; Poonyth, Daneswar.
This study employed a Ricardian model that captures farmers' adaptation to analyze the impact of climate change on South African Sugarcane production under irrigation and dryland conditions. The study utilized time series data for the period 1977 to 1998 pooled over 11 districts. Results showed that climate change has significant nonlinear impacts on net revenue per hectare of sugarcane in South Africa with higher sensitivity to future increases in temperature than precipitation. Irrigation did not prove to provide an effective option for mitigating climate change damages on sugarcane production in South Africa. The study suggests that adaptation strategies should focus special attention on technologies and management regimes that will enhance sugarcane...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31698
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MEASURING THE IMPACT OF ETHIOPIA'S NEW EXTENSION PROGRAM ON THE PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF FARMERS 31
Alene, Arega D.; Hassan, Rashid M..
This paper employed a robust stochastic efficiency decomposition technique that accounts for scale effects to derive the technical, allocative, and overall productive efficiency of two samples of farmers, participants and non-participants in the New Extension Program (NEP), in two agro-climatic zones in eastern Ethiopia. Using data for the 2001/2002 agricultural year, we find that both groups of farmers in the two zones have considerable overall productive inefficiencies. In the wet highlands, although the participants in NEP used a superior technology and have higher technical efficiencies, their allocative efficiencies turned out to be lower than the non-participant farmers, relative to their respective technologies. However, both groups exhibit similar...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25919
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Micro-Level Analysis of Farmers’ Adaptation to Climate Change in Southern Africa 31
Nhemachena, Charles; Hassan, Rashid M..
Adaptation to climate change involves changes in agricultural management practices in response to changes in climate conditions. It often involves a combination of various individual responses at the farm-level and assumes that farmers have access to alternative practices and technologies available in the region. This study examines farmer adaptation strategies to climate change in Southern Africa based on a cross-section database of three countries (South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe) collected as part of the Global Environment Facility/World Bank (GEF/WB) Climate Change and African Agriculture Project. The study describes farmer perceptions to changes in long-term temperature and precipitation as well as various farm-level adaptation measures and barriers...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Climate change; Adaptation; Southern Africa; Environmental Economics and Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42399
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NATURAL RESOURCE ACCOUNTS FOR THE STATE AND ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF FORESTS AND WOODLAND RESOURCES IN SWAZILAND 31
Hassan, Rashid M.; Mbuli, P.; Dlamini, C..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18020
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Poverty, property rights and land management in Uganda 31
Birungi, Patrick; Hassan, Rashid M..
This study investigates the impact of poverty, social capital and land tenure on the adoption of soil fertility management (SFM) and conservation technologies in Uganda. Considering four land management technologies (fallowing, terracing and inorganic and organic fertilizers), the study estimates a multinomial logit model to link farmers’ characteristics to the choice of technologies. The findings show that investments in land management are driven by factors such as land tenure security, level of poverty and participation in community organizations (social capital), and, most importantly, that household level poverty reduces the probability of adoption of most of the technologies, while social capital and land tenure security increase it. The findings...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Poverty; Social capital; Property rights; Soil fertility management; Uganda; Food Security and Poverty; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93881
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Public sector agricultural research expenditures and output in Lesotho: Analysis of causality and cointegration 31
Matete, M.E.; Hassan, Rashid M..
This article investigated the causal relationship between public agricultural research expenditures and agricultural output in Lesotho. Cointegration and Granger-causality tests were performed to determine the causal relationship between agricultural research and agricultural output. Lag length tests were performed to facilitate the Cointegration analysis. Results of the empirical analysis indicated that agriculture in Lesotho is driven by agricultural research. The results also showed that it takes seven to eight years for public agricultural research expenditures to have a significant impact on agricultural output in Lesotho.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54216
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Stochastic maize production technology and production risk analysis in Dadar district, East Ethiopia 31
Fufa, B.; Hassan, Rashid M..
A stochastic production technology that allows risk effects of factor inputs was estimated for maize farmers in Ethiopia. The results suggested that the promoted improved maize technology exhibits constant returns to scale whereas non-adopters use decreasing returns to scale technology. The study showed that timely planting is critical for maize yield stability among both adopters and non-adopters and suggests the importance of using oxen and higher efforts to achieve that. Nevertheless, the results showed that most of the factors under the control of the farmers do not offer powerful explanation to maize yield variability compared to natural factors such as rainfall, frost, pests and diseases.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9507
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THE STRUCTURE OF SOUTH AFRICAN MILK PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY: A PARAMETRIC APPROACH TO SUPPLY ANALYSIS 31
Beyers, Lindie; Hassan, Rashid M..
A parametric approach was followed in this study to analyse milk production and supply systems based on farm level production cost data from a cross-section of dairy farms in South Africa for the 1997/1998 production year. Both single equation and system estimation techniques were applied to Normalised Quadratic, Normalised Translog and standard Translog specifications of the profit and derived output supply and input demand functions. Estimated functions were evaluated for adherence to structural properties. Results showed that convexity of the profit function in all prices holds in South African milk production. Uncompensated and compensated price elasticities of supply and demand were calculated. The results indicated that milk production and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18059
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Total factor productivity and resource use efficiency of alternative cropping systems in two agro-climatic zones in eastern Ethiopia 31
Alene, Arega D.; Hassan, Rashid M..
This paper applied an extended total factor productivity analysis to compare the resource use efficiency of alternative cropping systems in eastern Ethiopia. The results indicated considerable variation in resource use efficiency among cropping systems. Intercropping of sorghum with pulses in the dry lands and intercropping of maize with potatoes in the wet highlands turned out to be the most efficient practices. The results have important implications for research and extension services not only for promoting innovative cropping systems but also for integrating currently available improved technologies into the complex farming systems that are dictated by agro-climatic and demographic factors.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/26444
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Trade liberalization and the environment: The case of agriculture in South Africa 31
Hassan, Rashid M..
An input-output framework with environmental accounting module was used to investigate the implications of liberalising agricultural trade on the environment in South Africa. The results showed that trade liberalisation in the case of agricultural commodities will lead to environmental improvement. The empirical multi-sector model results were consistent with theoretical results obtained from comparative-statics partial-equilibrium trade models for the case of goods the production of which is associated with environmental externality and their domestic prices above world prices. The study suggested a general equilibrium approach, allowing for more flexible structure of substitution in demand and supply, output composition response, income effects and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/54435
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