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Registros recuperados: 69
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH: BENEFITS AND BENEFICIARIES OF ALTERNATIVE FUNDING MECHANISM AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Just, Richard E..
The United States has developed a very successful R&D system for agriculture. It is a system with shared cost/financing and performance by the federal and state governments and by the private sector. The paper presents an economic analysis of alternative organization, management, incentive, and funding mechanisms for agricultural research under budget constraints, including some emphasis on the kinds of benefits that are generated and the groups that receive them. We conclude that the private sector should be permitted to carry out research that it finds profitable to undertake with minimal competition from the public sector. The public research institutions should focus on general and pretechnology science programs that complement private R&D...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research; R&D; Funding; Innovations; Science; Agriculture; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18259
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An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Food Prices and Other Factors on Adult Lifestyles: Choices of Physical Activity and Healthy Weight AgEcon
Chen, Yanni; Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines women’s and men’s decisions to participate in physical activity and to attain a healthy weight. These outcomes are hypothesized to be related to prices of food, drink and health care services and products, the respondent’s personal characteristics (such as education, reading food labels (signaling a concern for good health), adjusted family income, opportunity cost of time, occupation, marital status, race and ethnicity) and his or her BMI at age 25. These decisions are represented by a trivariate probit model that is fitted to data for adults in the NLSY79 panel with geocodes that have been augmented with local area food, drink and health care prices. Separate analyses are undertaken for men and women due to basic physiological...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Physical activity; Obesity; Food prices; Adults; Developed country; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; I10; D10; J24.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49987
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An Economic Analysis of the Impact of Food Prices and Other Factors on Adult Lifestyles: Choices of Physical Activity and Healthy Weight AgEcon
Chen, Yanni; Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines women’s and men’s decisions to participate in physical activity and to attain a healthy weight. These outcomes are hypothesized to be related to prices of food, drink and health care services and products, the respondent’s personal characteristics (such as education, reading food labels, adjusted family income, opportunity cost of time, occupation, marital status, race and ethnicity) and his or her BMI at age 25. These decisions are represented by a trivariate probit model that is fitted to data for adults in the NLSY79 panel with geocodes that have been augmented with local area food, drink and health care prices. Separate analyses are undertaken for men and women due to basic physiological differences. Results include: Women and men...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Physical Activity; Obesity; Food Prices; Adult; United States; Consumer/Household Economics; Health Economics and Policy; Labor and Human Capital; I10; D10; J24.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49291
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AN EXAMINATION OF PROFIT INEFFICIENCY OF RICE FARMERS IN NORTHERN GHANA AgEcon
Abdulai, Awudu; Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper employs a stochastic frontier model to examine profit inefficiency of rice farmers in the Northern Region of Ghana using farm-level survey data. The efficiency index, based on a half-normal distribution of the stochastic error term is related to farm and household characteristics. The empirical results show that farmers' human capital represented by the level of schooling contributes positively to production efficiency, suggesting that investment in farmers' education improves their allocative performance. Access to credit and greater specialization in rice production, are found to be positively related to production efficiency. A farmer's participation in nonfarm employment and being older, however, reduce production efficiency. Farmers...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Africa; Ghana; Production efficiency; Profit frontier; Rice; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18271
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AN OVERVIEW OF IMMIGRATION AND THE CHANGING FACE OF RURAL CALIFORNIA: THE CENTRAL SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines the aggregate performance of California agriculture relative to Florida and U.S. agriculture, 1960-1993, the economics of the California raisin grape industry which uses large quantities of migratory labor for the grape harvest, and schools and schooling of farm workers'’ children in the Parlier area. The major conclusions are that the labor intensity of California (and Florida) agriculture has fallen much less than for the whole U.S., the raisin grape industry of the Central San Joaquin Valley is struggling due to labor availability and prospects of greater foreign competition, and schooling is one of the most promising routes to a better life for the children of adult farm workers.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Immigration; Raisin grapes; Farm workers; Schools; Schooling; Small town; California; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18249
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ARE U.S. CONSUMERS TOLERANT OF GM FOODS? AgEcon
Rousu, Matthew C.; Huffman, Wallace E.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
Genetically modified (GM) foods have caused many controversies. One important controversy relates to tolerance - the impurity rate that is tolerated before a commodity must be labeled as genetically modified. Currently, the United States does not have a specific tolerance or threshold level for GM foods. This paper uses experimental auctions to determine consumers' acceptance of non-GM foods with zero, 1 percent, and 5 percent tolerance for genetically modified material. Our results indicate that consumers would pay less for food that tolerates GM material, but the discount is not significantly different for foods with 1-percent and 5-percent GM content.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Genetically modified (GM) foods; Contamination thresholds; Laboratory auctions; Nth-price auction; Vegetable oil; Tortilla chips; Russet potatoes; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18227
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ARE US CONSUMERS TOLERANT OF GM FOODS? AgEcon
Rousu, Matthew C.; Huffman, Wallace E.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
Many countries require labeling for GM food products. These countries often have different levels of genetic modification that they will tolerate before a food product must be labeled as genetically modified. For example, the European Union and Australia allow up to one percent of any ingredient in a food product to be GM before the product must be labeled as genetically modified. Japan allows 5% of any ingredient to be genetically modified before the product must be labeled as such. The United States currently does not require mandatory labeling of GM labeled foods and has no standards for what percentage of an ingredient in a food product can be genetically modified for the product to still be labeled non-GM. For the official "organic"...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19889
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BETTER DEAD THAN GM-FED? INFORMATION AND THE EFFECTS OF CONSUMERS' RESISTANCE TO GM-FOODS IN HIGH-INCOME COUNTRIES AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
This paper addressed the puzzling resistance of Presidents of southern African countries to food aid in 2002, given near certain starvation and long-term negative health effects of malnutrition of their constituents. First, I show that NGOs led by Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are disseminating information claiming that GM foods are dangerous to human health and are "Frankenfoods." Second, people in European Union countries, who are not in any danger of starvation, have strong preferences for non-GM foods, which they can easily afford. Over the long term, however, the tastes of EU consumers matter to southern African countries because some of these countries hope to export agricultural products in the future. GM-food aid, which most likely would...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18208
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Consumer Acceptance of Genetically Modified Foods: Traits, Labels and Diverse Information AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
New experimental economic methods are described and used to assess consumers' willingness to pay for food products that might be made from new transgenic and intragenic genetically modified (GM) traits. Participants in auctions are randomly chosen adult consumers in major US metropolitan areas and not college students. Food labels are kept simple and focus on key attributes of experimental goods. Diverse private information from the agricultural biotech industry (largely Monsanto and Syngenta), environmental groups (largely Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth) and independent third-party information is used to construct the information treatments. Food labels and information treatments are randomized, which is a deviation from traditional lab methods....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93168
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Consumer Willingness to Pay for Genetically Modified Food Labels in a Market with Diverse Information: Evidence from Experimental Auctions AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Shogren, Jason F.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
With the continuing controversy over genetically modified (GM) foods, some groups advocate mandatory labeling of these products, while other groups oppose labeling. An important issue is how GM labels affect consumers' willingness to pay for these food products in the market. Using a statistically based economics experiment with adult consumers as subjects, we examine how willingness to pay changes for three food products--vegetable oil, tortilla chips, and potatoes--when GM labels are introduced. Participants in the experiments discounted GM-labeled foods by approximately 14% relative to their standard-labeled counterparts. The evidence also showed that sequencing of food labels affects willingness to pay, and that randomizing treatments is an important...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Consumer demand; Corn chips; Experimental economics; Food labels; Genetic modification; GM foods; Laboratory auctions; Potatoes; Vegetable oil; Willingness to pay; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31071
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CONSUMERS' RESISTANCE TO GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN HIGH INCOME COUNTRIES: THE ROLE OF INFORMATION IN AN UNCERTAIN ENVIRONMENT AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C.; Shogren, Jason F.; Tegene, Abebayehu.
This paper examines the market characteristics that push consumers in high income countries to resist GM foods, with an emphasis on negative information from environmental groups and third-party, verifiable information. For this study, unique data were collected from adult consumers in the United States who participated in laboratory auctions of three food types with randomly assigned labeling and information treatments. Using U.S. consumers is important because U.S. consumers are generally supportive of GM foods and free from the BSE "food scare" fears and bias towards "natural" that are hypothesized to lead Europeans to reject GM foods. Key findings are that negative GM-product information supplied by environmental groups pushes some consumers out of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25837
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Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for New Genetically Modified Food Products: Evidence from Experimental Auctions of Intragenic and Transgenic Foods AgEcon
Colson, Gregory; Huffman, Wallace E..
Early GM traits were obtained by transferring genes across species, largely from soil bacteria. Part of the consumer resistance to them has been their transgenic nature. Recently, breakthroughs have occurred using intragenic bioengineering where genes are moved long distances within a specie, for example in potato, and without antibiotic markers. The objective of this research is to assess consumers’ acceptance and willingness to pay (WTP) for new intragenic fresh potato, tomato, and broccoli with higher levels of antioxidants and vitamin C, which are consumer traits. To elicit consumer valuations, a new series of experimental auctions were conducted in 2007 that built upon methodology developed in our earlier research. WTP was assessed in a multi-round...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: GM foods; Consumer attributes; Willingness to pay; Economics experiments; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Q10; D11; D82; D44.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49986
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Consumers' Willingness to Pay for New Genetically Modified Food Products: Evidence from Experimental Auctions of Intragenic and Transgenic Foods AgEcon
Colson, Gregory; Rousu, Matthew C.; Huffman, Wallace E..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/22/08.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6407
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CONVERGENCE IN U.S. TFP GROWTH FOR AGRICULTURE: IMPLICATIONS OF INTERSTATE RESEARCH SPILLOVERS FOR FUNDING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AgEcon
McCunn, Alan; Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper examines state agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) data, 1950-1982, for evidence of convergence, i.e., TFP growth rates of the future are inversely related to the TFP level at the starting data. After finding evidence of convergence, the paper examines the contributions of public and private R&D to convergence and presents implications for a more efficient organization of public agricultural research. For example, we find that increasing a states own investment in public agricultural research reduces the rate of TFP convergence but larger public investments in surrounding areas that potentially spillin increase the rate of convergence. Also, the results imply that the average rate of convergence in our best fitting model is about...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Convergence; Total factor productivity; States; Spillins; Growth; Public research; Agriculture; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18266
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Demand Curve Effects in Experimental Auctions: The Effect of Quantity Already Owned AgEcon
Colson, Gregory; Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C..
Most studies utilizing experimental auction mechanisms to elicit consumers’ willingness to pay are designed to avoid potential substitution or demand-curve effects that may influence bid prices. However, previous research and auction designs have not considered the potential impact on bid prices of commodity inventories held by auction participants that were obtained through transactions outside of the auction. This omission may present a problem for interpreting and analyzing auction data. Using bids from a random nth-price auction of fresh vegetables conducted in a laboratory style setting, we test whether participants’ outside inventories affect bidding behavior. We find that bidders do in fact consider their inventories, resulting in lower bid...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49551
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DETERMINANTS OF THE DEMAND FOR STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION RESOURCES: A DEMAND-SYSTEM APPROACH AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E.; Evenson, Robert E..
This paper presents new econometric evidence on state government's demand for resources to support local agricultural experiment station research. The econometric model consists of a complete-demand system covering four major resource sources, and it is fitted to annual observations on 48 contiguous states, 1970 to 1999. These results show that forces of total SAES budget size, national ranking of agricultural college and university programs, state demographics, and state's agricultural-output composition impact a state government's demand for resources for state agricultural experiment stations.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18206
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Does Information Change Behavior? AgEcon
Huffman, Wallace E..
This paper reviews and synthesizes the theory of information economics and empirical evidence on how information changes the behavior of consumers, households and firms. I show that consumers respond to new information in food experiments but perhaps not in retirement account management. Some seeming perverse consumer/investor decision making may be a result of a complex decision with a low expected payoff.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Information economics; Consumer behavior; Behavioral economics; Moral hazard; Adverse selection.; Consumer/Household Economics; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55938
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DYNAMIC INPUT DEMAND FUNCTIONS AND RESOURCE ADJUSTMENT FOR U.S. AGRICULTURE: STATE EVIDENCE AgEcon
Warjiyo, Perry; Huffman, Wallace E..
The paper presents an econometric model of dynamic agricultural input demand functions that includes research based technical change and autoregressive disturbances and fits the model to data for a set of state aggregates pooled over 1950-82. The methodological approach is one of developing a theoretical foundation for a dynamic input demand system and accepting state aggregate behavior as approximated by nonlinear adjustment costs and long-term profit maximization. Although other studies have largely ignored autocorrelation in dynamic input demand systems, the results show shorter adjustment lags with autocorrelation than without autocorrelation. Dynamic input demand own-price elasticities for six input groups are inelastic, and the demand functions...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18277
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Estimates of the Welfare Impact of Intragenic and Transgenic GM Labeling Policies AgEcon
Colson, Gregory; Huffman, Wallace E.; Rousu, Matthew C..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61387
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Experiment Station Expenditures: State Share and Population Effects AgEcon
Miranowski, John A.; Huffman, Wallace E..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1981 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49063
Registros recuperados: 69
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