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Registros recuperados: 37
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ASSESSING THE RESPONSE OF FARM HOUSEHOLDS TO DAIRY POLICY REFORM IN ISRAEL AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal; Rubin, Ofir D..
After nearly fifty years of stability and stagnation of dairy market regulations in Israel, a dramatic policy reform has been enacted in 1999. The reform enabled farm households, for the first time, to trade production quotas. In addition, the reform signaled to farmers that milk prices will gradually go down in real terms, and therefore only producers who expand and become more efficient will prevail. The reform allowed for generous financial support for investment in expansion, but also required the adoption of environmental regulations which could be costly to many farm families. This paper uses data from a census of small family-operated dairy enterprises that was conducted in 2001, in order to analyze the response of farm households to the reform. The...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Milk policy reform; Technology adoption; Intergenerational succession; Agricultural and Food Policy; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7134
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Assessing the Response of Farm Households to Dairy Policy Reform in Israel AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal; Rubin, Ofir D..
After nearly fifty years of stability and stagnation of dairy market regulations in Israel, a dramatic policy reform has been enacted in 1999. The reform enabled farm households, for the first time, to trade production quotas. In addition, the reform signaled to farmers that milk prices will gradually go down in real terms, and therefore only producers who expand and become more efficient will prevail. The reform allowed for generous financial support for investment in expansion, but also required the adoption of environmental regulations which could be costly to many farm families. This paper uses data from a census of small family-operated dairy enterprises that was conducted in 2001, in order to analyze the response of farm households to the reform. The...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Milk policy reform; Technology adoption; Intergenerational succession.; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9948
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BARRIERS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN ZAMBIAN SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZE FARMS: EVIDENCE FROM MICRO-DATA AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal; Chiwele, Dennis K..
The objective of this paper is to identify factors which limit the ability of Zambian farmers to increase Maize productivity and/or diversify their crop mix. Both may enable wealth accumulation, investments, and further expansion. Specifically, we link variations in agricultural decisions, practices, and outcomes, to variations in the tightness of the different constraints. We model crop production decisions as having recursive structure. Initially, farmers decide on land allocation among the different crops, based on their information set at planting time. Then, as new information (weather, market conditions) is revealed, farmers can change output by influencing the yield. This recursive structure enables to separate the effects of the constraints on the...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Diversification; Maize Productivity; Recursive Decisions; Two-stage Estimation; Censored Dependent Variables; Community/Rural/Urban Development; International Development; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; O1; Q1.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21877
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Can Female Non-Farm Labor Income Reduce Income Inequality? Evidence from Rural Southern Ethiopia AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This article examines the importance of non-farm income in reducing per-capita income inequality among agricultural households in southern Ethiopia, with an emphasis on the gender dimension. Using a modified technique of inequality decomposition by income sources applied to household survey data, it was found that female non-farm labor income is the only income source that significantly reduces per-capita income inequality. More precisely, a uniform increase in female non-farm labor income, among households that already have income from this source, reduces inequality. Encouraging women to devote more time to non-farm income-generating activities, and creating market mechanisms that increase earnings in these activities, could potentially lift households...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114756
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Demand for On-Farm Permanent Hired Labor in Family Holdings: A Comment AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This comment critically discusses the theoretical and empirical treatment of corner solutions in the analysis of labor decisions on farm households. As more and more labor decisions are analyzed jointly, the more ambitious becomes the theoretical justification of empirical applications. "Cutting corners" in theoretical models puts the validity of empirical conclusions in doubt. In such cases relying on intuitive theoretical justification of empirical modeling is preferred.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53198
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Does Family Composition Affect Social Networking? AgEcon
Heizler, Odelia; Kimhi, Ayal.
This paper analyzes the effect of family composition, and in particular the number of children, the age gap between the oldest and youngest child and the age of the youngest child, on parents’ involvement in social networks. The predictions of a simple theoretical model are confirmed by an empirical analysis of Israeli Social Survey data for 2002- 2006. The number of children has a U -shaped effect on parents' involvement in social networks, with substantial differences between fathers and mothers. The negative effect is dominant on the mothers’ involvement in social networks, while the positive effect is dominant on the father's involvement in social networks. The age gap between children has a positive effect on both parents’ involvement in social...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Social Networks; Family Composition; Children.; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/121698
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Does Farm Size Really Converge? The Role of Unobserved Farm Efficiency AgEcon
Dolev, Yuval; Kimhi, Ayal.
We analyze the growth of family farms in Israeli cooperative villages between 1981 and 1995, using longitudinal data. We use instrumental variables to account for the endogeneity of initial farm size, and correct for selectivity due to farm survival. We also include a technical efficiency index, derived from the estimation of a stochastic frontier production model, as an explanatory variable. We find that technical efficiency is an important determinant of farm growth, and that not controlling for technical efficiency could seriously bias the results. The size distribution of Israeli family farms is found to be mostly diverging, while without technical efficiency farm growth seemed to be predominantly random.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm size; Farm growth; Farm survival; Instrumental variables; Sample selection; Technical efficiency; Farm Management; Productivity Analysis; Q12; L25; C34.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45778
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DOES LAND REFORM IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES INCREASE CHILD LABOR? EVIDENCE FROM THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This paper investigates the issue of child labor in the context of land reforms in transition economies, using farm household data from the Republic of Georgia. The results show that an increase in landholdings as an outcome of the land reform can, in the presence of market imperfections, lead to an increase in child labor. This is because the increased demand for labor on the family farm is stronger than the wealth effect generated by the land reform. However, this result is not uniform across farm families. First, it is only relevant for boys, because girls tend to assist in household activities rather than in farm work. Second, larger households are able to meet the increased demand for farm labor without the need for additional child labor. To the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital; Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7147
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Does Non-Farm Income Increase Farm-Household Income Inequality? Evidence from Three Continents AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This paper performs inequality decomposition by income sources using data from three different continents, using a unified inequality decomposition approach. Household survey data from Ethiopia, Georgia and Korea are used for this purpose, and the uniform result is that non-farm labor income is an equalizing source of income, in the sense that increasing non-farm labor income by 1% uniformly results in a lower Gini index of inequality. These results shed light on the processes that affect farm-household inequality under various geographical, economic and institutional conditions, and imply that policy directed towards non-farm income sources could not only raise rural incomes on average but also potentially reduce inequality, i.e., be pro-poor.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Inequality; Non-Farm Income; Decomposition.; Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics; International Development.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51433
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Does Rural Household Income Depend on Neighboring Communities? Evidence from Israel AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
In Israel, rural communities are those with up to 2000 residents, and rural areas include only rural communities. This paper explores the dependence of rural incomes on nearby urban areas. This dependence is mostly implied by rural-to-urban or urban-to-rural selective migration (or both). Migration flows can be affected by differential wages, housing costs and other amenities, and by commuting costs and costs of migration. An income generating equation, that includes characteristics of nearby urban communities as well as other spatial indicators among the explanatory variables, is estimated for rural households in Moshav villages using 2006 survey data. The results show that the population of nearby urban communities is significantly associated with rural...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93134
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Economic Well-Being in Rural Communities: The Role of Agriculture AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
Throughout the developed world, the share of agriculture in total income of the rural population is declining. This is due to push and pull factors. On one hand, terms of trade of agriculture are falling and farmers are forced to seek additional income sources. On the other hand, population expansion in rural areas, including an important component of urban-to-rural migration, creates attractive opportunities for alternative income-generating activities. The question is whether agriculture is good or bad for rural well-being. Are communities with more agriculture composed of stronger farms that enhance economic well-being, or perhaps more agriculture means lack of alternatives, in which case the outcome is the opposite? The answer has important...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19341
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Entrepreneurship and Income Inequality in Southern Ethiopia AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This paper uses inequality decomposition techniques in order to analyze the consequences of entrepreneurial activities to household income inequality in Southern Ethiopia. A uniform increase in entrepreneurial income reduces per capita household income inequality. This implies that encouraging rural entrepreneurship may be favorable for both income growth and income distribution. Such policies could be particularly successful if directed at the low-income, low-wealth, and relatively uneducated segments of the society.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/47505
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FAMILY COMPOSITION AND OFF-FARM PARTICIPATION DECISIONS IN ISRAELI FARM HOUSEHOLDS AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This paper studies the dependence of the off-farm participation behavior of farm operators and their spouses on the demographic composition of the household. Specifically, we focus on farm families without parents, siblings or partners, and examine the effects of the existence and work decisions of elderly children of the farm couple. We find that both the father and the mother tend to reduce their participation in off-farm work as the number of elderly children rises. This result holds even after controlling for observed characteristics. We also find that the effect of elderly children stems from considerations related to both farm production and household production.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14976
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Farm Output, Non-Farm Income, and Commercialization in Rural Georgia AgEcon
Kan, Iddo; Kimhi, Ayal; Lerman, Zvi.
This article examines the decision of farmers to sell part of their farm output on the market, using data from the Republic of Georgia. A two-level empirical model is used, in which endowments and resource allocation decisions determine farm output and non-farm income, and these in turn determine market participation. We found, as expected, that farm output affects market participation positively, while non-farm income affects it negatively. Landholdings have an indirect positive effect on market participation, through its positive effect on farm output. Education has a negative effect on market participation, mainly through its positive effect on non-farm income.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Commercialization; Market participation; Farm output; Non-farm income; Resource allocation; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/112608
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FARM OUTPUT, NON-FARM INCOME, AND COMMERCIALIZATION IN RURAL GEORGIA AgEcon
Kan, Iddo; Kimhi, Ayal; Lerman, Zvi.
This article examines the decision of farmers to sell part of their farm output on the market, using data from the Republic of Georgia. A two-level empirical model is used, in which endowments and resource allocation decisions determine farm output and non-farm income, and these in turn determine market participation. We found, as expected, that farm output affects market participation positively, while non-farm income affects it negatively. Landholdings have an indirect positive effect on market participation, through its positive effect on farm output. Education has a negative effect on market participation, mainly through its positive effect on non-farm income.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Commercialization; Market participation; Farm output; Non-farm income; Resource allocation; Farm Management; O12; P23; P25.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7179
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FARM WORK, OFF-FARM WORK, AND HIRED FARM LABOR: ESTIMATING A DISCRETE-CHOICE MODEL OF FRENCH FARM COUPLES' LABOR DECISIONS AgEcon
Benjamin, Catherine; Kimhi, Ayal.
We estimate jointly three types of discrete-choice labor decisions of farm couples: farm work, off-farm work, and hired farm labor. Using a 16-choice multinomial logit model, we find that operators' and spouses' farm labor are substitutes. Hired farm labor increases with farmers' qualifications, perhaps substituting for the couples' labor inputs. Other adults in the households substitute for the farm labor input of the farm couple and hired workers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/22150
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FARM WORK, OFF-FARM WORK, AND HIRED FARM LABOR: ESTIMATING A DISCRETE-CHOICE MODEL OF FRENCH FARM COUPLES' LABOR DECISIONS AgEcon
Benjamin, Catherine; Kimhi, Ayal.
We estimate jointly three types of discrete-choice labor decisions of farm couples: farm work, off-farm work, and hired farm labor. Using a 16-choice multinomial logit model, we find that operators' and spouses' farm labor are substitutes. Hired farm labor increases with farmers' qualifications, perhaps substituting for the couples' labor inputs. Other adults in the households substitute for the farm labor input of the farm couple and hired workers.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm Management; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14990
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Has Debt Restructuring Facilitatead Structural Transformation on Israeli Family Farms? AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This paper analyzes structural transformation on Israieli family farms using longitudinal village-level data for the years 1992-2001, with particular emphases on the effects of the 1985 debt crisis and the subsequent 1992 debt settlement legislation. Dynamic panel GMM estimation reveals a negative effect of the amount of debt, and a positive effect of reaching a debt restructuring agreement, on farm size. Reaching an agreement also had an indirect negative effect on the shift to off-farm work. No significant effect was found on farm exits. This implies that the debt restructuring legislation accomplished its goal of rehabilitating the farm sector, at least to some extent.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37943
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HAS DEBT RESTRUCTURING FACILITATED STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION ON ISRAELI FAMILY FARMS? AgEcon
Kimhi, Ayal.
This paper analyzes structural transformation on Israeli family farms using longitudinal village-level data for the years 1992-2001, with particular emphasis on the effects of the 1985 debt crisis and the subsequent 1992 debt settlement legislation. Dynamic panel GMM estimation reveals a negative effect of the amount of debt, and a positive effect of reaching a debt restructuring agreement, on farm size. Reaching an agreement also had an indirect negative effect on the shift to off-farm work. No significant effect was found on farm exits. This implies that the debt restructuring legislation accomplished its goal of rehabilitating the farm sector, at least to some extent.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6255
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HOUSEHOLD TIME ALLOCATION AND ENDOGENOUS FARM STRUCTURE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AgEcon
Goodwin, Barry K.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Kimhi, Ayal.
We evaluate relationships among time allocation decisions for farm operators and their spouses and endogenous farm structure. We consider two aspects of farm structure{ farm scale, represented by acreage operated and harvested, and farm scope, which is represented by an index of diversification. We are particularly interested in the role of policy expectations as a factor influencing labor decisions and farm structure. Our results indicate that farm structure and household time allocations are significantly related to one another. Operators on larger and more diversified farms tend to work less off the farm. Size may be endogenous to off-farm work decisions in that farms tend to be smaller when farmers pursue off-farm work opportunities, though the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7167
Registros recuperados: 37
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