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Registros recuperados: 19
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Agricultural Contracting Update, 2005 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
More than half of all transactions for U.S. agricultural products are still conducted through spot market exchanges, in which commodities are bought and sold in open market transactions for immediate delivery. But a growing share of U.S. farm production is produced and sold under agricultural contracts. Such contracts between farmers and their buyers are reached prior to harvest (or before the completion stage for livestock) and govern the terms under which products are transferred from the farm. The shift of production to contracting coincides with shifts of production to larger farms. Contracts are far more likely to be used on large farms than on small ones. Marketing and production contracts covered 41 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Marketing contracts; Farm structure; Farm size; Contracting; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; ARMS; Risk analysis; Marketing; Production Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58639
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Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2003 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2003, up from 36 percent in 2001 and a substantial increase over estimated values of 28 percent for 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. Large farms are far more likely to contract than small farms; in fact, contracts cover over half of the value of production from farms with at least $1 million in sales. Although use of both production and marketing contracts has grown over time, growth is more rapid for production contracts, which are largely used for livestock.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Contracts; Contracting; Marketing contracts; Production contracts; Vertical integration; Vertical coordination; Market structure; Risk analysis; Price signals; Industrial Organization; Marketing.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33903
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Agricultural Contracting Update: Contracts in 2008 AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Marketing and production contracts covered 39 percent of the value of U.S. agricultural production in 2008, up from 36 percent in 2001, and a substantial increase over 28 percent in 1991 and 11 percent in 1969. However, aggregate contract use has stabilized in recent years and no longer suggests a strong trend. Contracts between farmers and their buyers are reached prior to harvest (or before the completion stage for livestock)and govern the terms under which products are transferred from the farm. Contracts are far more likely to be used on large farms than on small farms, and they form one element in a package of risk management tools available to farmers. Production contracts are used widely in livestock production, while marketing contracts are...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Production contracts; Marketing contracts; Farm structure; Farm size; Farm income; Contracting; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; ARMS; Risk analysis; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Livestock Production/Industries; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/101279
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AGRICULTURAL STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT TO GOVERNMENT POLICIES: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE AgEcon
Ahearn, Mary Clare; Yee, Jet; Korb, Penelope J..
Economic theory alone cannot predict the impacts of government payments on farm structure. We estimate a 5-equation model for the 1978-96 period to measure the impacts using state micro and macro data sets. We found that government payments were positively associated with farm size and farm exits, but negatively associated with the extent of consolidation in farm production and the off-farm work of operators.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Government payments; Productivity; Farm size; Farm exits; Off-farm work; Consolidation; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20367
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America's Diverse Family Farms 2007 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Banker, David E.; Korb, Penelope J.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; MacDonald, James M..
American farms encompass a wide range of sizes, ownership structures, and business types, but most farms are still family farms. Family farms account for 98 percent of farms and 85 percent of production. Although most farms are small and own most of the farmland, production has shifted to very large farms. Farms with sales of $1 million or more make up less than 2 percent of all farms, but they account for 48 percent of farm product sales. Most of these million-dollar farms are family farms. Because small-farm households rely on off-farm work for most of their income, general economic policies, such as tax or economic development policy, can be as important to them as traditional farm policy.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm program payments; Farm production; Farm household income; Commodity payments; Direct payments; Government payments; Agricultural Resource Management Survey; Contracting; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59029
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DECOUPLED PAYMENTS IN A CHANGING POLICY SETTING AgEcon
Ahearn, Mary Clare; Collender, Robert N.; Diao, Xinshen; Harrington, David H.; Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J.; Makki, Shiva S.; Morehart, Mitchell J.; Roberts, Michael J.; Roe, Terry L.; Somwaru, Agapi; Vandeveer, Monte; Westcott, Paul C.; Young, C. Edwin.
The studies in this report analyze the effects of decoupled payments in the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform (FAIR) Act on recipient households, and assess land, labor, risk management, and capital market conditions that can lead to links between decoupled payments and production choices. Each study contributes a different perspective to understanding the response of U.S. farm households and production to decoupled income transfers. Some use new microdata on farm households collected through USDA's Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), initiated in 1996, and its predecessor survey. These data are used to compare household and producer behavior and outcomes before and after the FAIR Act. Other studies use applied or conceptual models to...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33981
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Duration in Production Contracts AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term contracts. Some contract terms appear to act as substitutes or complements to duration.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21112
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FARM OPERATIONS FACING DEVELOPMENT: RESULTS FROM THE CENSUS LONGITUDINAL FILE AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J..
This paper examines farms in areas undergoing development, using a longitudinal file constructed by linking several agricultural censuses. Individual farms are followed over the 1982-97 period. Survival, exit, and entrance rates are presented for three types of farms: recreational, adaptive, and traditional. The three types of farms are located where one would expect. Traditional farms are concentrated in nonmetropolitan (nonmetro) counties, while adaptive farms are concentrated in metro core counties. Recreational farms are least common in nonmetro nonadjacent areas, where off-farm opportunities are fewest. The concentration of adaptive farms in metro core counties does not appear to be the result of these farms simply surviving an urban...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Urban development; Urbanization; Specialty agriculture; High-value agriculture; Farming; Farm structure; Farm Management.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20771
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Industrialization and Contracting in U.S. Agriculture AgEcon
Ahearn, Mary Clare; Korb, Penelope J.; Banker, David E..
This paper examines the industrialization process of U.S. agriculture by examining the trends in the number of farms, the concentration of production during the last decade, and the dynamics of farm survivability, entry, and exit underlying aggregate statistics. We next examine vertical coordination as part of the industrialization process and highlight contracting in the poultry industry. The analysis provides evidence that production is continuing to be concentrated on a smaller number of farms at a relatively rapid rate, in spite of the stability in the number of farms. Although contracting clearly dominates the broiler industry, it is less prevalent in egg and turkey production, where other forms of vertical coordination are likely established.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Broilers; Contracting; Eggs; Industrialization; Poultry; Structural change; Turkeys; Vertical integration; D23; D40; L11; L14 L22; L23; Q12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43511
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Million-Dollar Farms in the New Century AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J.; Banker, David E..
Million-dollar farms—those with annual sales of at least $1 million—accounted for about half of U.S. farm sales in 2002, up from a fourth in 1982 (with sales measured in constant 2002 dollars). By 2006, million-dollar farms, accounting for 2 percent of all U.S. farms, dominated U.S. production of high-value crops, milk, hogs, poultry, and beef. The shift to million-dollar farms is likely to continue because they tend to be more profitable than smaller farms, giving them a competitive advantage. Most million-dollar farms (84 percent) are family farms, that is, the farm operator and relatives of the operator own the business. The million-dollar farms organized as nonfamily corporations tend to have no more than 10 stockholders.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Contracting; Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial performance; Farm-operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm type; Million-dollar farms; Farm Management.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58623
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Producers Rely on Contracts To Manage Increased Price Risks AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123226
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PROFIT PATTERNS IN THE U.S. AND THE WEST, 1992 AND 1997: WHAT COUNTY-LEVEL DATA REVEAL AgEcon
Korb, Penelope J.; Blank, Steven C.; Erickson, Kenneth W..
We examine whether there are spatial relationships in U.S. production agriculture's profitability across regions and over time. We test the traditional view that factor markets (approximately) adjust to equalize agriculture's net returns over space and time using county-level data from the UDSA's Census of Agriculture, 1992 and 1997. We estimate Gini coefficients and calculate the Theil Entropy Measure (TMI) to examine changes in the concentration of returns over space and time, and to decompose the variation in inequality in returns due to between-region variation in returns. Although factor markets (approximately) adjust to equalize net returns over space and time, there is still considerable variability in returns within regions and within states. Use...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Gini coefficient; Theil Entropy Measure; Net cash returns; Net cash and net farm income; Farm structure; Agricultural Finance; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Q; Q140.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36253
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Recent Changes in Farm Structure: A Canada-U.S. Comparison AgEcon
Biggs, Brian; Murray, Paul; Dubman, Robert W.; Erickson, Kenneth W.; Korb, Penelope J..
Following a series of bilateral and multilateral agreements, the past two decades have seen increased trade and investment liberalization between Canada and the United States in the agri-food sector. Changes in trade policy are one of several paths by which farm structure can change. This increased liberalization, together with the largest drop in Canadian farm numbers recorded by the Census of Agriculture in thirty years, has provided the impetus to review some aspects of farm structure. In particular, this article presents the latest Canadian and U.S. data on the number of farms by sales class, the concentration of sales and other production-related variables, and the distribution of income and receipts. We explore whether significant changes in the...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Farm Management; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45741
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Small Farms in the United States: Persistence Under Pressure AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J..
Ninety-one percent of U.S. farms are classified as small—gross cash farm income (GCFI) of less than $250,000. About 60 percent of these small farms are very small, generating GCFI of less than $10,000. These very small noncommercial farms, in some respects, exist independently of the farm economy because their operators rely heavily on off-farm income. The remaining small farms—small commercial farms—account for most small-farm production. Overall farm production, however, continues to shift to larger operations, while the number of small commercial farms and their share of sales maintain a long-term decline. The shift to larger farms will continue to be gradual, because some small commercial farms are profitable and others are willing to accept losses.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial performance; Farm-operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Noncommercial farms; Small farms; Small commercial farms; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/58300
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Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Farms, 1995: 20th Annual Family Farm Report to Congress AgEcon
Sommer, Judith E.; Hoppe, Robert A.; Green, Robert C.; Korb, Penelope J..
National average statistics related to farm production mask the diversity in the Nation's 2 million farms and the people who operate them. Farms in the United States differ not only by size (sales and acres) and type of production, but also by organizational characteristics (land ownership, legal organization, contracting arrangements) and financial characteristics (debt, assets, income, expenditures). Farm operators and their households vary with respect to demographic characteristics (occupation, age, education), financial characteristics (dependence on farm income, operator/spouse labor allocation), and management characteristics (information sources, business goals).
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Farm structure; Farm income; Financial performance; Farm management; Farm business; Government payments; Farm loans; Computer use; Minority farmers; Female farm operators; Farm operator household; Family farm; Small farm; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33620
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Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Farms: 2001 Family Farm Report AgEcon
Johnson, James D.; Perry, Janet E.; Korb, Penelope J.; Sommer, Judith E.; Ryan, James T.; Green, Robert C.; Durst, Ron L.; Monke, James D..
Family farms vary widely in size and other characteristics, ranging from very small retirement and residential farms to establishments with sales in the millions of dollars. The farm typology developed by the Economic Research Service (ERS) categorizes farms into groups based primarily on occupation of the operator and sales class of the farm. The typology groups reflect operators' expectations from farming, position in the life cycle, and dependence on agriculture. The groups differ in their importance to the farm sector, product specialization, program participation, and dependence on farm income. These (and other) differences are discussed in this report.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural Resource Management Study (ARMS); Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial situation; Farm operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm typology; Female farm operators; Government payments; Spouses of farm operators; Taxes; Agricultural Finance; Farm Management.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33707
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Structure and Finances of U.S. Farms: Family Farm Report, 2007 Edition AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J.; O'Donoghue, Erik J.; Banker, David E..
U.S. farms are diverse, ranging from small retirement and residential farms to enterprises with annual sales in the millions. Nevertheless, most U.S. farms—98 percent in 2004—are family farms. Even the largest farms tend to be family farms. Large-scale family farms and nonfamily farms account for 10 percent of U.S farms, but 75 percent of the value of production. In contrast, small family farms make up most of the U.S. farm count, produce a modest share of farm output, and receive substantial off-farm income. Many farm households have a large net worth, reflecting the land-intensive nature of farming.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Contracting; Family farms; Farm businesses; Farm financial performance; Farm-operator household income; Farm operators; Farm structure; Farm type; Million-dollar farms; Small farms; ERS; USDA; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59032
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Understanding U.S. Farm Exits AgEcon
Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J..
The rate at which U.S. farms go out of business, or exit farming, is about 9 or 10 percent per year, comparable to exit rates for nonfarm small businesses in the United States. U.S. farms have not disappeared because the rate of entry into farming is nearly as high as the exit rate. The relatively stable farm count since the 1970s reflects exits and entries essentially in balance. The probability of exit is higher for recent entrants than for older, more established farms. Farms operated by Blacks are more likely to exit than those operated by Whites, but the gap between Black and White exit probabilities has declined substantially since the 1980s. Exit probabilities differ by specialization, with beef farms less likely to exit than cash grain or hog farms.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: 1997 Census of Agriculture Longitudinal File; Farm exit; Farm entry; Farm structure; Farm operator characteristics; Farm operator life cycle; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7212
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U.S. Small Farms: Decline and Persistence? AgEcon
MacDonald, James M.; Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penelope J.; O'Donoghue, Erik J..
We use two comprehensive and representative USDA databases to assess the performance of small farms in the U.S. Farm production is shifting to much larger farms, and the number of small commercial farms is declining. Most large U.S. farms remain family-owned and operated enterprises, and most remain small businesses by U.S. standards. Small commercial farms tend to focus on three commodities: beef cattle, grains and oilseeds, and poultry. On average, large farm financial returns substantially exceed those on small farms, but the range of performance among small farms is quite wide. About one quarter of the nearly 800,000 small commercial farms show very good financial returns.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Small farms; Structural change; Farm income; Agricultural and Food Policy; Q12.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/52870
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