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Aichi Virus, Norovirus, Astrovirus, Enterovirus, and Rotavirus Involved in Clinical Cases from a French Oyster-Related Gastroenteritis Outbreak ArchiMer
Le Guyader, Soizick; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Ambert-balay, Katia; Krol, Joanna; Serais, Ophelie; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Giraudon, Helene; Delmas, Gilles; Pommepuy, Monique; Pothier, Pierre; Atmar, Robert L..
Following a flooding event close to a shellfish production lagoon, 205 cases of gastroenteritis were linked to oyster consumption. Twelve stool samples from different individuals were collected. Analysis showed that eight samples were positive for multiple enteric viruses, and one stool sample had seven different enteric viruses. Analysis of shellfish implicated in the outbreak allowed detection of the same diversity of enteric viruses, with some viral genomic sequences being identical to those obtained from stool sample analysis. Shellfish were contaminated by as many as five different enteric viruses. For the first time in Europe, Aichi virus was identified in oyster samples. Shellfish samples collected over 3 weeks following the outbreak showed a...
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Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-6099.pdf
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An oyster-associated hepatitis A outbreak in France in 2007 ArchiMer
Guillois-becel, Y.; Couturier, E.; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Roque-afonso, A. M.; Le Guyader, Soizick; Le Goas, A.; Pernes, J.; Le Bechec, S.; Briand, A.; Robert, C.; Dussaix, E.; Pommepuy, Monique; Vaillant, V..
Following the notification of nine hepatitis A cases clustered in the Cotes d'Armor district in northwestern France, epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigations were set up in order to identify the source and vehicle of contamination and implement control measures. In total, 111 cases were identified in the outbreak, all of whom lived or had stayed as tourists in the Cotes d'Armor district. Of the cases, 87% had eaten raw shellfish, and 81% specifically oysters. Traceback investigations carried out on raw shellfish consumed by the cases showed that the raw shellfish originated from a single shellfish farm. The shellfish were probably contaminated either in the submersible tanks or in a depuration land-based tank where they were...
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Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6685.pdf
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Apports des bassins versants dans l'estuaire de l'Aber-Benoît ArchiMer
Blanchard, Michel; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Piriou, Jean-yves.
Un recensement des apports provenant de certains bassins versants dans l'estuaire de l'Aber-Benoît (Bretagne-nord, France) montre que les contaminants susceptibles d'affecter la qualité de l'eau alimentant les huîtres sont de natures diverses. Parmi les éléments étudiés, les mesures donnent des flux minima journaliers de 10(13) coliformes fécaux, 2 tonnes d'azote, 150 kilogrammes de phosphate sur l'estuaire, et 27 grammes de triazines, pesticides les plus importants sur la rivière Aber-Benoît.
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Ano: 1993 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00082/19285/16880.pdf
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Bilan 2003 du réseau REPAMO - Réseau national de surveillance zoosanitaire des mollusques marins ArchiMer
Arzul, Isabelle; Garcia, Celine; Joly, Jean-pierre; Miossec, Laurence; Chollet, Bruno; Robert, Maeva; Cuvelier, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Alain; Le Gagneur, Eric; Kopp, Joel; Mouillard, Gilbert; Gerla, Daniel; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Raguenes, Pierre; Le Gal, Dominique; Langlade, Aime; Bedier, Edouard; Nourry, Max; Martin, Jean-louis; Fillon, Alain.
The REPAMO network (network ofmollusc pathology), created in 1986, ensures the survey of shellfish health status along French coasts according? to European Directives 91/67/EEC and 95/70/EEC. The aims of the network are 1 - to prevent the introduction and spread of exotic pathogens, 2-to study the means to decrease the impact of pathogens already present and to survey their evolution. In 2003, the REPAMO network focused on the survey oflisted diseases (bonamiosis and marteiliosis) in two areas under agreement process (Banc de Granville and zone X) and on the study of abnormal morlalities. Number of reported abnormal morlalities has increased in 2003. This rise can be partly explained by the recent network restructuring, but also by the summer heatwave and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Réseau; Surveillance; Pathologie; Mollusques; Coquillages; Etat de santé; Network; Surveillance; Pathology; Molluscs; Shellfish; Health status.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00086/19699/17340.pdf
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Bilans depuis 1999 et évolution de la stratégie du REPAMO ArchiMer
Thebault, Anne; Martin, Anne-genevieve; Pichot, Yves; Chollet, Bruno; Robert, Maeva; Le Coguic, Yvette; Tige, Gilbert; Hirata, Toshio; Mazurie, Joseph; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Masson, Nadine; Auby, Isabelle; Maurer, Daniele; Le Roux, Frédérique; Cochennec, Nathalie; Renault, Tristan; Berthe, Franck; Grizel, Henri.
The main objectives of the Mollusc Pathology Network (REPAMO) are to prevent introductions or outbreaks of infectious agents, prevent spread within a farm and especially from one farm to another, to study ways of decreasing the impact of infectious agent and to monitor the development of these pathogens in order to guarantee the health status of oysters exchanged with our commercial partners. On the whole, REPAMO's activities have not changed and include: - monitoring the development of diseases that have to be reported to authorities and carrying out analyses to classify zones: bonamiosis and marteiliosis; - baseline monitoring of farmed and wild populations of bivalve molluscs; - studying cases of abnormal mortality events; - controlling mollusc...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Mollusques; Réseau surveillance; Pathologie; REPAMO.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2001/acte-3265.pdf
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Bioaccumulation Efficiency, Tissue Distribution, and Environmental Occurrence of Hepatitis E Virus in Bivalve Shellfish from France ArchiMer
Grodzki, Marco; Schaeffer, Julien; Piquet, Jean-come; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Cheve, Julien; Ollivier, Joanna; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Guyader, Soizick.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an enteric pathogen of both humans and animals, is excreted by infected individuals and is therefore present in wastewaters and coastal waters. As bivalve molluscan shellfish are known to concentrate viral particles during the process of filter feeding, they may accumulate this virus. The bioaccumulation efficiencies of oysters (Crassostrea gigas), flat oysters (Ostrea edulis), mussels (Mytilus edulis), and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were compared at different time points during the year. Tissue distribution analysis showed that most of the viruses were concentrated in the digestive tissues of the four species. Mussels and clams were found to be more sensitive to sporadic contamination events, as demonstrated by rapid...
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Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00204/31501/29905.pdf
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Bovine Norovirus: Carbohydrate Ligand, Environmental Contamination, and Potential Cross-Species Transmission via Oysters ArchiMer
Zakhour, Maha; Maalouf, Haifa; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Haugarreau, Larissa; Le Guyader, Francoise; Ruvoen-clouet, Nathalie; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Ruggeri, Franco Maria; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques.
Noroviruses (NoV) are major agents of acute gastroenteritis in humans and the primary pathogens of shellfish-related outbreaks. Previous studies showed that some human strains bind to oyster tissues through carbohydrate ligands that are similar to their human receptors. Thus, based on presentation of shared norovirus carbohydrate ligands, oysters could selectively concentrate animal strains with increased ability to overcome species barriers. In comparison with human GI and GII strains, bovine GIII NoV strains, although frequently detected in bovine feces and waters of two estuaries of Brittany, were seldom detected in oysters grown in these estuaries. Characterization of the carbohydrate ligand from a new GIII strain indicated recognition of the...
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Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00014/12534/9527.pdf
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Calicivirus Removal in a Membrane Bioreactor Wastewater Treatment Plant ArchiMer
Sima, Laura C.; Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Elimelech, Menachem; Le Guyader, Soizick.
To evaluate membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment virus removal, a study was conducted in southwest France. Samples collected from plant influent, an aeration basin, membrane effluent, solid sludge, and effluent biweekly from October 2009 to June 2010 were analyzed for calicivirus (norovirus and sapovirus) by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) using extraction controls to perform quantification. Adenovirus and Escherichia coli also were analyzed to compare removal efficiencies. In the influent, sapovirus was always present, while the norovirus concentration varied temporally, with the highest concentration being detected from February to May. All three human norovirus genogroups (GI, GII, and GIV) were detected in effluent, but GIV was never...
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Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00043/15378/12810.pdf
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Classement des zones de production conchylicole du Finistère - Etude de zone : Baie de Lanveur ArchiMer
Piclet, Guy; Monfort, Patrick; Bilien, Gwenael; Boulben, Sylviane; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Raguenes, Pierre.
La rivière de Daoulas a fait l'objet d'un classement en zone de salubrité B par arrêté préfectoral en date du 20/02/1997 pour les coquillages du groupe 3 (Crassostrea gigas). Suite à une demande d'attribution de concessions de palourdes (Tapes philiipinarum) par les professionnels, et en raison de l'absence de données colimétriques sur cette espèce, les services de la Préfecture ont sollicité l'Ifremer pour la réalisation d'une étude bactériologique spécifique. Ce document synthétise les résultats obtenus entre mars 1997 et août 1998.
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Ano: 1998 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00057/16783/14236.pdf
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Comprehensive Analysis of a Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis Outbreak, from the Environment to the Consumer ArchiMer
Le Guyader, Soizick; Krol, Joanna; Ambert-balay, Katia; Ruvoen-clouet, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Benedicte; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Ponge, Agnes; Pothier, Pierre; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Pendu, Jacques.
Noroviruses have been recognized to be the predominant agents of nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans, and their transmission via contaminated shellfish consumption has been demonstrated. Norovirus laboratory experiments, volunteer challenge studies, and community gastroenteritis outbreak investigations have identified human genetic susceptibility factors related to histo-blood group antigen expression. Following a banquet in Brittany, France, in February 2008, gastroenteritis cases were linked to oyster consumption. This study identified an association of the norovirus illnesses with histo-blood group expression, and oyster contamination with norovirus was confirmed by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The secretor phenotype was...
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Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00002/11309/8050.pdf
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Contamination des coquillages par les norovirus en rivière d'Auray en lien avec la rénovation d'une station d'épuration littorale ArchiMer
Treguier, Cathy; Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Le Guyader, Soizick; Cochennec-laureau, Nathalie.
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Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00312/42358/41693.pdf
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Contamination des coquillages par les norovirus en rivière d'Auray (Norocoqauray) ArchiMer
Treguier, Cathy; Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Cochennec-laureau, Nathalie; Le Guyader, Soizick.
Les norovirus (NoV) sont responsables des épidémies hivernales de gastroentérites aiguës dans la population. Ils sont excrétés dans les fèces humains, puis se retrouvent, après épuration insuffisante, dans le milieu marin naturel où ils peuvent contaminer des coquillages, qui à leur tour risquent de déclencher des gastroentérites chez les consommateurs. Cette étude vise à améliorer les connaissances sur la contamination des coquillages en élevage en rivière d’Auray par les NoV, en lien avec les bactéries témoins de contamination fécale Escherichia coli (E. coli). L’objectif est de suivre les flux de NoV et d’E. coli apportés par différents rejets (dont une station d’épuration) impactant la zone conchylicole et leur influence sur la qualité des coquillages...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Norovirus; Coquillages; Contamination; Station d’épuration; Flux; Rivière d’Auray; Escherichia coli..
Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00267/37778/35829.pdf
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COQUENPATH - Rôle de l'environnement marin (en particulier des coquillages) sur la sélection de souches humaines ou animales de norovirus pathogènes pour l'homme ArchiMer
Pommepuy, Monique; Le Guyader, F.s; Le Pendu, Jacques; Poncet, D; Thebault, Anne; Le Saux, Jean-claude.
L'objectif général du projet est de comprendre le rôle du milieu marin, et en particulier des coquillages, sur la sélection des souches de norovirus humaines ou animales et sur leur pathogénicité potentielle pour l'homme. Des évènements récents ont montré l 'importance du potentiel zoonotique des virus, par voie directe, mais aussi au travers d'aliments potentiellement infectés ou contaminés [Yazaki et al., 2003] 1; [Stavrinides et Guttman, 2004]. L'analyse de l'évolution des Caliciviridae montre ainsi que le virus de l'exanthème vésiculeux du porc (VESV) serait apparu via l'alimentation contenant des farines de poissons jnfectés [Etherington et al. , 2006]. L'émergence de pathogènes au travers d'un passage inter - espèce correspond à des évènements rares,...
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Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00044/15550/12937.pdf
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Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Sewage After an Outbreak on a French Island ArchiMer
Miura, Takayuki; Lhomme, Sebastien; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Le Mehaute, Philippe; Guillois, Yvonnick; Couturier, Elizabeth; Izopet, Jacques; Abranavel, Florence; Le Guyader, Soizick.
A hepatitis E outbreak, which occurred on a small isolated island, provided an opportunity to evaluate the association between the number of hepatitis E cases in the community and the concentration of virus detected in sewage. Samples were collected from the different sewage treatment plants from the island and analyzed for the presence of hepatitis E (HEV) virus using real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that if 1–4 % of inhabitants connected to a WWTP were infected with HEV, raw sewage contained HEV at detectable levels. The finding that such a small number of infected people can contaminate municipal sewage works raises the potential of the further distribution of the virus. Indeed, investigating the routes of transmission of HEV, including the potential...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Hepatitis E virus; Wastewater treatment plant; Quantification.
Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00334/44482/44199.pdf
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Developing a strategy to limit shellfish viral contamination ArchiMer
Le Saux, Jean-claude; Derolez, Valerie; Brest, G.; Le Guyader, Soizick; Pommepuy, Monique.
For shellfish, the viral contamination clearly occurs in the first step of the process i.e. in growing and harvesting areas. As opposed to other foods, there is no proof that other routes (foodhandlers, aerosol), could be at the origin of the seafood contamination (Koopmans & Duizer, 2004). Most of the time, untreated sewage are at the origin of the presence of viruses in shellfish. However, direct contamination by ill people working in the growing area, has also been reported (Berg et al., 2000; Butt et al, 2004).
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Ano: 2004 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00066/17733/15254.pdf
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Digital PCR for Quantifying Norovirus in Oysters Implicated in Outbreaks, France ArchiMer
Polo, David; Schaeffer, Julien; Fournet, Nelly; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Mcleod, Catherine; Le Guyader, Soizick.
Using samples from oysters clearly implicated in human disease, we quantified norovirus levels by using digital PCR. Concentrations varied from 43 to 1,170 RNA copies/oyster. The analysis of frozen samples from the production area showed the presence of norovirus 2 weeks before consumption.
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Ano: 2016 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00359/46971/46887.pdf
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Discrimination between human, pig and ruminant fecal contaminations in a river catchment by real-time PCR using host-specific markers ArchiMer
Mieszkin, Sophie; Furet, Jean-pierre; Corthier, Gerard; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Bougeard, Morgane; Hervio Heath, Dominique; Gourmelon, Michele.
The microbiological quality of coastal waters and shellfish harvesting areas in Brittany (France) can be affected by faecal pollutions from human activities and animal breeding (especially pigs and cattle). To discriminate among faecal pollution of human and animal origin, a library-independent microbial source tracking method was selected: Bacteroidales host-specific 16S rRNA gene markers by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A human-specific Bacteroidales marker (Hum-1-Bac) was designed. Tested on faecal samples, the Hum-1-Bac marker showed 95 % sensitivity and 95 % specificity (n= 80). Average values (± STD) of the Hum-1-Bac marker were found to be 7.3 ± 1.4 16S rRNA gene copies per g wet faeces in human faeces samples (n=10) and 5.7 ± 1.3 log10...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Microbial Source Tracking; Host-Specific Bacteroidales Marker; 16S rRNA Gene; Real-Time PCR; Faecal Contamination.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00021/13259/10306.pdf
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Distribution in Tissue and Seasonal Variation of Norovirus Genogroup I and II Ligands in Oysters ArchiMer
Maalouf, Haifa; Zakhour, Maha; Le Pendu, Jacques; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Francoise S..
Bivalve molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, filter large volumes of water as part of their feeding activities and are able to accumulate and concentrate different types of pathogens, particularly noroviruses, from fecal human pollution. Based on our previous observation of a specific binding of the Norwalk strain (prototype norovirus genogroup I) to the oyster digestive tract through an A-like carbohydrate structure indistinguishable from human blood group A antigen and on the large diversity between strains in terms of carbohydrate-binding specificities, we evaluated the different ligands implicated in attachment to oysters tissues of strains representative of two main genogroups of human norovirus. The GI.1 and GII.4 strains differed in that the latter...
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Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00011/12215/9045.pdf
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Dosage par C.L.H.P. des toxines paralysantes de coquillages contaminés par Alexandrium minutum en rivières de Morlaix et de la Penzé en 1994 ArchiMer
Masselin, Pierre; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Le Gal, Dominique; Lassus, Patrick.
PSP toxin levels in cultivated mussels and oysters were monitored over a one year period (1994) in two keys areas, the Morlaix and la Penzé estuaries (Northern Brittany, France).Toxins were detected by IP-HPLC and results compared to those given by the bioassay routinely used by IFREMER Coastal Laboratories. Shellfish contamination seems closely related to A. minutum occurences (the minimum concentration of cells resulting in toxin detection in mussels was 400 cells/I). Toxins were depurated rapidly initially, and subsequently at a slower rate, such that residual toxin levels were detected in mussel digestive glands three months later. Maximum toxin levels were lower than the quarantine treshold level in Morlaix river, but exceeded this level (maximum: 290...
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Ano: 1996 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00119/23016/20846.pdf
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Etat de la situation sanitaire des zones de production conchylicole dans les Pertuis Charentais. Volet 1 : Microbiologie et métaux lourds (Plomb, Mercure, Cadmium) ArchiMer
Thomas, Gerard; Piquet, Jean-come; Rouyer, Pascal; Audat, Cécile; Le Saux, Jean-claude; Ryckaert, Mireille; Fillon, Alain.
Le rapport se propose de dresser le bilan actuel de l’état sanitaire microbiologique des zones d’élevage ou de pêche professionnelle de coquillages dans les pertuis charentais. Bien qu’il soit principalement axé sur le volet microbiologique, les questions relatives aux teneurs des coquillages concernant trois métaux lourds (plomb, mercure, cadmium) sont également abordées, car le classement sanitaire des zones conchylicoles dépend aussi de ces paramètres. Les résultats du REMI* montrent que sur les dix dernières années, la situation des zones classées est restée globalement stable ou en légère amélioration, ce qui est à mettre au crédit des progrès en terme d’assainissement. Néanmoins, diverses études sanitaires révèlent la persistance d’un certain nombre...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Zones conchylicoles; Etat sanitaire; Microbiologie; Métaux lourds.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00123/23420/21247.pdf
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