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Agronomical techniques to improve technological and sanitary quality Organic Eprints
David, C.; Celette, F.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.; Dubois, D.; Friedel, J.K.; Hellou, G.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Mäder, P.; Thomsen, I.K..
In spite of variable grain protein contents, baking quality of organic wheat was found to be acceptable to good. Mycotoxin (DON) infestation was generally low on tested grain samples. Choice of wheat cultivar was the most efficient way to obtain higher grain quality. Fertilization with readily available nitrogen and, to a lower extent, association with legumes and green manures with mixtures containing fodder legumes also improved grain quality. Reduced tillage affected soil quality and wheat yield but had little effects on grain quality.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21100/1/AGTEC_farmers_leaflet_Final_VJune12.pdf
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Biological soil quality as a factor of efficient resource utilization in organic farming systems Organic Eprints
Fliessbach, A.; Mäder, P..
In 1978 the DOK long-term field experiment was installed at Therwil close to Basel comparing the farming systems „bio-Dynamic“, „bio-Organic“ and „(K)conventional“. In the first years of the trial, crop yield and feasibility of organic farming were investigated. Soils were analysed with respect to long-term effects on fertility and were evaluated in the view of farming effects on the environment. Today the interrelation of diversity and efficiency and the quality of organic products is the research focus. Long-term trials like the DOK-trial offer unique opportunities for this kind of research. The DOK-trial compares the three systems mentioned above on the basis of the same intensity of organic fertilization (i.e. the same number of animals per area), the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil biology; Soil quality.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://orgprints.org/9094/1/FliessbachMaeder%2D2005%2DsoilQuality%2Dapplicationform.pdf
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Boundaries between soil compartments formed by microporous hydrophobic membranes (GORE-TEX®) can be crossed by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi but not by ions in the soil solution Organic Eprints
Mäder, P.; Vierheilig, H.; Alt, M.; Wiemken, A..
Various container systems have been described in which soil regions available to hyphae only are separated from the mycorrhizal root region by 30–60 μm mesh screens to study nutrient exchange between plants and fungi in the mycorrhizal symbiosis. The screens designed up to now prevent penetration by roots but allow easy passage of fungal hyphae as well as diffusion or mass flow of water and nutrient solutions. We tested hydrophobic microporous polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) membranes (GORE-TEXR) with 5 to 15 μm diameter pores in an attempt to obtain a better seal between compartments and to prevent uncontrolled nutrient transport by diffusion or mass flow. We found that these membranes completely prevented diffusion or mass flow of ions between two soil...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://orgprints.org/26785/1/Maeder_et_al_1993_PS.pdf
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Does organic agriculture reduce soil erodibility? The results of a long-term field study on loess in Switzerland Organic Eprints
Siegrist, S.; Schaub, D.; Pfiffner, L.; Mäder, P..
In a long-term field trial in northwestern Switzerland, the effects of organic and conventional land-use management on earthworm populations and on soil erodibility were investigated. A silt loam soil which had developed in deep deposits of alluvial loess characterised the study site. Three methods were applied to analyse soil erodibility, at three different periods between autumn 1992 and 1993: aggregate stability (measured in the laboratory by a high energy rainfall simulation and by percolation) and soil particle detachment (measured in the field by splash erosion). Earthworm biomass and density, as well as the population diversity, were significantly greater on the organic plots than on the conventional plots. Likewise, the aggregate stability of the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil biology.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://orgprints.org/26776/1/Siegrist_et_al_1998_AEE.pdf
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Economic profitability of organic vs. conventional cotton-based production systems in a long-term field trial in India Organic Eprints
Forster, D.; Andres, C.; Verma, R.; Zundel, C.; Messmer, M.; Mäder, P..
The debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems is more topical than ever. The achievements of conventional high-input agriculture were largely brought about at the cost of deteriorating soil fertility; furthermore, they were based to a large extent on fossil fuels. Developing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance. However, information about the performance of agricultural production systems under organic and conventional management in tropical and subtropical regions is largely lacking. This study aimed to assess agronomic and economic data from a long-term farming systems comparison trial under semi-arid conditions in central India.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Farming Systems; Crop husbandry; India; Environmental aspects.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/24836/1/Andres-etal-2013-1stGlobalFoodSecurity-Conference.pdf
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Effect of three farming systems (bio-dynamic, bio-organic, conventional) on yield and quality of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta L.) in a seven year crop rotation Organic Eprints
Mäder, P.; Pfiffner, L.; Niggli, U.; Balzer, U.; Balzer, F.; Plochberger, A.; Velimirov, A.; Besson, J.-M..
In a long-term field trial in Therwil, Switzerland, the bio-dynamic, bio-organic and conventional farming systems were compared (DOC trial). The present paper focuses on long-term yield development and on product quality of beetroot. Due to the favourable climate and soil, beetroot yields were generally high. The yield of beetroot in both biological systems was about 75 % that of the conventional system, but the input of nitrogen and potassium was about 60 % lower.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Production systems; Farming Systems; Soil.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://orgprints.org/26786/1/M%C3%A4der_et_al_1993_AH.pdf
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Genetic variation for nutrient use efficiency in maize under different tillage and fertilization regimes with special emphasis to plant microbe interaction Organic Eprints
Messmer, M.; Berner, A.; Krauss, M.; Jansa, J.; Presterl, Th.; Schmidt, W.; Mäder, P..
Conservation tillage (no-till and reduced tillage) brings many benefits with respect to soil fertility and energy use, but it also has drawbacks regarding the need for synthetic fertilizers and herbicides. To promote conversation tillage in organic farming systems, crop rotation, fertilization and weed control have to be optimized. In addition, crop varieties are needed with improved nutrient use efficiency (NUE) and high weed competitiveness or tolerance.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Soil tillage; Weed management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/18931/1/Messmer-etal-2011-NUE-AMF-Eucarpia-printed.pdf
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Gesellschaftliche Leistungen der biologischen Landwirtschaft Organic Eprints
Niggli, U.; Schmid, O.; Stolze, M.; Sanders, J.; Schader, C.; Fließbach, A.; Mäder, P.; Klocke, P.; Wyss, G.; Balmer, O.; Pfiffner, L.; Wyss, E..
Zusammenfassuung: In diesem Bericht werden die wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse nationaler und internationaler Studien zu den gesellschaftlichen Leistungen des Biolandbaus zusammengefasst. Als Referenzen werden dabei sowohl die konventionelle wie auch die integrierte Landwirtschaft herangezogen. Es ist den Autoren bewusst, dass alle Landwirtschaftsmethoden in der Schweiz und im Ausland eine grosse Streubreite aufweisen, da der Einfluss der regionalen sozioökonomischen Rahmenbedingungen, der Standortfaktoren, der Betriebsleiter und der unterschiedlichen staatlichen und privaten Regulierungen gross ist. Trotzdem ergeben sich für die verschiedenen Landwirtschaftsmethoden klare Unterschiede, die bei den agrarpolitischen Massnahmen berücksichtigt werden...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Environmental aspects; Biodiversity and ecosystem services; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15397/2/niggli%2Detal%2D2009%2Dgesllschaftl%2Dleistungen.pdf
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Gestalt, Geruch und Geschmack von Weizen im DOK-Anbauvergleichsversuch Organic Eprints
Arncken, C.; Weibel, F.P.; Mäder, P..
This project was designed as an iterative process of describing quality profiles of “organic” and “high-quality” wheat and finding adequate, sensory-based methods to do so. Wheat growing in 1998-2000 at the DOK long-term field trial (FLIEßBACH et al. 2007, MÄDER et al. 2002) was repeatedly investigated. The ripening phase started earlier and lasted longer in treatment D2 (bio-dynamic) and was shortest in treatment K2 (conventional). Coded grain samples were examined in respect to treatment differ-ences in smell and taste. For D2 samples the author used the highest number of “sweetness” terms and the lowest number of other terms, whereas in M (conven-tional/mineral fertilizer only) grains, the highest numbers of “poorness” terms and the lowest of...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Breeding; Genetics and propagation.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://orgprints.org/9372/1/9372_Arncken_Vortrag.pdf
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Improving rice yield and quality through inoculation with mycorrhiza and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in India Organic Eprints
Srivastava, R.; Berset, E.; Mäder, P.; Fried, P.M.; Sharma, A.K..
Microorganisms were integrated as bio-fertilizers in a wheat-rice trial in India. Four-year results show that Rice grain yield was 30% higher, compared to control plots, after application of an inoculum containing mycorrhiza and rhizo-bacteria. Substantial increase of grain Quality was achieved.
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil; India.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/26055/1/ISRR_Abstract%20short_SS3.24.pdf
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Incorporation of Nitrogen-15-Labeled Amendments into Physically Separated Soil Organic Matter Fractions Organic Eprints
Bosshard, C.; Frossard, E.; Dubois, D.; Mäder, P.; Manolov, I.; Oberson, A..
Physically separated soil organic matter (SOM) fractions may take different functions in soil N dynamics. We studied the effect of long-term organic matter (OM) management and different soil biological activity on the incorporation of N added with organic and mineral amendments into aggregate fractions and size density fractions. We applied 15N-labeled sheep feces, urine, and mineral fertilizer to microplots installed in plots of conventional (CONMIN) and bio-organic (BIOORG) cropping systems. Soil sampled 112 d after amendment was separated into macro-, microaggregates, and microstructures. Aggregates were then fractionated into free light fraction (LF), intra-aggregate particulate organic matter (iPOM),and the mineral-associated organic matter fraction...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://orgprints.org/26387/1/Bosshard_et_al_2008_SSSAJ_72_POM.pdf
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Langzeit-Systemvergleiche in Kenia und Indien: Konventionelle und biologische Erträge aus dem ersten Umstellungsjahr Organic Eprints
Zundel, C.; Musyoka, M.; Baruah, R.; Kilcher, L.; Muriuki, A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Chabi-Olaye, A.; Mucheru, M.; Mäder, P..
Organic agriculture is more and more perceived as a promising approach to increase food security in developing countries. However, only few attempts have been made so far to assess agronomic and economic performance of organic agriculture in these^regions in a systematic way. This article reports the first year’s results of two long-term farming systems comparison field trials in Kenya and India. In sub-humid Central Kenya, on a high potential site in Meru South District (Chuka), there were no differences between yields of conventional and organic systems for the first maize and brassica crops. In contrast, organic yields were 14 to 60% lower than conventional yields on a trial site in a medium potential zone in Maragua District (Thika). It is assumed...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Biodiversity and ecosystem services.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14308/1/Zundel_14308.pdf
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Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies – Organic Agriculture Organic Eprints
Fließbach, A.; Mäder, P.; Dioup, A.; Hepperly, P.; Luttikholt, L.; Scialabba, N.; Niggli, U..
This psoter presents information on the following - The concept of organic farming in the context of climate change - Carbon sequestration on organic farms - Consequences of an area-wide conversion to organic agriculture
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality; Air and water emissions.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/15691/1/fliessbach-etal-2009-mitigation.pdf
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Mycorrhizal fungi as natural bio-fertilizers: How to produce and use Organic Eprints
Symanczik, S.; Bouamri, R.; Rachidi, F.; Mäder, P..
This technical handbook provides an easy to follow guide describing the process on how to produce home-made mycorrhizal inoculants using different types of propagation units and how inoculants can be applied as bio-fertilizers in the nursery and during field transplantation for improving the growth and stress tolerance of crop plants.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Composting and manuring Fruit and berries Crop health; Quality; Protection.
Ano: 2018 URL: http://orgprints.org/35308/1/symanczik-etal-2018-Mycorrhizal-fungi-as-natural-biofertilizer_technical_note.pdf
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Nitrogen fixation and transfer in grassclover leys under organic and conventional cropping systems Organic Eprints
Oberson, A.; Frossard, E.; Bühlmann, C.; Mayer, J.; Mäder, P.; Lüscher, A..
Background and aim Symbiotic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is the most important external N source in organic systems. Our objective was to compare symbiotic N2 fixation of clover grown in organically and conventionally cropped grass-clover leys, while taking into account nutrient supply gradients. Methods We studied leys of a 30-year-old field experiment over 2 years in order to compare organic and conventional systems at two fertilization levels. Using 15N natural abundance methods, we determined the proportion of N derived from the atmosphere (PNdfa), the amount of Ndfa (ANdfa), and the transfer of clover N to grasses for both red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.). Results In all treatments and both years, PNdfa was...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Crop husbandry.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://orgprints.org/23228/1/Oberson-etal-2013-PlantansSoil-onlinefirst.pdf
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Nitrogen use efficiency of 15N-labelled sheep manure and mineral fertiliser applied to microplots in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems Organic Eprints
Bosshard, C.; Sørensen, P.; Frossard, E.; Mayer, J.; Mäder, P.; Nanzer, S.; Oberson, A..
Nitrogen (N) utilisation by crops has to be improved to minimize losses to the environment. We investigated N use efficiency of animal manure and mineral fertiliser and fate of fertiliser N not taken up by crops in a conventional (CONMIN) and a bioorganic (BIOORG) cropping system of a long-term field experiment over three vegetation periods (winter wheat–soybean–maize). Microplots planted with wheat received a single application of 15N-labelled slurries (either urine or faeces labelled) or mineral fertiliser. At the end of each vegetation period we tested whether higher microbial activity and larger microbial biomass in BIOORG than CONMIN soils, and lower long-term N input level in BIOORG, affected use efficiency and fate of fertiliser N not taken up by...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/26369/1/Bosshard_etal_2009_NCA83.pdf
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Nutritional quality of organic and conventional wheat Organic Eprints
Langenkämper, G.; Zörb, C.; Seifert, M.; Mäder, P.; Fretzdorff, B.; Betsche, T..
The popularity of organic food and the farming area managed according to organic agriculture practices have been increasing during the last years. It is not clear, whether foods from organic and conventional agriculture are equal with respect to nutritional quality. We chose wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) as one of the most important crop plants to determine a range of substances relevant for human nutrition in crops from organic and conventional agriculture systems. Wheat grains of 2003 originating from a long term field experiment, the Swiss DOK trial, consisting of bio-dynamic, bio-organic and conventional farming systems were used. Thousand seed weight, protein content, phosphate levels, antioxidative capacity, levels of phenols, fibre,...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/13463/1/langenkaemper-etal-2006-Jnl._of_Appl.Bot.Food_Quality_80_150-154.pdf
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PathOrganic – Risks and Recommendations Regarding Human Pathogens in Organic Vegetable Production Chains Organic Eprints
Arthurson, V.; Baggesen, D.; Brankatschk, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Duffy, B.; Fenzl, C.; Friedel, J.K.; Hackl, E.; Hartmann, A.; Hedin, F.; Hofmann, A.; Jäderlund, L.; Jansson, J.; Jensen, A.N.; Koller, M.; Mäder, P.; Rinnofner, T.; Schmid, M.; Storm, C.; van Bruggen, A.H.C.; Widmer, F.; Wyss, G.S.; Zijlstra, C.A.; Sessitsch, A..
PathOrganic assesses risks associated with the consumption of fresh and minimally processed vegetables due to the prevalence of bacterial human pathogens in plant produce. The project evaluates whether organic production poses a risk on food safety, taking into consideration sources of pathogen transmission (e.g. animal manure). The project also explores whether organic versus conventional production practices may reduce the risk of pathogen manifestation. In Europe, vegetable-linked outbreaks are not well investigated. A conceptual model together with novel sampling strategies and specifically adjusted methods provides the basis for large-scale surveys of organically grown plant produce in five European countries. Critical control points are...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: "Organics" in general; Vegetables.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://orgprints.org/14310/1/Arthurson_14310.pdf
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Phosphorus budget and phosphorus availability in soils under organic and conventional farming Organic Eprints
Oehl, F.; Oberson, A.; Tagmann, H.U.; Besson, J.M.; Dubois, D.; Mäder, P.; Roth, H.-R.; Frossard, E..
The aim of this work was to assess to which extent organic farming practices would affect the accumulation of total and available phosphorus (P) in a cropped soil in comparison to conventional practices. In order to achieve this, soil samples were taken from a long-term field trial comparing a non-fertilised control (NON), two conventionally cultivated treatments (MIN, CON), and two organically cultivated treatments (ORG, DYN). Soil samples were taken from each treatment at two depths (0-20 and 30-50 cm) before starting the field trial (1977) and at the end of every three crop rotations (1984, 1991 and 1998). They were then analysed for total P (Pt ), total inorganic P (Pi ), total organic P (Po) and isotopically exchangeable Pi . After 21 years, the...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Soil.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://orgprints.org/26761/1/Oehl_et_al_2002_NCA.pdf
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Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 does not increase phosphorus uptake from 33P labeled synthetic hydroxyapatite by wheat grown on calcareous soil Organic Eprints
Meyer, G.; Maurhofer, M.; Frossard, E.; Gamper, H. A.; Mäder, P.; Mészáros, É.; Schönholzer-Mauclaire, L.; Symanczik, S.; Oberson, A..
Soil microorganisms exuding organic acids have the potential to solubilize inorganic phosphorus (P), which could improve the P availability to plants growing on calcareous soil. The gluconic acid exuding bacteria Pseudomonas protegens CHA0 can solubilize P under glucose rich in vitro conditions, but evidence on the effectiveness in soil is lacking. This discrepancy in P solubilization between in vitro and in vivo is common for many P solubilizing bacteria. Possible causes for this discrepancy are rarely explored in soil using mechanism oriented approaches. Proposed reasons for limitation of bacterial P solubilization in soil are low persistence of the inoculant or low glucose availability in the plant rhizosphere. To test these two hypotheses we...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2019 URL: http://orgprints.org/36362/1/Meyer-etal-2019-SoilBiolBiocehmistry-Vol131-p217-228.pdf
Registros recuperados: 34
Primeira ... 12 ... Última
 

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