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Registros recuperados: 21
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Agricultural Price Distortion and Stabilization: Stylized facts and Hypothesis Tests 31
Masters, William A.; Garcia, Andres F..
This paper describes agricultural policy choices and tests some predictions of political economy theories. It begins with three broad stylized facts: governments tend to tax agriculture in poorer countries, and subsidize it in richer ones, tax both imports and exports more than nontradables, and tax more and subsidize less where there is more land per capita. We test a variety of political-economy explanations, finding results consistent with hypothesized effects of rural and urban constituents’ rational ignorance about small per-person effects, governance institutions’ control of rent-seeking by political leaders, governments’ revenue motive for taxation, and the role of time consistency in policy-making. We also find that larger groups obtain more...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural price distortions; Political economy; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; D72; D78; F11; H23.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50301
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Agricultural Prices and Income Distribution among Farmers: A Whole-Household, Multi-Country, Multi-Year Analysis 31
Rios, Ana R.; Shively, Gerald E.; Masters, William A..
Recent studies have emphasized that the poorest farmers are often net buyers of key commodities and therefore harmed by rising prices. We use LSMS data from Tanzania, Vietnam and Guatemala to test the degree of net purchases or sales by income level. We find that poorer farmers may be net buyers of individual crops, but only the poorest are net buyers of all crops. More generally, net sales among poor farmers are low. We conclude that agricultural price changes have a diverse but limited influence on poor farmers’ welfare, because their farm sales tend to be offset by food purchases.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market participation; Poverty; Inequality; Multi-continent multicountry; Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/49314
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AN AFRICAN GROWTH TRAP: PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND THE TIME-CONSISTENCY OF AGRICULTURAL TAXATION, R&D AND INVESTMENT 31
McMillan, Margaret S.; Masters, William A..
Why do so many African governments consistently impose high tax rates and make little investment in productive public goods, when alternative policies could yield greater tax revenues and higher national income? We posit and test an intertemporal political economy model in which the government sets tax and R&D levels while investors respond with production. Equilibrium policy and growth rates depend on initial cost structure. We find that in many (but not all) African countries, low tax/high investment regimes would be time-inconsistent, primarily because production technology requires relatively large sunk costs. For pro-growth policies to become sustainable, commitment mechanisms or new production techniques would be needed.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11839
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Child Undernutrition, Household Poverty and National Income in Developing Countries: Quantile Regression Results 31
Block, Steven A.; Masters, William A.; Bhagowalia, Priya.
The eradication of child undernutrition and extreme poverty are important objectives for most societies. Countries with higher national incomes usually improve in both dimensions, but not always at the same rate. Using quantile regression, we show that poverty rates tend to decline with increased income at a roughly constant elasticity. In contrast, while the prevalence of child underweight declines at that same elasticity where it is most widespread, the elasticity becomes smaller as underweight becomes less prevalent. This finding suggests a need for increasingly targeted interventions to achieve a given reduction in undernutrition as its prevalence declines.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Global poverty; Millennium development goals; Underweight; Weight-for-height; Income elasticity of bodyweight; Income elasticity of poverty; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61323
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CLIMATE AND SCALE IN ECONOMIC GROWTH 31
Masters, William A.; McMillan, Margaret S..
This paper introduces new data on climatic conditions to empirical tests of growth theories. We find that, since 1960, temperate countries have converged towards high levels of income while tropical nations have converged towards various income levels associated with economic scale and the extent of the market. These results hold for a wide range of tests. A plausible explanation is that temperate regions' growth was assisted by their climate, perhaps historically for their transition out of agriculture into sectors whose productivity converges across countries, while tropical countries' growth is relatively more dependent on gains from specialization and trade.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11845
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Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa 31
Anderson, Kym; Masters, William A..
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48554
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Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Cameroon 31
Bamou, Ernest; Masters, William A..
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48518
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Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Senegal 31
Masters, William A..
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48517
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Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Sub-Saharan and North Africa 31
Anderson, Kym; Masters, William A..
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Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/48572
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Farm Productivity and Household Market Participation: Evidence from LSMS Data 31
Rios, Ana R.; Shively, Gerald E.; Masters, William A..
We analyze the correlation between farm productivity and market participation using comparable household data from Tanzania, Vietnam and Guatemala. Each farm’s input use and output levels provide a within-sample measure of relative productivity, which we relate to that household’s level of participation in local markets using a wide range of agricultural, demographic and infrastructural variables as controls and as instruments in two-stage regressions. Results indicate that, controlling for differences in market access and the underlying determinants of market participation, households with higher productivity have greater participation in agricultural markets. In contrast, households with greater rates of market participation do not consistently...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Market participation; Productivity; Multi-country sample; Household surveys; Consumer/Household Economics; International Development; Productivity Analysis; Research Methods/ Statistical Methods; O13; Q12; Q13.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51031
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GEOGRAPHIC AND INSTITUTIONAL DETERMINANTS OF REAL INCOME: A SPATIO-TEMPORAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION APPROACH 31
Ngeleza, Guyslain K.; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; Masters, William A..
This paper tests a series of prominent hypotheses regarding the determinants of per-capita income using a novel spatial econometric approach to control for spillovers among neighboring countries and for spatially correlated omitted variables. We use simultaneous equations to identify alternative channels through which country characteristics might affect income, and then test the robustness of those effects. We find support for both "institutionalist" and "geographic" determinants of income. A time-varying index of institutional quality has a strong independent effect on current income, but there is also a persistent effect of geographic factors such as seasonal frost, malaria transmission, and coastal location, which influence income through their links...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28663
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HOW SUCCESSFUL ARE GOVERNMENT INTERVENTIONS IN FOOD MARKETS? INSIGHTS FROM THE PHILIPPINE RICE MARKET 31
Yao, Richard T.; Shively, Gerald E.; Masters, William A..
We investigate the Philippine government's price stabilization policy for rice. Seemingly Unrelated Regressions are used to examine the effectiveness of the program at regional and national levels over a 21-year period (January 1983 to December 2003). Results of the regional analysis indicate some NFA-induced spatial and temporal differences in terms of producer prices. The NFA successfully increased producer prices in 5 of 13 regions through stock accumulation and paddy rice purchase at floor prices. NFA stock releases do not correlate strongly with retail prices at the national level, although results from the regional model indicate that NFA stock releases reduced retail prices in five regions, leading to perceptible spatial and temporal differences...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28669
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Impact Assessment of African Agricultural Technology Development and Transfer: Synthesis of Findings and Lessons Learned 31
Anandajayasekeram, Ponniah; Masters, William A.; Oehmke, James F..
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Downloads July 2008 - June 2009: 13.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/11372
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INVESTING IN SOILS: FIELD BUNDS AND MICROCATCHMENTS IN BURKINA FASO 31
Kazianga, Harounan; Masters, William A..
This research uses field-level data from Burkina Faso to ask what determines farmers' investment in two well-known soil and water conservation techniques: field bunds (barriers to soil and water runoff), and microcatchments (small holes in which seeds and fertilizers are placed). Survey data for 1993 and 1994 are used to estimate Tobit functions, compute elasticities of adoption and intensity of use, perform robustness tests and estimate alternative models. Controlling for land and labor abundance and other factors we find that those who have more ownership rights over farmland, and who do more controlled feeding of livestock, tend to invest more in both technologies. The result suggests that responding to land scarcity with clearer property rights over...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20483
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Linkages between Market Participation and Productivity: Results from a Multi-Country Farm Household Sample 31
Rios, Ana R.; Masters, William A.; Shively, Gerald E..
We build upon international trade literature to analyze the direction of causality between market participation and productivity. Cross-country household data from Tanzania, Vietnam and Guatemala are used in a 2SLS approach with market participation and productivity as endogenous variables. Results indicate that households with higher productivity tend to participate in agricultural markets regardless of market access factors. In contrast, having better market access does not necessarily lead to higher productivity. This finding suggests that investments in market access infrastructure provide minimal, if any, improvements in agricultural productivity; whereas programs targeted at enhancements in farm structure and capital have the potential to increase...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Marketing; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6145
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MEASURING PROTECTION IN AGRICULTURE: THE PRODUCER SUBSIDY EQUIVALENT REVISITED 31
Masters, William A..
In the 1980s, the Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE) became the dominant measure of protection in applied studies of international agricultural trade. This paper analyzes potential biases in the ratio form of the PSE introduced by using actual domestic prices rather than social opportunity costs in the denominator. It is shown that doing so introduces a consistent under-estimation of the effects of trade restrictions and other price-support policies, relative to deficiency payments and other income-support policies. It is found that under plausible conditions this bias leads the PSE to rank protection levels across countries or crops incorrectly. In a sample of 250 activities across 33 countries, such errors were found to occur in 5% of crop comparisons and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1993 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51114
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PROPERTY RIGHTS, PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AND DEFORESTATION: COCOA IN WEST AFRICA 31
Kazianga, Harounan; Masters, William A..
In this paper, we use a vintage-capital model with risk of eviction to assess cocoa farmers' response to changes in their tenure security and to the introduction of a new, faster-maturing cocoa variety. The model is calibrated with data from Cameroon in calendar year 2000, and then used to simulate the effects of institutional and technical change on farmer welfare and deforestation rates. Our findings can be summarized in three points. First, improved tenure security over cocoa fields increases farmers' consumption and welfare, but at the expense of more deforestation. Second, the introduction of new cocoa varieties with faster maturity and higher input response also unambiguously raises farmers' consumption and welfare. Doing so increases deforestation...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19871
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SOIL DEGRADATION, TECHNICAL CHANGE AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES IN SOUTHERN MALI 31
Dalton, Timothy J.; Masters, William A..
This study links intertemporal optimization to a biophysical crop growth model finding that agricultural intensification does not dramatically degrade soils in southern Mali. Productivity growth can be sustained through adoption of new techniques, particularly with policy reforms to reduce marketing costs and tax the use of common-property resources.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21033
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The Distribution Of Child Nutritional Status Across Countries And Over Time 31
Bhagowalia, Priya; Chen, Susan E.; Masters, William A..
Malnutrition is manifested in various degrees of both underweight and overweight, with large differences and rapid changes in their prevalence and severity. This paper introduces a new approach to characterizing the distribution of a population’s nutritional status, to help analyze changes in that distribution over time and across countries. Our method draws on the poverty literature to construct Foster-Greer-Thorbecke measures for the incidence and severity of under- and overweight, based on deviations in either direction from the median of a healthy population. We apply this median-based measure to the nutritional status of over 400,000 preschool children, as measured in 130 DHS surveys covering 53 countries over a period from 1986 to 2006. Unlike...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6167
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THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHILD NUTRITIONAL STATUS ACROSS COUNTRIES AND OVER TIME 31
Bhagowalia, Priya; Chen, Susan E.; Masters, William A..
Malnutrition is manifested in various degrees of both underweight and overweight, with large differences and rapid changes in their prevalence and severity. This paper introduces a new approach to characterizing the distribution of a population’s nutritional status, to help analyze changes in that distribution over time and across countries. Our method draws on the poverty literature to construct Foster-Greer-Thorbecke measures for the incidence and severity of under and overweight, based on deviations in either direction from the median of a healthy population. We apply this median-based measure to the nutritional status of over 400,000 preschool children, as measured in 130 DHS surveys covering 53 countries over a period from 1986 to 2006. Unlike...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Underweight; Overweight; Malnutrition; Poverty; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; I12; Q18.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/6147
Registros recuperados: 21
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