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Direct temporal cascade of temperature variance in eddy-permitting simulations of multidecadal variability 5
Hochet, Antoine; Huck, Thierry; Arzel, Olivier; Sevellec, Florian; Colin De Verdiere, Alain; Mazloff, Matthew; Cornuelle, Bruce.
The North Atlantic is characterized by basin-scale multidecadal fluctuations of the sea surface temperature with periods ranging from 20 to 70 years. One candidate for such a variability is a large-scale baroclinic instability of the temperature gradients across the Atlantic associated with the North Atlantic Current. Because of the long time scales involved, most of the studies devoted to this problem are based on low resolution numerical models leaving aside the effect of explicit meso-scale eddies. How high-frequency motions associated with the meso-scale eddy field affect the basin-scale low-frequency variabiliy is the central question of this study. This issue is addressed using an idealized configuration of an Ocean General Circulation Model at...
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Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00635/74701/74640.pdf
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Metrics for the Evaluation of the Southern Ocean in Coupled Climate Models and Earth System Models 5
Russell, Joellen L.; Kamenkovich, Igor; Bitz, Cecilia; Ferrari, Raffaele; Gille, Sarah T.; Goodman, Paul J.; Hallberg, Robert; Johnson, Kenneth; Khazmutdinova, Karina; Marinov, Irina; Mazloff, Matthew; Riser, Stephen; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Speer, Kevin; Talley, Lynne D.; Wanninkhof, Rik.
The Southern Ocean is central to the global climate and the global carbon cycle, and to the climate's response to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases, as it ventilates a large fraction of the global ocean volume. Global coupled climate models and earth system models, however, vary widely in their simulations of the Southern Ocean and its role in, and response to, the ongoing anthropogenic trend. Due to the region's complex water-mass structure and dynamics, Southern Ocean carbon and heat uptake depend on a combination of winds, eddies, mixing, buoyancy fluxes, and topography. Observationally based metrics are critical for discerning processes and mechanisms, and for validating and comparing climate and earth system models. New observations...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Southern Ocean; Heat uptake; Carbon uptake; Observationally based metrics.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78491/80788.pdf
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Polar Ocean Observations: A Critical Gap in the Observing System and Its Effect on Environmental Predictions From Hours to a Season 5
Smith, Gregory C.; Allard, Richard; Babin, Marcel; Bertino, Laurent; Chevallier, Matthieu; Corlett, Gary; Crout, Julia; Davidson, Fraser; Delille, Bruno; Gille, Sarah T.; Hebert, David; Hyder, Patrick; Intrieri, Janet; Lagunas, Jose; Larnicol, Gilles; Kaminski, Thomas; Kater, Belinda; Kauker, Frank; Marec, Claudie; Mazloff, Matthew; Metzger, E. Joseph; Mordy, Calvin; O'Carroll, Anne; Olsen, Steffen M.; Phelps, Michael; Posey, Pamela; Prandi, Pierre; Rehm, Eric; Reid, Phillip; Rigor, Ignatius; Sandven, Stein; Shupe, Matthew; Swart, Sebastiaan; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Solomon, Amy; Storto, Andrea; Thibaut, Pierre; Toole, John; Wood, Kevin; Xie, Jiping; Yang, Qinghua.
There is a growing need for operational oceanographic predictions in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. In the former, this is driven by a declining ice cover accompanied by an increase in maritime traffic and exploitation of marine resources. Oceanographic predictions in the Antarctic are also important, both to support Antarctic operations and also to help elucidate processes governing sea ice and ice shelf stability. However, a significant gap exists in the ocean observing system in polar regions, compared to most areas of the global ocean, hindering the reliability of ocean and sea ice forecasts. This gap can also be seen from the spread in ocean and sea ice reanalyses for polar regions which provide an estimate of their uncertainty. The...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Polar observations; Operational oceanography; Ocean data assimilation; Ocean modeling; Forecasting; Sea ice; Air-sea-ice fluxes; YOPP.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00512/62379/66650.pdf
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Remotely Sensed Winds and Wind Stresses for Marine Forecasting and Ocean Modeling 5
Bourassa, Mark A.; Meissner, Thomas; Cerovecki, Ivana; Chang, Paul S.; Dong, Xiaolong; De Chiara, Giovanna; Donlon, Craig; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.; Elya, Jocelyn; Fore, Alexander; Fewings, Melanie R.; Foster, Ralph C.; Gille, Sarah T.; Haus, Brian K.; Hristova-veleva, Svetla; Holbach, Heather M.; Jelenak, Zorana; Knaff, John A.; Kranz, Sven A.; Manaster, Andrew; Mazloff, Matthew; Mears, Carl; Mouche, Alexis; Portabella, Marcos; Reul, Nicolas; Ricciardulli, Lucrezia; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Sampson, Charles; Solis, Daniel; Stoffelen, Ad; Stukel, Michael R.; Stiles, Bryan; Weissman, David; Wentz, Frank.
Strengths and weakness of remotely sensed winds are discussed, along with the current capabilities for remotely sensing winds and stress. Future missions are briefly mentioned. The observational needs for a wide range of wind and stress applications are provided. These needs strongly support a short list of desired capabilities of future missions and constellations.
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Satellite; Wind; Stress; Ocean; Requirements.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00511/62312/66565.pdf
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Southern Ocean community comment on the Year of Polar Prediction Implementation Plan. 5
Newman, Louise; Talley, Lynne; Mazloff, Matthew; Galton-fenzi, Ben; Ackley, Stephen; Heimbach, Patrick; Massonnet, François; Shi, Jiuxin; Sparrow, Mike.
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00651/76342/77332.pdf
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State of the Climate in 2016 5
Arndt, D. S.; Blunden, J.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Aaron-morrison, Arlene P.; Abdallah, A.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adler, Robert; Alfaro, Eric J.; Allan, Richard P.; Allan, Rob; Alvarez, Luis A.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Arce, Dayana; Argueez, Anthony; Arndt, Derek S.; Arzhanova, N. M.; Augustine, John; Awatif, E. M.; Azorin-molina, Cesar; Baez, Julian; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Beck, H. E.; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Bernhard, G. H.; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bettolli, Maria L.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bidegain, Mario; Biskaborn, B.; Bissolli, Peter; Bjerke, J.; Blake, Eric S.; Blunden, Jessica; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Boudet, Dagne; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Brimelow, Julian; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Buehler, S.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderon, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Caroff, P.; Carrea, Laura; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Chandler, Elise; Cheng, Ming-dean; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, Daniel; Chung, E. -s.; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; Coldewey-egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Cross, J. N.; Crouch, Jake; Cutie, Virgen; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A. M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Di Girolamo, Larry; Diamond, Howard J.; Dindyal, S.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Drozdov, D. S.; Dunn, Robert J. H.; Duran-quesada, Ana M.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Epstein, H. E.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Etienne-leblanc, Sheryl; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.; Fateh, S.; Fausto, R. S.; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flannigan, Mike; Flemming, Johannes; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Fonseca, C.; Forbes, B. C.; Foster, Michael J.; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Gerland, S.; Gilson, John; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Goni, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Idelmis T.; Goto, A.; Greenhough, Marianna D.; Grooss, J. -u.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles; Gupta, S. K.; Gutierrez, J. M.; Haas, C.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hanssen-bauer, I; Hare, Jon; Harris, Ian; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Hendricks, S.; Hernandez, Marieta; Hernandez, Rafael; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Ho, Shu-peng; Hobbs, William R.; Huang, Boyin; Huelsing, Hannah K.; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jimenez, C.; Jin Xiangze,; John, Viju; Johns, William E.; Johnsen, B.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Jones, Philip D.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, J. W.; Kass, David; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Kelem, G.; Keller, Linda M.; Kelly, B. P.; Kendon, Mike; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. -j.; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kochtubajda, Bob; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Krumpen, T.; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lanckmann, J. -p.; Lander, Mark A.; Landschuetzer, Peter; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lantz, Kathleen; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Leuliette, Eric; Lewis, Stephen R.; L'Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I-i; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Long, Craig S.; Loranty, M.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lu, Mong-ming; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing-jia; Luojus, K.; Lyman, John M.; Macara, Gregor; Macdonald, Alison M.; Macias-fauria, M.; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, Jose A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martinez-gueingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; Mcbride, Charlotte; Mccabe, M. F.; Mccarthy, Gerard; Mccarthy, M.; Mcdonagh, Elaine L.; Mcgree, Simon; Mcvicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, W.; Mekonnen, A.; Menezes, V. V.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Minnis, Patrick; Miralles, Diego G.; Mistelbauer, T.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Mitro, Srkani; Monselesan, Didier; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mora, Natalie; Morice, Colin; Morrow, Blair; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Muehle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Mueller, R.; Nash, Eric R.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, Louise; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan Jose; Noetzli, Jeannette; O'Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Parinussa, Robert M.; Park, E-hyung; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-ramirez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Pearce, Petra R.; Pellichero, Violaine; Pelto, Mauri S.; Peng, Liang; Perkins-kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, C.; Phillips, David; Phoenix, G.; Pinty, Bernard; Pitts, Michael C.; Pons, M. R.; Porter, Avalon O.; Quintana, Juan; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Rayner, Darren; Raynolds, M. K.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Read, Peter; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Remy, Samuel; Renwick, James A.; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-menge, J.; Rimmer, Alon; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rollenbeck, Ruetger; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Roquet, F.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sallee, Jean-bapiste; Sanchez-lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schemm, Jae; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schoeneich, P.; Schreck, Carl J., Iii; Schuur, Ted; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Sharp, M.; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Silov, Eugene; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeed, David A.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Smith, Adam; Smith, Sharon L.; Soden, B.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, Jose L.; Stennett-brown, Roxann; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, Dimitri A.; Sun-mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Tamar, Gerard; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, L.; Thompson, Philip R.; Timmermans, M. -l.; Timofeev, Maxim A.; Tirnanes, Joaquin A.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Tweedy, Olga; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S. W.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vieira, G.; Vincent, Lucie A.; Voemel, Holger; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlin, Anna; Walker, D. A.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng-hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wiese, David N.; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Willie, Shem; Willis, Josh K.; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yim, So-young; Yin, Xungang; Yu, Lisan; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Huai-min; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhao, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Zilberman, Nathalie.
In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and...
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Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78500/80851.pdf
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State of the Climate in 2017 5
Arndt, D. S.; Blunden, J.; Hartfield, G.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adler, Robert; Alfaro, Eric J.; Allan, Richard P.; Allan, Rob; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Argueez, Anthony; Arndt, Derek S.; Azorin-molina, Cesar; Baez, Julian; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Beck, H. E.; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bissolli, Peter; Bjerke, J.; Blake, Eric S.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Buehler, S.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderon, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Carrea, Laura; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Cheng, Ming-dean; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, E. -s.; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; Coldewey-egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Crouch, Jake; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A. M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Di Girolamo, Larry; Diamond, Howard J.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Drozdov, D. S.; Dunn, Robert J. H.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Epstein, H. E.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.; Fausto, R. S.; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flemming, Johannes; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Forbes, B. C.; Foster, Michael J.; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Gerland, S.; Gilson, John; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Goni, Gustavo; Grooss, J. -u.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles; Gupta, S. K.; Gutierrez, J. M.; Haas, C.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hanssen-bauer, I; Harris, Ian; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Hendricks, S.; Hernandez, Marieta; Hernandez, Rafael; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Ho, Shu-peng; Hobbs, William R.; Huang, Boyin; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jimenez, C.; Jin Xiangze,; John, Viju; Johns, William E.; Johnsen, B.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Jones, Philip D.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, J. W.; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Keller, Linda M.; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. -j.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Krumpen, T.; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lander, Mark A.; Landschuetzer, Peter; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Leuliette, Eric; L'Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I-i; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Long, Craig S.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing-jia; Luojus, K.; Lyman, John M.; Macias-fauria, M.; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, Jose A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martinez-gueingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; Mcbride, Charlotte; Mccabe, M. F.; Mccarthy, M.; Mcvicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, W.; Mekonnen, A.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Miralles, Diego G.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Mitro, Srkani; Monselesan, Didier; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mora, Natalie; Morice, Colin; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Muehle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Mueller, R.; Nash, Eric R.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, Louise; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan Jose; Noetzli, Jeannette; O'Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Park, E-hyung; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-ramirez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Pearce, Petra R.; Pelto, Mauri S.; Perkins-kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, C.; Phillips, David; Phoenix, G.; Pinty, Bernard; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Rayner, Darren; Raynolds, M. K.; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Remy, Samuel; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-menge, J.; Rimmer, Alon; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sallee, Jean-bapiste; Sanchez-lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schreck, Carl J., Iii; Schuur, Ted; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Sharp, M.; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeed, David A.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Smith, Adam; Smith, Sharon L.; Soden, B.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, Jose L.; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, Dimitri A.; Sun-mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Tamar, Gerard; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, L.; Thompson, Philip R.; Timmermans, M. -l.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S. W.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vincent, Lucie A.; Voemel, Holger; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Walker, D. A.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng-hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wiese, David N.; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Willis, Josh K.; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yin, Xungang; Yu, Lisan; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Huai-min; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhao, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Abernethy, R.; Albanil, Encarnacion Adelina; Aldeco, Laura S.; Aliaga-nestares, Vannia; Anderson, John; Armitage, C.; Avalos, Grinia; Behe, Carolina; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bernhard, G. H.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Bolmgren, K.; Bouchon, Marilu; Campbell, Ethan C.; Castro, Anabel; Costanza, Carol; Covey, Curt; Coy, Lawrence; Cronin, T.; Cruzado, Luis; Daniel, Raychelle; Davletshin, S. G.; De La Cour, Jacqueline L.; Deline, P.; Dewitte, Boris; Dhurmea, R.; Dickerson, C.; Domingues, Ricardo; Durre, Imke; Eakin, C. Mark; Farmer, J.; Fauchald, P.; Geiger, Erick F.; Gomez, Andrea M.; Gugliemin, Mario; Hansen, K.; Helfrich, S.; Hemming, D. L.; Heron, Scott F.; Heuze, C.; Horstkotte, T.; Hubert, Daan; Hueuze, Celine; Ibrahim, M. M.; Isaac, Victor; Jacobs, Stephanie J.; Jeffries, Martin O.; Karakoylu, Erdem M.; Khan, M. S.; Ladd, C.; Lavado-casimiro, Waldo; Lee, S. -e; Lee, T. C.; Li, Bailing; Li, Tim; Lopez, Luis A.; Luthcke, S.; Marcellin, Vernie; Marin, Dora; Marsh, Benjamin L.; Martin, A; Martinez, Alejandra G.; Martinez-sanchez, Odalys; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Miller, Ben; Moat, Ben; Mochizuki, Y.; Mosquera-vasquez, Kobi; Mostafa, Awatif E.; Nielsen-gammon, John W.; Noll, Ben E.; Osborne, Emily; Pastor, Saavedra Maria Asuncion; Paulik, Christoph; Peltier, Alexandre; Pinzon, J.; Po-chedley, S.; Polashenski, C.; Purkey, Sarah G.; Quispe, Nelson; Rakotoarimalala, C.; Richardson, A. D.; Ricker, R; Rodriguez, Camino Ernesto; Rosner, Benjamin; Roth, David Mark; Rutishauser, T.; Sasgen, L.; Sayad, T. A.; Scanlon, T.; Schenzinger, Verena; Silow, Eugene; Skirving, William J.; Sofieva, Viktoria; Sparks, T. H.; Spillane, Sandra; Stanitski, Diane M.; Stengel, M.; Stephenson, Kimberly; Strong, Alan E.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Kenneth S.; Thackeray, S. J.; Thomson, Lthorsteinsson T.; Timbal, Bertrand; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Tirak, Kyle, V; Togawa, H.; Tommervik, H.; Tourpali, Kleareti; Trinanes, Joaquin A.; Tucker, C. J.; Tye, Mari R.; Van Der A, Ronald J.; Velden, Christopher S.; Vickers, H.; Webster, M.; Westberry, Toby K.; Widlansky, Matthew J.; Wood, K.; Yoon, Huang; York, A.; Zhu, Zhiwei; Ziel, R.; Ziese, Markus G..
In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth’s atmosphere—carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide— reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth’s surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during most of the year and weak La Niña conditions notable at the start and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset,...
Tipo: Text
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00677/78863/81163.pdf
Registros recuperados: 7
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
 

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