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Registros recuperados: 11
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Care and Nutrition: Concepts and Measurement 31
Engle, Patrice L.; Menon, Purnima; Haddad, Lawrence James.
The concept of "care" as an analytical construct is still new to many outside the nutrition field. Moreover, for those in the field, care is problematic from the measurement point of view. Our hope is that this paper provides an effective introduction to care for the former group, and a useful summary for the latter group of attempts to develop care indicators. Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members. The significance of care has been best articulated in the UNICEF framework. This paper extends the model presented by UNICEF by defining resources for care and specific care behaviors, and presenting an argument for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child Care; Child Feeding; Food Availability; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97306
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Child Development: Vulnerability and Resilience 31
Engle, Patrice L.; Castle, Sarah; Menon, Purnima.
Many of the challenges facing children now are a function of the changing times, including increases in urbanization, political violence, changing family forms, and, in some areas, decreased supplies of adequate food. This paper reviews the evolving nature of these risks. In addition, the paper analyzes the development of formal and informal strategies to ameliorate the vulnerability and promote the resilience of young children to these risks. The paper identifies four stages in the research process regarding risks for children: (1) identification of the risk; (2) clarification of etiology and consequences; (3) recognition of resilience among some individuals; and (4) definition of factors in resilience and implications for intervention.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Supply; Urbanization; Child Development; Health Services; Welfare Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97309
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CREATING A CHILD FEEDING INDEX USING THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS: AN EXAMPLE FROM LATIN AMERICA 31
Ruel, Marie T.; Menon, Purnima.
Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for five Latin American countries (seven data sets) were used to explore the feasibility of creating a composite feeding index and to examine the association between feeding practices and child height-for- age (HAZ). Urban/rural differences were also examined. The data sets used were Bolivia, 1994 and 1998; Colombia, 1995; Guatemala, 1995 and 1999; Nicaragua, 1998; and Peru, 1996. The variables used to create the index were: breastfeeding (whether the mother is currently breastfeeding the child); use of baby bottles in the previous 24 hours; dietary diversity (whether the child received selected food groups in the previous 24 hours); food group frequency (how many days the child received selected food...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16452
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CREATING A CHILD FEEDING INDEX USING THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS: AN EXAMPLE FROM LATIN AMERICA 31
Ruel, Marie T.; Menon, Purnima.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15925
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Developing a Research and Action Agenda for Examining Urbanization and Caregiving: Examples from Southern and Eastern Africa 31
Engle, Patrice L.; Menon, Purnima; Garrett, James L.; Slack, Alison.
The UNICEF-expanded model for nutrition is used to analyze the circumstances of care in urban environments. The model postulates that there are six major types of care behaviors: feeding and breast-feeding, food preparation and handling, hygiene behavior, psychosocial care, care for women, and home health practices. These behaviors require the resources of education and knowledge of the caregivers, the physical and mental health of caregivers, autonomy in decisionmaking, time availability, and the social support of the family and community in order to ensure adequate care for the child. This paper describes each of these constraints, and two of the behaviors (feeding and health care utilization) in urban and rural areas. Data from Demographic and Health...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child Feeding; Food handling; Urban health; Urbanization; Education; Research; Gender; Health and Nutrition; Education; Childcare and work; Livelihoods; Urban programming; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97296
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From Research to Program Design: Use of Formative Research in Haiti to Develop a Behavior change Communication Program to Prevent Malnutrition 31
Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Loechl, Cornelia U.; Pelto, Gretel H..
This paper summarizes findings from a formative research study conducted in Haiti to develop a behavior change communication (BCC) strategy to improve infant and child feeding practices and to reduce childhood malnutrition. It describes the methodology used and the tools developed to facilitate decisionmaking and effective use of formative research for program planning. The study is part of a larger research project carried out by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and Cornell University in collaboration with World Vision-Haiti, a private voluntary organization responsible for the implementation of integrated health and nutrition programs that include food donations. The study used formative research methods that included individual...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child-feeding practices; Childhood malnutrition; Caregiving behaviors; Formative research; Program design; Haiti; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97039
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SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIFFERENTIALS IN CHILD STUNTING ARE CONSTENTLY LARGER IN URBAN THAN RURAL AREAS 31
Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover.
Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the urban and the rural poor was equally high. A socioeconomic status (SES) index based on household assets, housing quality, and availability of services was created separately for rural and urban areas of each country, using principal components analysis. Odds ratios...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Health Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16459
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SOCIO-ECONOMICS DIFFERENTIALS IN CHILD STUNTING ARE CONSISTENTLY LARGER IN URBAN THAN RURAL AREAS 31
Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Health Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15984
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The use of operations research as a tool for monitoring and managing food-assisted maternal/child health nutrition (MCHN) programs: An example from Haiti 31
Loechl, Cornelia U.; Ruel, Marie T.; Pelto, Gretel H.; Menon, Purnima.
This report describes the methods and results of an operations research undertaken to assess the effectiveness of World Vision (WV)’s food assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (MCHN) program in the Central Plateau region of Haiti. The research had three main objectives: (1) to assess the effectiveness of implementation and operations of the program relative to plans; (2) to assess the quality of delivery of the various services; and (3) to explore the perceptions of different stakeholders (i.e., beneficiaries and field implementers) regarding program operations and service delivery and the motivational factors that may affect staff’s performance and job satisfaction. The overall goal was to identify constraints to effective operations; it was...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Caribbean; Latin America and the Caribbean; Operations research; Nutrition programs; Food aid; Children; Maternal and infant welfare; Assessment; Health and hygiene; Haiti; Developing Countries; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59691
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Unpacking the Links Between Women's Empowerment and Child Nutrition Evidence Using Nationally Representative Data From Bangladesh 31
Bhagowalia, Priya; Menon, Purnima; Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Soundararajan, Vidhya.
This paper examines the relationship between gender inequality and nutrition using direct indicators of empowerment such as mobility, decision-making power, and attitudes towards verbal and physical abuse. Our approach draws on the theory of the household as a utility maximizing unit that uses women’s status and characteristics as inputs to produce a final good, child health. Indices that capture distinct dimensions of women’s empowerment are used as explanatory variables along with controls for age and sex of the child, maternal height and education. Results from Logit models indicate that a greater degree of women’s empowerment is associated with better long term nutritional status of children. Attitudes towards domestic violence have a significant...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Malnutrition; Gender; Domestic violence; Empowerment; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; International Development.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61273
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URBAN CHALLENGES TO FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY: A REVIEW OF FOOD SECURITY, HEALTH, AND CAREGIVING IN THE CITIES 31
Ruel, Marie T.; Garrett, James L.; Morris, Saul Sutkover; Maxwell, Daniel G.; Oshaug, Arne; Engle, Patrice L.; Menon, Purnima; Slack, Alison; Haddad, Lawrence James.
No developing country can afford to ignore the shift in the locus of poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition from rural to urban areas it is now experiencing. This review of recent literature explores the urban face of food and nutrition security in a more comprehensive, integrated way than most previous efforts. The review is organized around a conceptual framework that identifies food insecurity, inadequate caring behaviors, and poor health as the primary causes of malnutrition. It discusses current knowledge in eight areas that require the special attention of policymakers, development practitioners, and program administrators who wish to improve urban food and nutrition security: • the sources and cost of food; • incomes and employment; • urban...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/94860
Registros recuperados: 11
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