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Registros recuperados: 49
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A Framework for Analyzing Technical Trade Barriers in Agricultural Markets AgEcon
Roberts, Donna; Josling, Timothy E.; Orden, David.
Technical trade barriers are increasingly important in the international trade of agricultural products. Designing technical trade measures that can satisfy the growing demand for food safety, product differentiation, environmental amenities, and product information at the lowest cost to the consumer and to the international trading system requires an understanding of the complex economics of regulatory import barriers. This report proposes a definition and classification scheme to frame discussion and evaluation of such measures. Open-economy models that complement the classification scheme are developed graphically to highlight the basic elements that affect the economic impacts of changes in technical trade barriers.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Technical trade barriers; Sanitary and phytosanitary; Agricultural trade policy; Environmental trade measures; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/33560
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ACRE in the U.S. Farm Bill and the WTO AgEcon
Zulauf, Carl R.; Orden, David.
Two counterfactual analyses investigate the new ACRE program. Had ACRE existed instead of the programs authorized during 1996-2006 for corn, soybeans, and wheat, farm program spending would have totaled less. Estimated ACRE revenue payments increase 78 percent when calculated by applying the annual 1996-2006 percentage variations to USDA forecast average 2009-2012 acres, prices, and yields. Traditional marketing loan and counter-cyclical payments are estimated near zero. Policy design issues concern the merit of revenue versus price protection, fixed support targets versus support adjusting with lagged market revenue, and the economic dislocation and WTO compliance from alternative policy instruments.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm Policy; Food Conservation and Energy Act of 2008; Average Crop Revenue Election Program (ACRE); WTO Domestic Support Commitments; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/51821
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Agricultural policies in India: Producer Support Estimates 1985-2002 AgEcon
Mullen, Kathleen; Orden, David; Gulati, Ashok.
Since the early 1990s, India has undergone substantial economic policy reform and economic growth. Though reforms in agricultural policy have lagged those in other sectors, they have nonetheless created a somewhat more open economic orientation. In this study, we evaluate the protection and support versus disprotection of agriculture in India. Our methodology involves examining market price support (MPS) for eleven crops, the expenditures on input subsidies benefiting farmers (for fertilizer, electricity and irrigation), and product-specific and total producer support estimates (PSEs) over the period 1985-2002. We draw on the extensive price-comparison and subsidy-measurement data sets and analysis developed earlier by Gulati and his co-authors, often...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: South Asia; South Asia and Central Asia; Agricultural policy; Producer Support Estimates (PSEs); Agricultural support; Agricultural production; Scaling up; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/59821
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AGRICULTURAL POLICIES IN INDONESIA: PRODUCER SUPPORT ESTIMATES 1985-2003 AgEcon
Thomas, Marcelle; Orden, David.
As in many other developing countries, the concerns about food security in Indonesia during the 1980s and early 1990s resulted in policies aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in food crops. The Government of Indonesia (GOI) combined price interventions and economic incentives to encourage agricultural production, especially of the staple crops. From 1985 to 1998, Indonesia started a series of domestic and trade reforms emanating from a combination of unilateral undertakings, the country’s commitments to the WTO, and the government’s agreement with the IMF following the 1997/98 financial crisis. This study computes nominal protection rates and producer support estimates (NPR and PSE) for Indonesia for the period 1985-2003 for six agricultural commodities,...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60455
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AGRICULTURAL POLICY INTERVENTIONS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: MAPPING THE NATURE, DEGREE AND PROGRESS OF REFORMS AgEcon
Mullen, Kathleen; Sun, Dongsheng; Thomas, Marcelle; Orden, David; Gulati, Ashok.
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/16/04.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20081
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Agricultural producer support estimates for developing countries : measurement issues and evidence from India, Indonesia, China, and Vietnam AgEcon
Orden, David; Cheng, Fuzhi; Nguyen, Hoa; Grote, Ulrike; Thomas, Marcelle; Mullen, Kathleen; Sun, Dongsheng.
The levels of support that trade and domestic farm policies afford to agriculture, and the related processes of policy reform intended to improve the economic efficiency of agricultural production, processing, and marketing, are important issues for developing countries. The effects of policy on agriculture are well documented for wealthy countries, especially by the established and respected studies from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. However, systematic analysis is often lacking for poor countries because of the difficulty and cost of measuring policy effects consistently over time and across commodities. This study contributes to filling the existing research gap by examining the impacts of agricultural policies and policy...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture and state; India; Indonesia; China; Vietnam; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37879
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Agricultural Trade Liberalization in West Asia and North Africa AgEcon
Minot, Nicholas; Chemingui, Mohamed Abdelbasset; Thomas, Marcelle; Dewina, Reno; Orden, David.
Replaced with revised version of paper 06/28/07.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9981
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AN ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF REMOVING THE PARTIAL U.S. IMPORT BAN ON FRESH MEXICAN HASS AVOCADOS AgEcon
Peterson, Everett B.; Evangelou, Phylo; Orden, David; Bakshi, Nishita.
The importation of fresh Hass avocados from Mexico into the United States has been restricted, totally or partially, since 1914 on grounds of the potential risk of pest infestation. This quarantine has been a cause of dispute between the Mexican and U.S. governments. In 1997, Hass avocados from approved orchards in the State of Michoacán, Mexico, were permitted to be imported during the months of November through February into 19 northeastern states plus the District of Columbia. In 2001, the import period was extended to October 15 through April 15, and access was granted to 12 additional states. Currently there is a proposal to remove all seasonal and geographic restrictions on the importation of fresh Hass avocados from Mexico. The purpose of this...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19938
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Can U.S. Farm Subsidies Be Bought Out? AgEcon
Orden, David.
Achieving substantial agricultural trade liberalization has proven elusive in the Doha Round. This paper examines policy reforms the United States might adopt to facilitate progress. The focus is on whether decoupling can be made more convincing through a long-term buyout that would end farm subsidies. Buyouts have not been feasible in the past but recent reforms for several specialty crops provide evidence of what might be done and the conditions under which it occurs. Although the political-economy conditions may not be conducive to such a buyout yet, estimates are provided of the potential cost of a buyout of the main U.S. farm support subsidies of direct fixed and counter-cyclical payments.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19233
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DECISIONS 1992: FACING THE FISCAL CRISIS AgEcon
Peterson, Everett B.; Alvarado, Danilo; Orden, David.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14817
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Determinants of Farm Policies in the United States, 1996-2008 AgEcon
Orden, David; Blandford, David; Josling, Timothy E..
This paper focuses on the political economy of U.S. farm policy since the Uruguay Round trade negotiations concluded in 1994 and established the WTO. The continued ability of the powerful farm lobby in the United States to elicit support in the political arena is evident from this analysis. Yet there have been some substantial changes in policy that have reduced their distortionary effects, as well as some setbacks to liberalizing reform. New Doha Round commitments could put further constraints on subsidies provided by some U.S. policy instruments. And despite the ability of the farm lobby to retain its support programs through 2012, there are several political uncertainties about the alignments that have allowed U.S. farm support to endure.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distorted incentives; Agricultural and trade policy reforms; National agricultural development; United States farm policies; Political economy of agricultural distortions; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade; F13; F14; Q17; Q18; O13; P22.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50297
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Determinants of Technical Barriers to Trade: The Case of US Phytosanitary Restrictions on Mexican Avocados, 1972-1995 AgEcon
Roberts, Donna; Orden, David.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50709
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Distribution of Benefits and Adoption of Bt Cotton in Pakistan: Ex-ante Analysis AgEcon
Nazli, Hina; Sarker, Rakhal; Meilke, Karl D.; Orden, David.
This poster presents the potential impact of Bt cotton adoption in Pakistan. The size and distribution of economic benefits from the commercial adoption of Bt cotton in Pakistan are examined under four hypothetical scenarios. The adjusted economic surplus model is used to measure total benefits and their distribution between producers, consumers and technology innovators. To account for uncertainty in key parameters, the stochastic simulation techniques is applied. The results show that the total net benefits of adopting Bt cotton in Pakistan are large. As a result of increase in production, farmers get considerable benefits despite a decline in price. The share of benefits to innovators is small. The results indicate that the total cost of adopting latest...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bt cotton; Economic surplus model; Pakistan; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61180
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Economic Performance of Bt Cotton Varieties in Pakistan AgEcon
Nazli, Hina; Sarker, Rakhal; Meilke, Karl D.; Orden, David.
Farmers in Pakistan have been growing cotton that contains the first generation of Bt gene since 2002. The cultivation of these varieties, although formally unapproved and unregulated, increased rapidly after 2005. In 2007, nearly 60 percent of the cotton area was under BT varieties. This paper examines the economic performance of Bt cotton in Pakistan based on data collected through a structured questionnaire survey in January-February 2009 in two districts (Bahawalpur and Mirpur Khas). The extent of the impact of Bt cotton on costs of production and yield gains are different across the two districts with their diverse agro-climatic conditions and pest pressures. Seed expenditures increase in both districts, but a decline in the number of bollworm sprays...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Bt cotton; Economic performance; Pakistan; Bahawalpur; Mirpur Khas; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61181
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Effects of Tariffs and Sanitary Barriers on High- and Low-Value Poultry Trade AgEcon
Peterson, Everett B.; Orden, David.
A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between "highvalue" (mostly white meat) and "low-value" (mostly dark meat) poultry products and simulates the trade flows among eight exporting and importing countries and regions. Removing all barriers simultaneously has a larger impact on trade than removing only tariffs and tariff-rate quotas. Imposition of sanitary barriers against U.S. products by Russia shifts trade flows, but does not have large net impacts on U.S. producers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Poultry trade; Sanitary barriers; Tariffs; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30785
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EFFECTS OF TARIFFS AND SANITARY BARRIERS ON HIGH-AND-LOW-VALUE POULTRY TRADE AgEcon
Peterson, Everett B.; Orden, David.
A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between "high-value" (mostly white meat) and "low-value" (mostly dark meat) poultry products and simulates the trade flows between eight exporting and importing countries and regions. Removing all barriers simultaneously has larger impact on trade than only removing tariffs and tariff-rate quotas. Imposition of sanitary barriers against US products by Russia shifts trade flows, but does not have large net impacts on US producers.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade; Livestock Production/Industries.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16126
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EFFECTS OF TARIFFS AND TECHNICAL BARRIERS ON HIGH- AND LOW-VALUE POULTRY TRADE AgEcon
Peterson, Everett B.; Orden, David.
A perfectly competitive spatial partial equilibrium model is constructed to evaluate some of the policy effects on world poultry trade. The model simulates the trade flows among six key exporting and importing countries and two aggregate rest-of-world regions. Effects of removal of restrictions based on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) and sanitary regulations are evaluated maintaining a distinction between “"high-value”" (mostly white meat) and “"low-value”" (mostly dark meat) poultry products. Results suggest that removal of sanitary barriers alone has relatively little effect compared to removal of tariffs and TRQs, but has more effect if sanitary and other barriers are removed simultaneously. Imposition of new sanitary barriers against US products by...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19658
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Efficient choice among domestic and trade policies in the Grossman-Helpman Interest-Group Model AgEcon
Schleich, Joachim; Orden, David.
This paper generalizes the recent political economy model of Helpman and Grossman in which contributions by producer lobbies and government decisions about trade policies are modeled as a common agency game. We allow the government to choose among domestic as well as trade interventions. When production and trade policies are available, the equilibrium production policies serve the lobbies while the trade policies reflect the country's international market power. When consumption and trade policies are available, tariffs and export subsidies are applied in a small-country model to serve the special interests, and the domestic policies are selected to restore consumer prices to world levels. In a large-country model, the optimal consumption and trade...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Political economy; Trade policies; Domestic subsidies and taxes; Efficient policies; Common agency; International Relations/Trade; F11; F13.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7458
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EXCHANGE RATE EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURAL TRADE AgEcon
Orden, David.
With sustained appreciation of the U.S. dollar over the past 4 years, the exchange rate has again taken on importance for agriculture. This overview paper revisits the analysis of exchange rate impacts, reviewing the relevant conceptual arguments, summarizing the evidence economists and agricultural economists have marshaled from the 1970s and the 1980s and from several more recent papers, presenting some illustrative recent empirical analysis of exchange rate effects, and briefly examining the detrimental consequences that sustained appreciation of the dollar is having on U.S. farm policy.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural policy; Agricultural trade; Exchange rate; International Relations/Trade; F31; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15466
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EXCHANGE RATE EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURAL TRADE AND TRADE RELATIONS AgEcon
Orden, David.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16803
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