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Registros recuperados: 69
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A META-ANALYSIS OF RATES OF RETURN TO AGRICULTURAL R & D: EX PEDE HERCULEM? AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie; Marra, Michele C.; Pardey, Philip G.; Wyatt, T.J..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16535
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ACCESSING OTHER PEOPLE'S TECHNOLOGY AgEcon
Nottenburg, Carol; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16477
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ACCESSING OTHER PEOPLE'S TECHNOLOGY: DO NON-PROFIT AGENCIES NEED IT? HOW TO OBTAIN IT AgEcon
Nottenburg, Carol; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
As patents and other forms of intellectual property become more pervasive in the next generation of biotechnologies, designing policies and practices to ensure sufficient freedom to operate (i.e., the ability to practice or use an innovation) will be crucial for non-profit agencies in the developed and developing world, especially those intent on developing improved seed varieties and other technologies destined for commercial release. Are non-profits exempt from intellectual property claims? What constitutes infringement of a patent? How does a non-profit establish its freedom to operate? We address these issues in this paper and evaluate various options for accessing other people’s technologies. Options include cross- licensing agreements, research-only...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research; Agricultural biotechnologies; Patents; Intellectual property; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16099
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Accessing other people’s technology for non-profit research AgEcon
Nottenburg, Carol; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
As patents and other forms of intellectual property become more pervasive in the next generation of biotechnologies, designing policies and practices to ensure sufficient freedom to operate (i.e., the ability to practice or use an innovation) will be crucial for non-profit research agencies, especially those intent on developing technologies destined for commercial release. Are non-profit organisations exempt from intellectual property claims? What constitutes infringement of a patent? How does a non-profit establish its freedom to operate? We address these issues in this paper and evaluate various options for accessing other people’s technologies. Options include crosslicensing agreements, research-only or cost-free licences, market segmentation...
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/118622
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Agricultural R&D Policy: A Tragedy of the International Commons AgEcon
James, Jennifer S.; Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M..
Replaced with revised version of paper 07/10/09.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/43094
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Agricultural R&D, Productivity and Global Food Security (PowerPoint) AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G..
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; Agricultural and Food Policy; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/114719
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Agricultural research: a growing global divide? AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Beintema, Nienke M.; Dehmer, Steven; Wood, Stanley.
Sustained, well-targeted, and effectively used investments in R&D have reaped handsome rewards from improved agricultural productivity and cheaper, higher quality foods and fibers. As we begin a new millennium, the global patterns of investments in agricultural R&D are changing in ways that may have profound consequences for the structure of agriculture worldwide and the ability of poor people in poor counties to feed themselves. This report documents and discusses these changing investment patterns, highlighting developments in the public and private sectors. It revises and carries forward to 2000 data that were previously reported in the 2001 IFPRI Food Policy Report Slow Magic: Agricultural R&D a Century After Mendel. Some past trends are...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/55647
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AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE POLICY: CHANGING GLOBAL AGENDAS AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16588
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AGROECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF EVALUATING AGRICULTURAL R&D AgEcon
Wood, Stanley; Pardey, Philip G..
In this paper we describe how biophysical data can be used, in conjunction with agroecological concepts and multimarket economic models, to systematically evaluate the effects of agricultural R&D in ways that inform research priority setting and resource-allocation decisions. Agroecological zones can be devised to help estimate the varying, site-specific responses to new agricultural technologies and to evaluate the potential for research to spill over from one agroecological zone to another. The application of agroecological zonation procedures in an international, agricultural research context is given special attention.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Biophysical; Economic evaluation; Research priorities; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; International R&D.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16109
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AN OPTION PERSPECTIVE ON GENERATING AND MAINTAINING PLANT VARIETY RIGHTS IN CHINA AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Qian, Keming; Zhang, Yi.
Notwithstanding the ambiguous research and productivity promoting effects of plant variety protections (PVPs), even in developed countries, many developing countries have adopted PVPs in the past few years, in part to comply with their Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) obligations. Seeking and maintaining PVPs reserves options to an expected revenue stream from the future sale of protected varieties, the value of which varies for a host of reasons. In this paper we empirically examine the pattern of plant variety protection applications in China since its PVP laws were first introduced in 1997. We place those PVP rights in the context of China's present and likely future seed markets to identify the economic incentives and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intellectual property rights; Crop improvement; Option value; Seed markets; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/13779
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ASSESSING AND ATTRIBUTING THE BENEFITS FROM VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH: EVIDENCE FROM EMBRAPA, BRAZIL AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie; Magalhaes, Eduardo Castelo; Vosti, Stephen A..
In general, reported rates of return to agricultural R&D are high, but questions have been raised about upward biases in the evidence. Among the reasons for this bias, insufficient attention to attribution aspects-matching of research benefits and costs-is a pervasive problem, the magnitude of which is illustrated here with new evidence for Brazil. Over the period 1981 to 2003, varietal improvements in upland rice, edible beans, and soybeans yielded benefits attributable to research of $14.8 billion in present value (1999 prices) terms; 6.1 percent of the corresponding value of crop output. If all of those benefits were attributed to Embrapa, a public research corporation accounting for more than half Brazil's agricultural R&D spending, the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Brazil; Agricultural R&D; Attribution; Soybeans; Rice; Beans; Benefit-cost ratios; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16103
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Assessing and Attributing the Benefits from Varietal Improvement Research in Brazil AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie; Magalhaes, Eduardo Castelo; Vosti, Stephen A..
As the number and variety of interconnected sources of agricultural innovations have continued to grow and evolve, so too have the demands for meaningful evidence of both the total payoff and the specific impacts of individual research providers. Important policy and practical funding decisions require a clear understanding of the shares of the overall benefits from investments in R&D attributable to domestic versus foreign and public versus private agencies, or even to individual agencies, as well as the total benefits accruing from innovation. This report provides a detailed economic assessment of the magnitude and sources of the economic benefits to Brazil since the early 1980s from varietal improvements in upland rice, edible beans, and...
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Agriculture; Research; Brazil; Economic aspects; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/37894
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Asset Utilization and Bias in Measures of U.S. Agricultural Productivity AgEcon
Alston, Julian M.; Andersen, Matthew A.; Pardey, Philip G..
A common observation is that measures of productivity growth are pro-cyclical, meaning they are higher (or grow faster) on average during periods of economic expansion than during periods of economic contraction. This study focuses on measurement errors related to capital inputs as an explanation for the existence of pro-cyclical patterns in measures of agricultural productivity. Calculating a time series of capital inputs is difficult and prone to errors. Myriad assumptions are required to construct a typical measure of the capital stock, and further, sometimes related, assumptions must be made about the utilization of the stock to derive a measure of capital service flows. We test the hypothesis that unmeasured changes in the utilization of capital...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Financial Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21220
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Capital Service Flows: Concepts and Comparisons of Alternative Measures in U.S. Agriculture AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
Measures of capital services are used in studies of production and to inform policies related to growth and development. A variety of methods have been used to measure capital stocks and service flows. In this study we review methods commonly used to measure capital service flows, and outline important assumptions used in constructing such measures. We examine two recently constructed data sets that measure capital inputs in U.S. agriculture. Substantial differences in the measures appear to have been caused by the use of a fixed real interest rate versus a variable real market interest rate to calculate capital services.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Capital measures; U.S. agriculture; State-level panel data; Agricultural and Food Policy; Agricultural Finance; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/50098
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Capital Services in U.S. Agriculture: Concepts, Comparisons, and the Treatment of Interest Rates AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
This is a substantially revised version of “Capital Service Flows: Concepts and Comparisons of Alternative Measures in U.S. Agriculture.” Andersen, Matt A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G., St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics; University of Minnesota, International Science and Technology Practice and Policy (InSTePP), 2009. (Staff paper P09-8; InSTePP paper 09-03)
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural Finance.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/92801
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Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
This is a substantially revised version of “Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases.” Andersen, Matt A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G., St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota, Department of Applied Economics; University of Minnesota, International Science and Technology Practice and Policy (InSTePP), 2007. (Staff paper P07-06; InSTePP paper 07-02)
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: U.S. agriculture; Pro-cyclical productivity; Capital utilization; Primal productivity bias; Productivity Analysis; D24; C51; Q1; O4; O47.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/93143
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Capital Use Intensity and Productivity Biases AgEcon
Andersen, Matthew A.; Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G..
Measures of productivity growth are often pro-cyclical. This study focuses on measurement errors in capital inputs, associated with unobserved variations in capital utilization rates, as an explanation for the existence of pro-cyclical patterns in measures of agricultural productivity. Recently constructed national and state-specific indexes of inputs, outputs, and productivity in U.S. agriculture for 1949-2002 are used to estimate production functions in growth rate form that include proxy variables for changes in the utilization of durable inputs. The proxy variables include an index of farmers’ terms of trade and an index of local seasonal growing conditions. We find that utilization responses by farmers are significant and bias measures of productivity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/7314
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Collective Action in Plant Breeding AgEcon
Binenbaum, Eran; Pardey, Philip G..
Olson (1965) formulated a "Logic of Collective Action". We investigate whether a logic of collective action in plant breeding - and research and development generally - can be constructed. Using a case study on the Latin American Fund for Irrigated Rice (FLAR) as well as other real-world institutions of collective action in R&D, we construct an expanded logic of collective action, which revolves around two core features: Impure public goods and the tragedy of the anticommons. Provisions of FLAR and other institutions are related to game theory and contract theory, and theoretical, methodological and policy implications are outlined.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Institutional and Behavioral Economics.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19530
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CONSERVING GENETIC RESOURCES FOR AGRICULTURE: COUNTING THE COST AgEcon
Koo, Bonwoo; Pardey, Philip G.; Wright, Brian D..
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16485
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COST ASPECTS OF AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes; Beintema, Nienke M.; Chan-Kang, Connie.
Spending per scientist declined precipitously within African agricultural R&D agencies over the past several decades. In 1991, average cost per researcher across 147 R&D agencies was $119,300 in 1985 international dollars–or US$59,500 when measured in United States rather than international dollars—34 percent below the corresponding 1961 figure. This trend reflects the rapid growth in numbers of scientific staff compared with the slow growth in funds to support them. Comparatively low, and often shrinking, real salaries per scientist are a factor too. African scientists were paid an average of US$5,000 in 1991 (or roughly US$7,500 with fringe benefits included), while comparable average salaries for academic staff working in large public...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16055
Registros recuperados: 69
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