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AGRICULTURAL BANK EFFICIENCY AND THE ROLE OF MANAGERIAL RISK PREFERENCES AgEcon
Armah, Bernard Kaku Ndarku; Park, Timothy A..
We investigate the objectives of agricultural bank managers and their impacts on bank efficiency. If managers are non-neutral toward risk, then banks may appear inefficient when they are not. We find non-neutrality toward risk and efficiency gains due to firm size, loan shares, asset shares, and share of market deposits.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Financial Economics; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20909
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An Empirical Analysis of Internet Use by U.S. Farmers AgEcon
Mishra, Ashok K.; Park, Timothy A..
The Internet may reduce constraints on a farmer’s ability to receive and manage information, regardless of where the farm is located or when the information is used. Using a count data estimation procedure, this study attempts to examine the key farm, operator, regional, and household characteristics that influence the number of Internet applications used by farm households. Findings indicate that educational level of the farm operator, farm size, farm diversification, off-farm income, off-farm investments, and regional location of the farm have a significant impact on the number of Internet applications used.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Computers; Count data method; Education; Farm households; Internet applications; Farm Management.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10234
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ASSESSING ORGANIC PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY: A STOCHASTIC DISTANCE FUNCTION APPROACH AgEcon
Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A..
A stochastic distance function frontier was estimated using data from a national survey of organic farmers to evaluate the effect of farm-specific attributes on efficiency. Farm-specific and regional variables that shift efficiency were incorporated into the multioutput distance function, including organic farming experience, use of soil-improving inputs, and farmer involvement in research. Participation in research projects reduces the level of on-farm technical inefficiency with mean technical efficiency of participating farmers 25 percent higher than nonparticipating farmers. The results suggest that differences in productivity across organic farmers are closely linked to input use and observable management decisions.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/36244
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Assessing the Returns from Organic Marketing Channels AgEcon
Park, Timothy A..
Organic farmers face heightened pressure in developing a portfolio of different marketing channels and in bargaining competitively with increasingly sophisticated marketing participants in the supply chain for organic products. This research assists producers by identifying specific farm and demographic factors that enhance earnings given the choice of marketing outlet. The two significant selectivity coefficients confirm that organic earnings when marketing through a single outlet are biased upward since farmers who are better suited to market through multiple outlets have already moved away from this marketing strategy. An accurate evaluation of the projected earnings from any marketing strategy must account for selectivity effects.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Marketing outlets; Multinomial logit; Organic production; Selectivity correction; Marketing.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57626
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Assessing the Technical and Allocative Efficiency of Marketing Decisions by U.S. Organic Producers AgEcon
Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A..
We develop measures of technical and allocative efficiency of producers in marketing certified organic products. A stochastic output distance frontier and the associated revenue share equations are estimated using comprehensive U.S. data on certified organic producers. Farm-level measures of technical efficiency are calculated and factors which enhance performance are identified. Factors that systematically influence allocative efficiency are assessed. The revenue mix of organic producers is systematically inefficient as both male and female producers rely too heavily on revenue from organic markets relative to conventional outlets.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Stochastic frontier; Technical efficiency; Allocative efficiency; Farm Management; Marketing; D21; C31; Q01.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103365
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Assessing the Technical and Allocative Efficiency of U.S. Organic Producers AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Lohr, Luanne.
We develop measures of technical and allocative efficiency of producers in marketing certified organic products. A stochastic output distance frontier and the associated revenue share equations are estimated using comprehensive U.S. data on certified organic producers. Farm-level measures of technical efficiency are calculated and factors that enhance performance are identified. Factors that systematically influence allocative efficiency are assessed. The revenue mix of organic producers is systematically inefficient as both male and female producers rely too heavily on revenue from organic markets relative to conventional outlets.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Stochastic frontier; Technical and allocative efficiency; Agribusiness; Farm Management; Marketing; Production Economics; Productivity Analysis; Public Economics; D21; C31; Q01.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90678
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BENCHMARKING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF UNIVERSITY EXTENSION: A STOCHASTIC FRONTIER APPROACH AgEcon
Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A..
A stochastic frontier model is used to explain the performance evaluation of U.S. university extension providers by organic producers. The model makes explicit the nonmanagerial factors that influence both performance ratings and performance efficiency, defined as achieving a rating as close to the "best" rating as possible. Results indicate that extension agents are performing at relatively high mean efficiency of 0.92, but that the average rating is relatively low at 2.66 on a four-point scale. Several sources of potential bias in ratings are identified as a way for managers to more accurately conduct individual performance assessments. Programmatic changes to emphasize more collaborative research and training are suggested by the positive effects on...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16721
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BOOK REVIEW: HARDAKER, J. BRIAN, RUDD B.M. HUIRNE, AND JOCK R. ANDERSON. COPING WITH RISK IN AGRICULTURE. NEW YORK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1997 AgEcon
Park, Timothy A..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15067
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Breathtaking or Stagnating? - Productivity, Technical Change and Structural Dynamics in Danish Organic Farming AgEcon
Sauer, Johannes; Graversen, Jesper T.; Park, Timothy A..
This paper attempts to quantitatively measure the change in the productivity of Danish organic farming in recent years by using panel data on 56 organic farms mainly engaged in milk production for the period 2002 to 2004. Based on a translog production frontier framework the technical and scale efficiency on farm level is analyzed by considering also curvature consistency. The total change in productivity for the reference period is measured by using the Malmquist total factor productivity index approach based on a time trends as well as a general index model specification. Input specific bias in technical change as well as a general index model specification. Input specific bias in technical change as well elasticities of input substitution are...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21481
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CERTIFICATION AND SUPPLY RESPONSE IN THE ORGANIC LETTUCE MARKET AgEcon
Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A..
The impact of supply relationships and certification programs on the organic lettuce market is examined using an integrated partial adjustment and asymmetric supply response model. Costs associated with organic certification, production, and marketing have not restricted producers’' abilities to respond to price signals. Organic growers allocate output between certified and noncertified markets in response to changing price premiums. Estimates of short-run supply elasticities indicate that organic lettuce growers are more responsive to price changes than producers of nonorganic lettuce. Long-run elasticity has increased since 1988, a change that coincides with the market entry of larger producers.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/30948
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COMPARING MODELS FOR CONTINGENT VALUATION SURVEYS: STATISTICAL EFFICIENCY AND THE PRECISION OF BENEFIT ESTIMATES AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Loomis, John B..
This paper empirically tested the three conditions identified by McConnell for equivalence of the linear utility difference model and the valuation function approach to dichotomous choice contingent valuation. Using a contingent valuation survey for deer hunting in California, two of the three conditions were violated. Even though the models are not simple linear transforms of each other for this survey, estimates of mean willingness to pay and their associated 95% confidence intervals around the mean were quite similar for the valuation methods.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 1992 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/29009
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COMPETITION AND PROFITABILITY ADJUSTMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL FOOD AND CONSUMER PRODUCTS INDUSTRIES AgEcon
Acheampong, Yvonne J.; Epperson, James E.; Park, Timothy A.; Gunter, Lewell F..
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agribusiness; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/27941
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COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE FOOD RETAILING INDUSTRY AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Weliwita, Ananda.
We develop a flexible model to examine competitive conditions in the food retailing industry based on the Box-Cox transformation of the demand and industry equilibrium conditions. The impact of key technological and market developments on shifts in the competitive index is examined. Adoption of optical scanning technology was positively related to the market power index but the index was stable and consistent with competitive conditions over the 1982-1992 period.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Market power; Food retailing; Box-Cox model; Technological innovations; Agribusiness; Industrial Organization.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16680
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COMPUTER ADOPTION PATTERNS OF U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES AgEcon
Zhang, Feng; Park, Timothy A..
This paper analyzes computer adoption patterns of U.S. small businesses. First, the association between computer use and firm performance is investigated with a linear model while controlling for various characteristics of the firm and its owner. Then an ordered probit model is used to model small business computer adoption decision. And computer adoption portfolios are also analyzed at the end.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20250
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DEMAND AND QUALITY UNCERTAINTY IN PECAN PURCHASING DECISIONS AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J..
Fixed search costs associated with locating and purchasing pecans invalidate the Tobit model. Factors such as perceived quality, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets influence the fixed costs of pecan purchases. These factors have differing impacts on the probability of purchasing and the amount purchased based on the Heckman model. Failure to apply self-selectivity corrections produces misleading assessments of key variables influencing pecan purchases. (Missing tables 1,2,3)
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Pecan demand; Consumer quality expectations; Heckman model; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16714
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DEMAND AND QUALITY UNCERTAINTY IN PECAN PURCHASING DECISIONS AgEcon
Park, Timothy A.; Florkowski, Wojciech J..
A generalized Heckman model of purchase decisions incorporating perceived consumer quality attributes, ease of purchase, and familiarity with marketing outlets as factors influencing pecan purchases is estimated. Marketing efforts that encourage consumers to expand expenditures on nut products increase both the probability of pecan purchases and the amount purchased. Consumers who use all types of nuts in a wider variety of foods tend to purchase pecans more frequently. A diverse set of marketing outlets provides consumers with convenient sources of purchasing pecans and has a significant influence on the probability of pecan purchases but not the amount of pecans purchased.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Generalized Heckman model; Pecan purchases; Tobit; Demand and Price Analysis.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15130
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Demand for Private Marketing Expertise by Organic Farmers: A Quantile Analysis Based on Counts AgEcon
Lohr, Luanne; Park, Timothy A..
We study the demand by organic farmers for technical advice using a quantile regression for the demand of organic farmers for consultations with private information providers. There is substantial heterogeneity in the impact of critical explanatory variables on consultations of organic farmer. Larger farm size has a positive effect on contacts, but the effect is absent for the highest number of consultations. Internet use has a positive marginal effect on visits to private information providers across each quantile, suggesting that expanded efforts to deliver programs through web-based resources are a useful investment for information providers.
Tipo: Article Palavras-chave: Organic farming; Technical assistance; Quantile regression model; Count data; Internet access; Marketing; C25; Q12; Q13; Q16.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/123784
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Evaluating Labor Productivity in Food Retailing AgEcon
Park, Timothy A..
Competition from new store formats including supercenters, warehouse clubs, and mass merchandisers has emerged as a major threat to traditional grocery chains. A primary objective of this paper is to understand how the store-level performance is related to the workforce composition of full-time and part-time employees chosen by the food retailer along with benefits and incentives provided to employees. The elasticity of complementarity for food retailers measures how changes in store size affect use of full-time and part-time employees. Larger store size increases the marginal value of labor, and firm hiring decisions shift to expanded use of part-time employees.
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Elasticity of complementarity; Employee compensation; Food retailing; Inverse price elasticities; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/45663
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Evaluating Labor Productivity in Food Retailing AgEcon
Park, Timothy A..
New store formats including competition from supercenters (driven by Wal-Mart), warehouse clubs, and mass merchandisers have emerged as a major threat to traditional grocery chains. A key issue in the food retailing sector is to understand how the earnings of employees respond to the evolution of new retail store formats and store organizational characteristics. The elasticity of complementarity for food retailers measures how changes in store size affect use of full-time and part-time employees. The evidence for constant returns to scale suggests that the Hicks elasticity of complementarity is the appropriate measure to assess input substitutability for food retailers. As store size increases the marginal value of labor rises and firms hire more...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Elasticity of complementarity; Employee compensation; Food retailing; Inverse price elasticities; Agribusiness; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2007 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9939
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EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL BANK MANAGEMENT: THE IMPACT OF STATE REGULATORY POLICIES AgEcon
Armah, Bernard Kaku Ndarku; Park, Timothy A.; Lovell, C.A. Knox.
We evaluate agricultural bank management performance, focusing on the impacts of interstate banking laws on productivity change. The generalized Malmquist productivity index decomposes productivity change into technological change, technical efficiency change, and change in scale economies. While managerial productivity rose from 1982 to 1991, states that adopted the most liberal interstate banking laws experienced the most improvement in productivity. Large agricultural banks were more efficient.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Generalized Malmquist index; Interstate banking; Agricultural Finance; Financial Economics.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16660
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