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21 Tesla Micro-MRI of Rat Skin Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma; Suniket Fulzele; Kiran Shetty; Mandeep Sachdeva; Bruce R. Locke.
*Aim:* A rapid ultra high resolution ex vivo MRI imaging method was evaluated to visualize rat skin structure. The main objectives were:1.qualitative assessment of viable epidermis, hair, oil and fat-rich skin features by multi-contrast approach;2.achievement of spatial resolution up to 15 microns; 3.comparison of skin histology with MRI skin features obtained by 21 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imager. 

*Introduction:* The ultrawide bore 900 MHz magnet has high resolution NMR magnet has a central field of 21.1 T. The high resolution MRI technique has potential for both quantitative and non-invasive morphological evaluation at micrometer level. The MRI signal was sensitive to water protons and glycolipid...
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Biotechnology.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2639/version/1
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21 Tesla MRI Microimaging of Rat Heart by Superparamagnetic Antimyoglobin Bound Nanoparticles Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma.
Superparamagnetic iron-oxide bound antimyoglobin (SPIOM) characteristics were analyzed at different pH. After injecting SPIOM in heart, ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) technique was used to visualize microvasculature of rat heart including cardiac arteries, veins, cordate tendons attached with valves. The measurement accuracy of ventricles, aorta, vasculature and dimensions of cordate tendons were close to coregistered histology measurements.
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Biotechnology.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2643/version/1
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21 Tesla MRI Microimaging of Rat Heart by Superparamagnetic Antimyoglobin Bound Nanoparticles Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma.
Superparamagnetic iron-oxide bound antimyoglobin (SPIOM) characteristics were analyzed at different pH. After injecting SPIOM in heart, ex vivo magnetic resonance microimaging (MRM) technique was used to visualize microvasculature of rat heart including cardiac arteries, veins, cordate tendons attached with valves. The measurement accuracy of ventricles, aorta, vasculature and dimensions of cordate tendons were close to coregistered histology measurements.
Tipo: Poster Palavras-chave: Biotechnology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2643/version/2
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21 Tesla MRI Microscopy of Mice Kidney, Heart and Skin: Quantitation of MRI Visible Features Nature Precedings
S Sharma; Rakesh Sharma.
Excised mice kidney, heart and skin MRI visible features were quantitated using ex vivo 21 Tesla MRI microimager. The fast MRI acquisition protocols of FLASH, gradient echo flow compensated (GEFC) techniques were used to visualize microvasculature of mice kidney, mice heart including cardiac arteries, veins, cordate tendons and mice skin epidermis with hair follicle features.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/3484/version/1
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21 Tesla Rat Heart Magnetic Resonance Microimaging by Paramagnetic Anti-Troponin Bound Polyethylene Based Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles and Image Processing Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma.
21T MR microimaging with the first use of troponin nanoparticles enhances the visualization of cardiac muscle fibers and offers technical advancement for the future. Diffusion weighting offers fiber tracking and functional analysis. Image processing offers heart probabilistic atlas and maps.

http://www.ismrm.org/10/program/ELECTRONICPOSTERS.htm
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Bioinformatics.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/6650/version/1
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Biological robotics and nanorobotred cells: Characterization and applications Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma; Soonjo Kwon; Ching J. Chen.
In human body, nanorobot-like red blood cells get exposed to human body fluids and many physico-chemical changes inside while these nanorobots (fullerene structure coated hemoglobin embedded iron inorganic elements) remain safe and perform killer action against bacteria or virus. We propose this killer action as ‘nanorobot driven nanomedical treatment’ to combat a bacterial or viral infection. The red cells also act as imaging agent due to oxygen binding character. Our experiments were focused on the application of nanorobot (red cells) to make them immune resistant against viruses and making them as useful contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging use based on their behavior in nanomagnetic fields. It consists of an injection of...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4262/version/1
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Detection of Metabolites by Proton Ex Vivo NMR, in Vivo MR Spectroscopy Peaks and Tissue Content Analysis: Biochemical-Magnetic Resonance Correlation: Preliminary Results Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma; Madan Rehani; Arun Agrawala.
*Aim*: Metabolite concentrations by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy and ex vivo NMR spectroscopy were compared with excised normal human tissue relaxation times and tissue homogenate contents.

*Hypothesis*: Biochemical analysis combined with NMR and MR spectroscopy defines better tissue analysis.

*Materials and Methods*: Metabolites were measured using peak area, amplitude and molecular weights of metabolites in the reference solutions. In normal brain and heart autopsy, muscle and liver biopsy tissue ex vivo NMR peaks and spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times, were compared with diseased tissue NMR data in meningioma brain, myocardial infarct heart,...
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Chemistry; Bioinformatics.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4121/version/1
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Effect of Stimulators upon Human Hepatic Adenylate Cyclase Activity: A Tool of Nitroimidazole Cytotoxicity Assessment Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma; Soonjo Kwon.
Nitroimidazole is an antibiotic and radiosensitizer chemical with great potentials in imaging. The hepato-cytoxicity evaluation of nitroimidazole and possible energy status changes in liver cells due to its anti-inflammatory characteristics are crucial in tumor imaging and chemotherapy. Adenylate cyclase is key enzyme to cause energy imbalance leading to cytotoxicity. To evaluate energy status in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, adenylate cyclase activities in isolated liver cells were compared in presence of stimulators. To evaluate the effect of effectors on adenylate cyclase in cultured hepatocyte cells, adenylate cyclase enzyme was stimulated by different GITP, GTP, progesterone and nitroimidazole effectors. In cultured Kupffer cells, prostaglandin E~2~...
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Molecular Cell Biology; Pharmacology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2850/version/1
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Emerging Trends of Nanotechnology towards Picotechnology: Energy and Biomolecules Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma; Avdhesh Sharma; Ching J. Chen.
In nature, metal oxide particles display their existence at the level of picomolecules in solution state and bioactive states in the body. We present evidence of picomolar behavior of molecules different than nanomolar behavior of particles. These particles can be encapsulated in polymers and can be functionalized with protein, nucleotides, and drugs to develop as smart intracellular targeting pico-devices. The preparation technique and physiological conditions decide the size and functionality of these pico-carrier devices. Their usable success rate, feasibility and potentials are yet to be proven or we do not know. The major difference between nanodevices and pico-devices is their intermolecular and intramolecular thermodynamics in medium and their...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Chemistry.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4525/version/1
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Evaluation and Validation of clinical 4.23 T sodium MRI in animals and human: Application of oblique multi-slice spin-echo pulse sequence Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma; Jose Katz.
Objective: Application of high-field 4.23 T MRI clinical imager was demonstrated for sodium-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data acquisition. Primary hypothesis: Sodium [Na] in brain is MR visible. Secondary hypothesis was, if, application of multislice spin echo (MSSE) pulse sequence at selected scan parameters can sufficiently visualize the total sodium signal as indicator of sub-clinical activity. Material and Methods: MSSE pulse sequence technique was used to simulate sodium images of human brain. For validation purpose, inversion recovery pulse sequence was validated by optimization of scan inversion time (TI). Phantom of sodium and rat brain were imaged. Sodium images were validated and compared with proton MRI images. Results: MSSE pulse technique...
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Neuroscience.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2856/version/1
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MRI and MRSI Application in Neurodegeneration Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma.
MRI combined with MR spectroscopy generates better information of both brain tissue composition and mesurement of metabolites or neurochemicals in multiple sclerosis(MS), Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. New fast imaging techniques are technical advance in visualizing accurate anatomy and measurement of absolute neurochemicals in brain. Gray metter seated MS lesions is a new form of disease and lesion may appear normal on MRI but show spectroscopy peaks. High magnetic field scanners are available for fast imaging.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Chemistry; Neuroscience; Bioinformatics.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4317/version/1
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Newer Methods of Nanoparticle Synthesis: Nitroimidazole properties with Nanometal oxides in Polymer Cages as Drug-Biomarker Monitors Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma.
Nitroimidazoles are radiosensitizers and hypoxia detecting chemosensitizers. Intially nitroimidazoles were single dose antibiotic drugs. Recently, nitroimidazole derivatives have emerged as multifunctional “drug-biomarker monitors” chemical compounds with importance in treatment of tumors, monitoring hypoxia and safer imaging contrast agents to monitor the therapeutic progress. Additionally, the number of nitroimidazole derivatives is growing and identified their importance as multifunctional nanoparticles. The nanoparticle synthesis scheme of nitroimidazole was proposed as nitroimidazole caged with paramagnetic metal oxide inside polymer coating and labeled with marker radiolebels or biomolecules. We report the step by step...
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/3952/version/1
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Phagocytic Activity and Hexose Monophosphate Shunt Activity of Cultured Human Kupffer Cells upon Zymosan, Erythrocytes, Amoebic Trophozoits, Latex Beads and Nitroimidazole Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma; Vijay S. Singh.
Phagocytic function of human Kupffer cells was altered by the addition of nitroimidazole and amoebic trophozoits. The hypothesis was that phagocytic activity was dependent on the nature of additives in culture. The Kupffer cells were fractionated and lysosomes were isolated for enzyme estimations in presence of additives. Phagocytic activity function of human Kupffer cells was altered by the addition of nitroimidazole and amoebic trophozoits in Kupffer cell culture. The human Kupffer cells showed take up of zymosan particles larger than 1 micron in diameter and inert interaction with latex particles. The liver endothelial cells or phagocytes constitute a second line of defense in the liver for the phagoctosis function. The nitroimidazole slowed down the...
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Biotechnology.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/4300/version/1
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Quantitative MRI and MR Spectroscopy of Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer’s Disease, Epilepsy and Cancer Microimaging Techniques Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma.
Clinical MRI and MRS have promise in molecular imaging. Microimaging techniques offer a promising research tool to get noninvasive data in monitoring the effect of drugs.
Tipo: Presentation Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Cancer; Neuroscience.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/3485/version/1
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The Hepatocellular Hypoxia Criteria:2’Nitroimidazole Effect on Hepatocyte Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes Nature Precedings
Rakesh Sharma.
Aim: to understand the 2’-nitroimidazole induced hypoxia and liver cell interaction, we proposed a “Hapatocellular Hypoxia Criteria”. Hypothesis: The nitroimidazole induced metabolic energy loss and oxygen depletion (hypoxia) in liver cell mitochondria causes the phagocytosis. Based on it, ten control subjects with 2’-nitroimidazole therapy were studied for their carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in serum and hepatocellular enzymes in liver biopsy tissues. Materials and Methods: Proven ten control subjects were studied for hypoxia by enzyme assays. The 2’nitroimidazole treated paired ten subjects were studied for hypoxia using enzyme assays and hepatocellular cytomorphology by electron microscopy....
Tipo: Manuscript Palavras-chave: Biotechnology; Cancer; Pharmacology.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/2738/version/1
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