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A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON UNDERINVESTMENT IN AGRICULTURAL R&D AgEcon
Roseboom, Johannes.
During the past 40 years, the returns to agricultural R&D have been on average in the range of 40-60% (Alston, et al 2000, Evenson 2001). Many agricultural economists see this high average as convincing evidence that there is significant underinvestment in public agricultural R&D (Ruttan 1980, Pinstrup-Andersen 2001). This paper sheds new light on the underinvestment hypothesis by introducing a simple model of the selection of R&D projects and confronting it with the rate-of-return evidence accumulated over the years worldwide. The model assumes that the distribution of all possible R&D projects on an expected rate-of-return (ERR) scale declines asymptotically. Under the neoclassical conditions of full information and profit maximization,...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Agricultural R&D; Underinvestment; Rate of return; Research intensities; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/19648
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COST ASPECTS OF AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes; Beintema, Nienke M.; Chan-Kang, Connie.
Spending per scientist declined precipitously within African agricultural R&D agencies over the past several decades. In 1991, average cost per researcher across 147 R&D agencies was $119,300 in 1985 international dollars–or US$59,500 when measured in United States rather than international dollars—34 percent below the corresponding 1961 figure. This trend reflects the rapid growth in numbers of scientific staff compared with the slow growth in funds to support them. Comparatively low, and often shrinking, real salaries per scientist are a factor too. African scientists were paid an average of US$5,000 in 1991 (or roughly US$7,500 with fringe benefits included), while comparable average salaries for academic staff working in large public...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16055
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EDUCATING AGRICULTURAL RESEARCHERS: A REVIEW OF THE ROLE OF AFRICAN UNIVERSITIES AgEcon
Beintema, Nienke M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes.
The number of higher-education institutions and the students enrolled in them has grown rapidly throughout Africa since the early 1960s. The number of universities increased from less than 20 in 1960 to nearly 160 by 1996; student numbers grew from 119,000 to almost two million over the same period, yet enrollment ratios in Africa continue to lag well behind developed and other-developing country norms. Funding for higher-education in Africa kept pace with the expanding institutional base during the 1960s and 1970s, but has fallen well behind the growth in student numbers since 1980. The pattern of the development of the agricultural sciences has matched the general pattern of development of the higher-education sector. Three quarters of the countries in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: University education; Agriculture; R&D; Human capital; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession; Africa.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16046
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INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY PATTERNS AgEcon
Craig, Barbara J.; Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes.
In this paper we present measures of land and labor productivity for a group of 98 developed and developing countries using an entirely new data set with annual observations spanning the past three decades. The substantial cross-country and intertemporal variation in productivity in our sample is linked to both natural and economic factors. We extend previous work by dealing with multiple sources of measurement error in conventional agricultural inputs when accounting for observed differences in productivity. In addition to the mix of conventional inputs in agriculture, we find that indicators of quality change in these inputs and the amount of publicly provided infrastructure are significant in explaining cross-sectional differences in productivity...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 1994 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/14470
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Investments in African agricultural research AgEcon
Pardey, Philip G.; Roseboom, Johannes; Beintema, Nienke M..
"October 1995." Includes bibliographical references (p. 44-45). In collaboration with ISNAR: The Hague: Research Policy and System Development Program, International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), [1995].
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agriculture--Research; Research--Economic aspects--Africa; Sub-Saharan; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97518
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OPTIMIZING THE ALLOCATION OF AGRICULTURAL R&D FUNDING: IS WIN-WIN TARGETING POSSIBLE? AgEcon
Roseboom, Johannes; Diederen, Paul; Kuyvenhoven, Arie.
Appeals for targeting agricultural R&D in developing countries more explicitly to the needs of poor smallholders in marginal areas are often countered by arguments of efficiency. Others, however, taking a political economy perspective, argue that there is a bias in the selection of agricultural R&D projects towards commercial farmers in the better agricultural areas. In this paper, we try to bring the two perspectives together and illustrate how they interact. We analyze R&D budget allocation assuming two distinct R&D opportunity curves – one for poor smallholders and one for large commercial farmers. We find that, in contrast to the actual allocation of research resources, an efficient allocation (i.e., equalizing the marginal rate of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25830
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REASSESSING PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURE AgEcon
Chan-Kang, Connie; Pardey, Philip G.; Wood, Stanley; Roseboom, Johannes; Cremers, Marleen.
This paper uses a new panel data set to examine sources of growth in African agriculture. While conventional inputs continue to be the main source of labor productivity growth in Africa, land and labor quality differentials are also significant in explaining observed cross-country productivity patterns.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21600
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The changing organizational basis of African agricultural research AgEcon
Roseboom, Johannes; Pardey, Philip G.; Beintema, Nienke M..
"November 1998". Also published as ISNAR paper no. 98-17". Includes bibliographical references (p. 65-69).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Research--Economic aspects; Research institutes; Africa; Agriculture--Research; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97515
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