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Registros recuperados: 43
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A Tale of Two Communities: Explaining Deforestation in Mexico AgEcon
Alix-Garcia, Jennifer Marie; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Explaining land use change in Mexico requires understanding the behavior of the local institutions involved. We develop two theories to explain deforestation in communities with and without forestry projects, where the former involves a process of side payments to non-members of the community and the latter of partial cooperation among community members. Data collected in 2002 combined with satellite imagery are used to test these theories. For the forestry villages, we establish a positive relationship between the distribution of profits as dividends instead of public goods and forest loss. For communities not engaged in forestry projects, deforestation is largely related to the ability of the community to induce the formation of a coalition of members...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Deforestation; Common property; Partial cooperation; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; D70; H41; O13; N56; Q23; Q24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25066
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ACCESSING SEED THROUGH SHARECROPPING: A RISK-SHARING STRATEGY FOR ANDEAN FARMERS AgEcon
Godtland, Erin; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; de Janvry, Alain; Murgai, Rinku.
In the Northern Andes, one of the riskiest agriculture climates in the world, farmers use sharecropping to obtain seed, their most costly input. With survey data from Peru, this paper calculates that the cost of seed, when it is provided though sharecropping, is two times higher than the market price. We test the hypothesis that risk-averse farmers are willing to pay more to receive seed through sharecropping because the contract provides implicit crop insurance.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/20589
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AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA: NEW DIRECTIONS AND NEW CHALLENGES AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Key, Nigel D.; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural and Food Policy; Community/Rural/Urban Development.
Ano: 1997 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25096
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Beyond Bono: Making Foreign Aid More Efficient in Putting into Place the Development Fundamentals AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25055
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Can Conditional Cash Transfers Serve as Safety Nets to Keep Children at School and Out of the Labor Market? AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Finan, Frederico; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs for education are known to be effective in increasing educational achievements among the rural poor. Using panel data from the Progresa experience with randomized treatment, we show that there is strong state dependence in school attendance. Short term shocks that take children out of school will consequently have long term consequences on their educational achievements. We show that idiosyncratic and covariate shocks do indeed push parents to take children out of school and to use child labor as risk coping instruments. However, CCT help protect children from these shocks, creating an additional benefit from these programs as effective safety nets with long term benefits.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25075
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CASH TRANSFER PROGRAMS WITH INCOME MULTIPLIERS: PROCAMPO IN MEXICO AgEcon
Sadoulet, Elisabeth; de Janvry, Alain; Davis, Benjamin.
Cash transfer programs induce multiplier effects when recipients put the money they receive to work to generate additional income. The ultimate income effects are multiples of the amounts transferred. This paper analyzes the PROCAMPO program in Mexico, which was introduced to compensate farmers for the anticipated negative effect of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the price of basic crops. The transfer rules and the timing of the panel data collected allow unique control of biases in this impact analysis. We find that the multiplier among ejido sector recipients is in the range of 1.5 to 2.6. Multipliers are higher for medium and large farm households, low numbers of adults in the household, nonindigenous backgrounds, and households...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16402
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CASH TRANSFER PROGRAMS WITH INCOME MULTIPLIERS:PROMCAMPO IN MEXICO AgEcon
Sadoulet, Elisabeth; de Janvry, Alain; Davis, Benjamin.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/15942
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CLIMATE CHANGE, AGRICULTURE, AND DEVELOPING ECONOMIES AgEcon
Winters, Paul C.; Murgai, Rinku; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; de Janvry, Alain.
The impact of global climate change on the less developed countries is analyzed using archetype CGE-multimarket models for three economies representing the poor cereal importing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The objective is to predict the differential impact of climate change across continents on macroeconomic variables, sectoral responses, and household income and food consumption effects, particularly among the poorest. Results show that all these countries will lose and that their agricultural outputs will fall, but that Africa will be by far the most severely affected. Countervailing policies to mitigate negative effects should focus on the production of food crops in Africa and of export crops in Latin America and Asia.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy; International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25079
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Creating Incentives for Micro-Credit Agents to Lend to the Poor AgEcon
Aubert, Cecile; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have introduced incentive pay schemes for their credit agents to induce information acquisition on borrowers. Bonuses linked to repayment are efficient for profit-oriented MFIs but insufficient for nonprofit MFIs trying to reach very poor borrowers, when repayment and wealth are positively correlated. We show that no incentive scheme is consistent with this (non-verifiable) objective: Random audits on the share of very poor borrowers selected by the agent become necessary. Under the optimal contract, non-profit MFIs generally maximize the number of poor borrowers it services by crosssubsidization between very poor and less poor borrowers.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Micro-credit; Pro-poor; Objectives; Incentives; Financial Economics; Food Security and Poverty; O16; D82; L31..
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25024
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Educational Grants Closing the Gap in Schooling Attainment between Poor and Non-Poor AgEcon
Raymond, Melanie; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
The present work assesses the effectiveness of educational grants at raising schooling attainment of poor children in rural areas. The per grade gains in reducing drop outs cumulate in an additional half a year in total schooling. Progressive impacts are found along three dimensions: degree of poverty, parents' education and distance to school. The children of uneducated fathers living far from school gain twice as much as their counterparts with an educated father or close to a school. The intervention successfully closes the schooling gap along the wealth dimension but falls short of achieving the same in the other dimensions of parents' education and school distance.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25034
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Effects on School Enrollment and Performance of a Conditional Transfers Program in Mexico AgEcon
Dubois, Pierre; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
We study the effects of a conditional transfers program on school enrollment and performance in Mexico. We provide a theoretical framework for analyzing the dynamic educational decision and process including the endogeneity and uncertainty of performance (passing grades) and the effect of a conditional cash transfer program for children enrolled at school. Careful identification of the program impact on this model is studied. This framework is used to study the Mexican social program Progresa in which a randomized experiment has been implemented and allows us to identify the effect of the conditional cash transfer program on enrollment and performance at school. Using the rules of the conditional program, we can explain the different incentive effects...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Education demand; Schooling decisions; School performance; Dynamic decisions; Treatment effects; Transfer program; Randomized experiment; Mexico.; Labor and Human Capital; C14; C25; D91; H52; H53; I21; I28; J24.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25064
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Estimating the effects of aggregate agricultural growth on the distribution of expenditures AgEcon
Ligon, Ethan; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/120420
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FAMILY AND COMMUNITY NETWORKS IN MEXICO-U.S. MIGRATION AgEcon
Winters, Paul C.; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
A household's decision to send migrants is based on information the household has on the expected returns and the costs of migration. Information on migration flows from both family migrant networks and community migrant networks. Direct assistance - in the form of money, housing, transportation, and food - is often provided to migrants by these networks, thus reducing the costs of migration. Using data from a national survey of rural Mexican households, we show the importance of networks in both the decision to migrate and the level of migration. We find that community and family networks are substitutes in the production of information and assistance suggesting that, once migration is well established in a community, family networks become less...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Migration; Networks; Mexico; Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/12907
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GROWTH, INEQUALITY, AND POVERTY IN LATIN AMERICA: A CAUSAL ANALYSIS, 1970-94 AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty; International Development.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25097
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Household Behavior Under Market Failures: How Natural Resource Management in Agriculture Promotes Livestock Production in the Sahel AgEcon
Dutilly-Diane, Celine; Sadoulet, Elisabeth; de Janvry, Alain.
Improved water harvesting and soil erosion control using the remarkably simple practice of contour stone bunding is shown to increase grain yields by 41% in low rainfall regions of Burkina Faso. Empirical results show that yield increases in food crops help foodbuying farm households import substitute in food consumption, reduce livestock production, and increase seasonal migration which is more compatible with seasonal agriculture than with the yearlong livestock activity. Self-sufficient households, by contrast, can take advantage of higher yields to free resources from food production and allocate these to expand their livestock economy, thus benefiting more from the region's comparative advantage. We also show that greater effectiveness in cooperation...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Farm household model; Natural resource management; Sahel; Consumer/Household Economics; Livestock Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; 055; Q12; Q20.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25061
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HOUSEHOLD BEHAVIOR WITH IMPERFECT LABOR MARKETS AgEcon
Sadoulet, Elisabeth; de Janvry, Alain; Benjamin, Catherine.
A household model with differential asset endowments and idiosyncratic transactions costs in accessing labor markets is developed to (1) explain membership of farm households to alternative labor regimes (sellers, employers, or self-sufficient in labor), (2) test for recursivity between production and consumption decisions selectively by labor regime, and (3) identify the determinants of differential labor productivity across labor regimes. The model is applied to a 1994 household survey of the Mexican land reform sector. (Forthcoming in the Journal of Industrial Relations)
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25044
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HOUSEHOLD MODELING FOR THE DESIGN OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION STRATEGIES AgEcon
de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Insufficient access to assets is the main determinant of poverty. We analyze the role of access to assets in explaining household labor allocation strategies, sources of income, levels of income achieved, and poverty headcount ratios among classes of Mexican rural households. To assess the gains from asset redistribution, we both measure the direct income effects from redistribution and simulate the general equilibrium effects of redistribution in a computable non-separable household model. Results show that land redistribution allows to achieve both equity and efficiency gains. However, there are economies of scale in self-employment in microenterprise, human capital assets for labor market participation, and social capital for international migration,...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Consumer/Household Economics; Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25121
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How Rising Competition Among Microfinance Lenders Affects Incumbent Village Banks AgEcon
McIntosh, Craig; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
This paper uses data from Uganda's largest incumbent microfinance institution to analyze the impact of entry by competing lenders on client behavior. We first examine the geographic placement decisions of competitors, and find that placement decisions are strongly affected by district-level characteristics. We observe that increased competition induces a decline in repayment performance and in savings deposited with the incumbent Village Bank, suggesting multiple loan-taking by clients. Urban clients take multiple loans primarily from lenders with more individual methodologies, while rural clients borrow from several group lenders. Individuals who operate larger businesses are the ones most likely to leave the incumbent Village Bank when a Solidarity Group...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Microfinance; Competition; Credit markets; Financial Economics; O16; D14; L1.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25073
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Insecurity of Property Rights and Matching in the Tenancy Market AgEcon
Macours, Karen; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
This paper analyzes the effects of insecure property rights over land on the functioning of the land rental market in the Dominican Republic. It shows that insecurity of property rights not only reduces sharply the level of activity on the land rental market, but also causes market segmentation. A principal-agent framework is used to model the landlord's utility maximization, where he takes into account the risk of losing the land when it is not traded within a narrow local circle of confidence. Using data collected with a methodology that enables to characterize the entire market, we show that insecure property rights lead to matching in the tenancy market along socio-economic lines and hence severely limit access to land for the rural poor. Simulations...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land Economics/Use.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25092
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Is a Friend in Need a Friend Indeed? Inclusion and Exclusion in Mutual Insurance Networks in Southern Ghana AgEcon
Goldstein, Markus; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25025
Registros recuperados: 43
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