Sabiia Seb
PortuguêsEspañolEnglish
Embrapa
        Busca avançada

Botão Atualizar


Botão Atualizar

Ordenar por: RelevânciaAutorTítuloAnoImprime registros no formato resumido
Registros recuperados: 15
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
A Flexible Inventory Model for MSW Recycling AgEcon
Louis, Garrick; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
Most of the United States have laws mandating the recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW). In order to comply, municipalities recycle quotas of materials, without regard to fluctuating prices. An inventory system is proposed that allows municipalities to be sensitive to materials prices as they recycle in accordance with state mandates. A dynamic model is developed; it uses historical secondary material prices as exogenous inputs to minimize the net present value of MSW recycling system cost. The model provides a cost-effective method for municipalities to achieve their MSW recycling targets. The savings is approximately $1.43 per ton of MSW generated based on total MSW management costs of $13.5 per ton. The model also allows one to investigate the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Municipal solid waste; Recycling; Inventory; Optimization; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10459
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Air Emissions of Ammonia and Methane from Livestock Operations: Valuation and Policy Options AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen L.; Siikamaki, Juha.
The animal husbandry industry is a major emitter of methane, which is an important greenhouse gas. The industry is also a major emitter of ammonia, which is a precursor of fine particulate matter, arguably the number-one environment-related public health threat facing the nation. We present an integrated process model of the engineering economics of technologies to reduce methane and ammonia emissions at dairy operations in California. Three policy options are explored: greenhouse gas offset credits for methane control, particulate matter offset credits for ammonia control, and expanded net metering policies to provide revenue for the sale of electricity generated from captured methane gas. Individually, any of these policies appears to be sufficient to...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Methane; Ammonia; Carbon dioxide; Greenhouse gases; Climate change; Offset; Particulate matter; Net metering; Environmental policy; CAFO; Manure management; Biodigester; Electricity; Global warming; Cost-benefit; Incentive approach; Livestock Production/Industries; Q2; Q4; Q53.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10749
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Controlling Ozone and Fine Particulates: Cost Benefit Analysis with Meteorological Variability AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Bergin, Michelle S.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Russell, Armistead G..
In this paper, we develop an integrated cost-benefit analysis framework for ozone and fine particulate control, accounting for variability and uncertainty. The framework includes air quality simulation, sensitivity analysis, stochastic multi-objective air quality management, and stochastic cost-benefit analysis. This paper has two major contributions. The first is the development of stochastic source-receptor (S-R) coefficient matrices for ozone and fine particulate matter using an advanced air quality simulation model (URM-1ATM) and an efficient sensitivity algorithm (DDM-3D). The second is a demonstration of this framework for alternative ozone and PM2.5 reduction policies. Alternative objectives of the stochastic air quality management model include...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Ambient air; Ozone; Particulate matter; Risk management; Public policy; Cost-benefit analysis; Variability and uncertainty; Stochastic simulation; Stochastic multi-objective programming; Decision-making; National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Environmental Economics and Policy; C6; Q2; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10735
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Economies of Scale and Technical Efficiency in Community Water Systems AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Harrington, Winston; Pizer, William A.; Gillingham, Kenneth.
In this study we use datasets from the 1995 and 2000 Community Water Supply surveys to examine the production costs of water supply systems. We first estimate the economies of scale in water supply by estimating the total unit cost as well as individual component cost elasticities. For total unit cost elasticity, we find that a 1% increase in production reduces unit costs by a statistically significant 0.16%. For individual component cost elasticities, we find that higher economies of scale exist in capital costs, outside costs, other costs, and materials costs; labor costs and energy costs exhibit lower but still positive economies of scale. These economies of scale may reflect production economies or suggest that larger systems are better than smaller...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Small water systems; Water supply; Capacity development; Economies of scale; Community water systems; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10788
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Effects of Carbon Policies and Technology Change AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
We develop and estimate an index-based measure of expected consumer welfare under various carbon emissions control policies in the electricity generation sector. This approach estimates welfare effects by a somewhat less data intensive methodology than econometric approaches or more complex modeling. We include anticipated technological change in the production of renewable and nonrenewable power generation during the next two decades. We estimate welfare improvements from 2000 to 2020 as renewable energy technologies continue to be improved and gradually adopted, compared with a counterfactual scenario allowing for continual improvement of nonrenewable generation technology. We formally incorporate uncertainty. We evaluate the model under alternative...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Carbon emissions control; Electricity generation; Technological change; Consumer welfare; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q40; Q42; O33.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10620
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Jobs Versus the Environment: An Industry-level Perspective AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D.; Pizer, William A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
The possibility that workers could be adversely affected by environmental policies imposed on heavily regulated industries has led to claims of a "jobs versus the environment" trade-off by both business and labor leaders. The present research examines this claim at the industry level for four heavily polluting industries: pulp and paper mills, plastic manufacturers, petroleum refiners, and iron and steel mills. By focusing on labor effects across an entire industry, we construct a measure relevant to the concerns of key stakeholders, such as labor unions and trade groups. We decompose the link between environmental regulation and employment into three distinct components: factor shifts to more or less labor intensity, changes in total expenditures, and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Jobs-environment trade-off; Distribution of environmental costs; Translog cost function; Labor and Human Capital; C33; D24; J40; Q28.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10526
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Measuring the Contribution to the Economy of Investments in Renewable Energy: Estimates of Future Consumer Gains AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Aronow, Emily; Austin, David H.; Bath, Tom; Darmstadter, Joel.
In this paper we develop a cost index-based measure of the expected consumer welfare gains from innovation in electricity generation technologies. To illustrate our approach, we estimate how much better off consumers would be from 2000 to 2020 as renewable energy technologies continue to be improved and gradually adopted, compared with a counterfactual scenario that allows for continual improvement of conventional technology. We proceed from the position that the role and prospects of renewable energy are best assessed within a market setting that considers competing energy technologies and sources. We evaluate five renewable energy technologies used to generate electricity: solar photovoltaics, solar thermal, geothermal, wind, and biomass. For each, we...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy economics; Technical change; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy; Q4; O3.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10588
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Modeling the Costs and Environmental Benefits of Disposal Options for End-of-Life Electronic Equipment: The Case of Used Computer Monitors AgEcon
MacAuley, Molly K.; Palmer, Karen L.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cline, Sarah A.; Holsinger, Heather.
Managing the growing quantity of used electronic equipment poses challenges for waste management officials. In this paper, we focus on a large component of the electronic waste stream— computer monitors-and the disposal concerns associated with the lead embodied in cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in most monitors. We develop a policy simulation model of consumers- disposal options based on the costs of these options and their associated environmental impacts. For the stock of monitors disposed of in the United States in 1998, our preliminary findings suggest that bans on some disposal options would increase disposal costs from about $1 per monitor to between $3 and $20 per monitor. Policies to promote a modest amount of recycling of monitor parts, including...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: End-of-life electronics; Waste stream; Cost-benefit analysis; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q0; H8.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10901
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Reducing Emissions from the Electricity Sector: The Costs and Benefits Nationwide and in the Empire State AgEcon
Palmer, Karen L.; Burtraw, Dallas; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10484
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Source-Receptor Relationships for Ozone and Fine Particulates in the Eastern United States AgEcon
Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Krupnick, Alan J.; Bergin, Michelle S.; Russell, Armistead G..
A key question in developing effective mitigation strategies for ozone and particulate matter is identifying which source regions contribute to concentrations in receptor regions. Using a direct approach with a regional, multiscale three-dimensional model, we derive multiple source-receptor matrices (S-Rs) to show inter- and intrastate impacts of emissions on both ozone and PM2.5 over the eastern United States. Our results show that local (in-state) emissions generally account for about 23% of both local ozone concentrations and PM2.5 concentrations, while neighboring states contribute much of the rest. The relative impact of each state on others varies dramatically between episodes. In reducing fine particulate concentrations, we find that reducing SO2...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Source-receptor; Ozone; Particulate matter; Sensitivity analysis; Air quality simulation; National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q2; Q25.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10572
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Technology Adoption and Aggregate Energy Efficiency AgEcon
Pizer, William A.; Harrington, Winston; Kopp, Raymond J.; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
Improved technology is often cited as a means to alter the otherwise difficult trade-off between the economic burden of regulation and environmental damage. Focusing on energy-saving technologies that mitigate the threat of climate change, we find that both energy prices and financial health influence technology adoption among a sample of industrial plants in four heavily polluting sectors. Based on a model linking technology adoption to growth in aggregate efficiency, we estimate that a doubling of energy prices, after raising the growth rate to 2.1%, would require slightly more than 50 years to generate a 50% improvement in aggregate efficiency relative to the baseline forecast.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Energy efficiency; Endogenous technological change; Technology adoption; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; O31; O38; Q43; Q48.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10616
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
The Benefits and Costs of Informal Sector Pollution Control: Mexican Brick Kilns AgEcon
Blackman, Allen; Newbold, Stephen C.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Cook, Joseph H..
In developing countries, urban clusters of manufacturers which are "informal"-small-scale, unlicensed and virtually unregulated-can have severe environmental impacts. Yet pollution control efforts have traditionally focused on large industrial sources, in part because the problem is not well understood. This paper presents a benefit-cost analysis of four practical strategies for reducing emissions from traditional brick kilns in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. To our knowledge, it is the first such analysis of informal sources. We find very significant net benefits for three of the four control strategies. These results suggest that informal polluters should be a high priority for environmental regulators.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Benefit-cost analysis; Informal sector; Air pollution; US-Mexico Border; Brick kiln; Environmental Economics and Policy; O13; O17; O54; Q25; Q28.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10532
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
The Cost of Environmental Protection AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D.; Pizer, William A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
Expenditures for environmental protection in the U.S. are estimated to exceed $150 billion annually or about 2% of GDP. This estimate, based on largely self-reported information, is often cited as an assessment of the burden of current regulatory efforts and a standard against which the associated benefits are measured. Little is known, however, about how well reported expenditures relate to true costs. The potential for both incidental savings and uncounted burdens means that actual costs could be either higher or lower than reported expenditures. A significant literature supports the notion that increases in reported environmental expenditures probably understate actual economic costs. Estimates of the true cost of a dollar increase in reported...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental costs; Fixed-effects; Translog cost model; Environmental Economics and Policy; C33; D24; Q28.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10530
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
The Near-Term Impacts of Carbon Mitigation Policies on Manufacturing Industries AgEcon
Morgenstern, Richard D.; Ho, Mun S.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Zhang, Xuehua.
Who will pay for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries is combined with input-output information on interindustry purchases to paint a detailed picture of carbon use, including effects on final demand. This approach, which freezes capital and other inputs at current levels and assumes that all costs are passed forward, yields upper-bound estimates of total costs. The results are best viewed as...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Distribution of carbon mitigation costs; Industrial impacts of carbon policies; Environmental Economics and Policy; Q28; Q48.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10706
Imagem não selecionada

Imprime registro no formato completo
Workshop Report: Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) Survey Design for 2000 and Beyond AgEcon
Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan J.; Morgenstern, Richard D.; Pizer, William A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Environmental Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/10652
Registros recuperados: 15
Primeira ... 1 ... Última
 

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa
Todos os direitos reservados, conforme Lei n° 9.610
Política de Privacidade
Área restrita

Embrapa
Parque Estação Biológica - PqEB s/n°
Brasília, DF - Brasil - CEP 70770-901
Fone: (61) 3448-4433 - Fax: (61) 3448-4890 / 3448-4891 SAC: https://www.embrapa.br/fale-conosco

Valid HTML 4.01 Transitional