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Agronomical techniques to improve technological and sanitary quality Organic Eprints
David, C.; Celette, F.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.; Dubois, D.; Friedel, J.K.; Hellou, G.; Jeuffroy, M.H.; Mäder, P.; Thomsen, I.K..
In spite of variable grain protein contents, baking quality of organic wheat was found to be acceptable to good. Mycotoxin (DON) infestation was generally low on tested grain samples. Choice of wheat cultivar was the most efficient way to obtain higher grain quality. Fertilization with readily available nitrogen and, to a lower extent, association with legumes and green manures with mixtures containing fodder legumes also improved grain quality. Reduced tillage affected soil quality and wheat yield but had little effects on grain quality.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/21100/1/AGTEC_farmers_leaflet_Final_VJune12.pdf
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Integrated nitrogen input systems in Denmark Organic Eprints
Olesen, J.E.; Sørensen, P.; Thomsen, I.K.; Eriksen, J.; Thomsen, A.G.; Berntsen, J..
Cycling of N in agriculture through the use of mineral fertilizers, manures and N-fixing crops gives rise to many forms of N emissions to the environment, including nitrate (NO3) leaching, ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, resulting in ground water pollution, eutrophication of surface waters, soil acidification and contributions to global warming. The high rates of N input in intensive North European agricultural systems have given rise to high loss rates, and the focus in Danish agriculture during the past two decades has been on increasing the N use efficiency with the aim of reducing losses. The N use efficiency at the system level can be increased by improved handling of manure, targeted application of fertilizers and...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/4668/3/4668.pdf
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Interactions between soil organic matter level and soil tillage in a growing crop: N mineralization and yield response Organic Eprints
Thomsen, I.K.; Sørensen, P..
Effects of organic matter management and soil loosening on the synchrony between soil N mineralization and crop N demand were studied in a field experiment. Four different levels of organic matter (OM) were applied to a crop rotation during 12 years by various applications of animal manure, straw incorporation and catch crop growing. A spring barley crop was grown to test the influence of the previous OM applications. Soil loosening with a row cultivator was carried out one, two or three times in the first part of the growth season to examine the potential for adjusting soil N mineralization by soil tillage in cropping systems with different OM input. Immediately before each of the soil loosenings and again after one, two and three weeks, plant biomass and...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/4585/1/4585.doc
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New challenges to improve organic bread wheat production in Europe Organic Eprints
David, Christophe; Celette, Florian; Abecassis, Joël; Carcea, Marina; Friedel, Jürgen K.; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle; Hiltbrunner, Jürg; Messmer, Monika; Peigne, Joséphine; Samson, Marie-Françoise; Schweinzer, Agnes; Thomsen, I.K.; Thommen, Andreas.
The total organic area in the EU-27 had an annual average growth rate of nearly 15% from 1998 to 2006 with winter wheat being the most important cereal crop. Wheat yield in organic farming is around 30% to 70% of yield of conventional farming but higher premia for organic wheat may to some extent compensate for this. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems and four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Nitrogen deficiency and weed infestation are considered to be the most serious threat in organic wheat production. Organic wheat producers will have to fulfil the technological needs of bakers although the requirements differ widely from small artisan bakers to large enterprises handling the organic bread...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Food security; Food quality and human health Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/19483/1/OWBread_ISOFAR2011_David_et_al2011.pdf
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Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe Organic Eprints
David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.; Celette, F.; Friedel, J.K.; Hellou, G.; Hiltbrunner, J.; Messmer, M.; Narducci, V.; Peigné, J.; Samson, M.-F.; Schweinzer, A.; Thomsen, I.K.; Thommen, A..
This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high...
Tipo: Book chapter Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Crop husbandry Markets and trade.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://orgprints.org/26365/1/David_etal_2013_SAR.pdf
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Performance of spring barley varieties and variety mixtures as affected by manure application and their order in an organic crop rotation Organic Eprints
Askegaard, M.; Thomsen, I.K.; Berntsen, J.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Kristensen, K..
In order to obtain a high and stable yield of organic spring barley, production should be optimized according to the specific environment. To test the performance of spring barley varieties under varying cropping conditions, a field experiment was carried out in 2003 and 2004 in a six-field mixed organic crop rotation. We investigated the choice of variety, the order in a rotation,and the application of manure (slurry and farm yard manure; 0 to 120 total-Nha�1) on grain yields of six selected varieties with different characteristics grown in either pure stands or in two spring barley mixtures, each consisting of three varieties. Average grain yield of the barley varieties varied between 3.3 t DM ha-�1 and 4.1 t DM ha-�1. Grain yields of the two...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/7853/2/7853.pdf
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Soil porosity as a habitat for microorganisms Organic Eprints
Schjønning, P.; Thomsen, I.K.; Christensen, B.T..
The soil pore system has to be characterized quantitatively in order to describe the soil as a habitat for microorganisms. Soil pore morphology as determined by soil structure may be as important as the size distribution for the transport of gases and nutrients. This study adresses the physical properties of differently textured soils in undisturbed and remoulded state and their effect on microbial activity. Bulk soil was retrieved from 0-20 cm depth at six locations along a textural gradient in an arable field in Denmark. The samples ranged in clay content from 11 to 45%. The soils were crushed in air dry state, mixed, re-moistened, and exposed to a 9 month period of structure regeneration. Following application of 14C-labelled organic residues, the...
Tipo: Conference paper, poster, etc. Palavras-chave: Soil quality Biodiversity and ecosystem services Soil tillage Crop health; Quality; Protection Soil biology.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://orgprints.org/1881/1/Soil_porosity_habitats.pdf
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Sortsforskelle i næringsstofoptagelse, vækst og kerneudbytter af vårbyg til økologisk dyrkning Organic Eprints
Nielsen, N.E.; Thomsen, I.K.; Berntsen, J..
Vårbyggens optagelse og udnyttelse af næringsstoffer, konkurrenceevne over for ukrudt samt sygdomsresistens har stor betydning for den økologiske planteavl. Opnåelse af en optimal ernæring forudsætter den rette kombination af et stort antal biologiske, fysiske og kemiske jord- og plantefaktorer. Kulturplanter, som sås om foråret, starter i reglen med en moderat mangel på fosfor og kalium (Nielsen et al., 2003). I pløjelaget findes hovedparten af det plantetilgængelige fosfor og i en vis udstrækning tillige kalium og mikronæringsstoffer, mens det plantetilgængelige kvælstof og svovl ofte er fordelt i hele roddybden.
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://orgprints.org/3278/1/F%C3%98JOenyt.pdf
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The influence of long-term inputs of catch crops and cereal straw on yield, protein composition and technological quality of a spring and a winter wheat Organic Eprints
Thomsen, I.K.; Samson, M.-F.; Carcea, M.; Narducci, V..
Under conditions of restricted nitrogen (N) input such as in organic farming systems, crop N uptake must rely on N mineralised from applied animal manure, crop residues and native soil organic matter. Scarcity of N may impede the production of quality grain for bread production, and input and retention of N in soil are therefore important parameters for soil fertility. Toretain N in the crop-soilsystem, catch crops may be grown in breaks between main crops where they provide a significant sink for N mineralised in late summer and autumn (Thomsen, 2005). In corporation of straw may likewise retain mineralised N by microbial immobilisation (Christensen, 1986) and will also directly add to the N mineralisation potential when the N supplied in the straw...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://orgprints.org/18803/1/18803.pdf
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Tillage-induced N mineralization and N uptake in winter wheat on a coarse sandy loam Organic Eprints
Thomsen, I.K.; Sørensen, P..
The potential of adjusting soil N mineralization by soil tillage in the growing season was investigated in winter wheat on a coarse sandy loam. In two succeeding years, wheat was sown at 25 cm row spacing on plots where four different organic matter (OM) management strategies regarding pig slurry application, straw incorporation and catch crop growing had been applied for the previous 13 years. Soil tillage was carried out in spring with a row cultivator, a PTO-driven row rotovator or a brushweeder. Soil inorganic N content was determined in tilled and undisturbed soil during four weeks after tillage. In the first experimental year, gross nitrogen transformation rates were measured by 15N pool dilution techniques in row rotovated soil and in undisturbed...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://orgprints.org/4578/1/4578.doc
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Turnover of organic matter in differently textured soils. I. Physical characteristics of structurally disturbed and intact soils Organic Eprints
Schjønning, P.; Thomsen, I.K.; Møberg, J.P.; de Jonge, H.; Kristensen, K.; B.T., Christensen.
Soil type effects on organic matter turnover are most often ascribed directly to differences in soil clay content. Since soil texture determines the physical characteristics of soil, aggregation and water holding capacity may be more relevant to address in the search for controls of organic matter turnover. Most studies of microbial processes in soils are based on structurally disturbed soil, where the abiotic conditions for the microbial activity may be quite different from those in intact soils. In this study, basic physical characteristics were determined for structurally disturbed and intact soil samples from differently textured soils. Bulk soil was retrieved from 0–20 cm depth at six locations along a textural gradient in an arable field on...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil quality; Soil biology.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://orgprints.org/726/1/geoderma_99_I.pdf
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Turnover of organic matter in differently textured soils: II. Microbial activity as influenced by soil water regimes Organic Eprints
Thomsen, I.K.; Schjønning, P.; Jensen, B.; Kristensen, K.; Christensen, B.T..
To evaluate the effect of soil texture and soil water content on decomposition of organic carbon (OC), turnover of partially stabilized 14C-labelled ryegrass residues was studied at four matric potentials in twelve differently textured soils of similar origin and cropping history. Six soils were from a naturally occurring clay gradient and had 11, 16, 21, 31, 37 and 45% clay (termed NA1 to NA6). Three clay-amended soils (CL2, CL4, CL6) and three silt-amended soils (SI2, SI4, SI6) were prepared by adding clay or silt sized organomineral complexes extracted from the NA2 soil to a portion of the NA1 soil. After 14C-labelled ryegrass had decomposed for eight months under field-like conditions, soil cores were sampled, adjusted to four matric potentials (-30,...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Nutrient turnover; Soil quality; Soil biology.
Ano: 1999 URL: http://orgprints.org/727/1/geoderma_99_II.pdf
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Vinterhvede og vårhvede - efterafgrøder påvirkede udbyttet men ikke kvaliteten Organic Eprints
Thomsen, I.K.; Carcea, M.; Narducci, V..
Kvælstofoptaget i afgrøder stammer dels fra minerali-sering fra jordens organiske materiale dels fra evt. tilført gødning. Jordens evne til at frigive kvælstof ved mineralisering, og dermed dens evne til at forsyne en afgrøde med kvælstof, påvirkes bl.a. af dyrknings-systemet, herunder hvor meget organisk materiale der tilføres jorden f.eks. i form af afgrøderester. Planters evne til at udnytte mineraliseret kvælstof afhænger bl.a. af vækstsæsonens længde. Det forven-tedes derfor, at afgrøder med lang vækstsæson bedre er i stand til at udnytte en høj mineralisering end afgrøder med kort vækstsæson.
Tipo: Newspaper or magazine article Palavras-chave: Crop husbandry; Farm nutrient management.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://orgprints.org/18802/1/18802.pdf
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Wheat yield and quality as influenced by reduced tillage in organic farming Organic Eprints
Peigné, J.; Messmer, M.; Aveline, A.; Berner, A.; Mäder, P.; Carcea, M.; Narducci, V.; Samson, M.-F.; Thomsen, I.K.; Celette, F.; David, C..
Organic farmers are interested in soil conservation by reduced tillage, techniques well known in conventional agriculture to protect soil quality and limit labor time and energy costs. However, organic farming and reduced tillage can modify weeds, soil structure, and thus soil nitrogen (N) mineralization which strongly influences wheat yield and quality. The main objectives of this study were to analyze how reduced tillage applied to organic wheat influenced (1) grain yield, protein concentration, and weed infestation; (2) deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination on grain; (3) technological quality parameters such as dry gluten, zeleny index, falling number, and gluten index; (4) protein composition (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 fractions, and UPP, gliadin/glutenin...
Tipo: Journal paper Palavras-chave: Cereals; Pulses and oilseeds Soil tillage.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://orgprints.org/26366/1/Peign%C3%A9_etal_2013_OA.pdf
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