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Adding new pieces to the Azadinium (Dinophyceae) diversity and biogeography puzzle: Non-toxigenic Azadinium zhuanum sp. nov. from China, toxigenic A. poporum from the Mediterranean, and a non-toxigenic A. dalianense from the French Atlantic ArchiMer
Luo, Zhaohe; Krock, Bernd; Mertens, Kenneth; Nezan, Elisabeth; Chomerat, Nicolas; Bilien, Gwenael; Tillmann, Urban; Gu, Haifeng.
The marine planktonic dinophyceaen genus Azadinium is a primary source of azaspiracids, but due to their small size its diversity may be underestimated and information on its biogeography is still limited. A new Azadinium species, A. zhuanum was obtained from the East China Sea and Yellow Sea of China by incubating surface sediments. Five strains were established by isolating single germinated cells and their morphology was examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Azadinium zhuanum was characterized by a plate pattern of Po, cp, X, 4′, 2a, 6′′, 6C, 5S, 6′′′, 2′′′′, by a distinct ventral pore at the junction of Po, the first and fourth apical plates, and a conspicuous antapical spine. Moreover, Azadinium poporum was obtained for the...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Azadinium; Azaspiracid; AZA-2; AZA-2 phosphate; Biogeography; China; French Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00386/49765/51155.pdf
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Azaspiracid accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally fed Azadinium spinosum ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry; Marcaillou-le Baut, Claire; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Sechet, Veronique; Nicolau, Elodie; Tillmann, Urban; Hess, Philipp.
Azadinium spinosum (Elbrächter and Tillmann), a small marine dinoflagellate, has been recently described as a de novo producer of azaspiracid-1 and -2 (AZA1 and -2) diarrhoeic toxins. A culture of A. spinosum was established in our laboratory and optimised for pilot-scale production of this organism, to evaluate and understand AZA1 and -2 accumulation and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) fed with A. spinosum. Adult mussels were continuously exposed to A. spinosum over 1 week in 160 L cylindrical conical tanks. Three different diets were tested for contamination: 5000, 10 000 cells mL−1 of A. spinosum and a mixture of 5000 cells mL−1 of A. spinosum with 5000 cells mL−1 of Isochrysis aff. galbana (T-Iso, CCAP 927/14). During the subsequent...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Azaspiracid; Azadinium spinosum; Marine biotoxins; AZA; Tissue distribution; Histology; Bivalve molluscs; Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00088/19877/17566.pdf
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Effect of Azadinium spinosum on the feeding behaviour and azaspiracid accumulation of Mytilus edulis ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry; Contreras, Andrea; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Sechet, Veronique; Tillmann, Urban; Hess, Philipp.
Azadinium spinosum, a small toxic dinoflagellate, was recently isolated and identified as a primary producer of azaspiracid toxins (AZAs). Previous experiments related to AZA accumulation in blue mussels upon direct feeding with A. spinosum revealed increased mussel mortality and had negative effects on the thickness of the digestive gland tubules. Therefore we conducted follow up experiments in order to study effects of A. spinosum on mussel feeding behaviour. Individual assessment of mussel feeding time activity (FTA), clearance rate (CR), filtration rate (TFR), absorption rate (AR), faeces and pseudofaeces production were carried out on mussel fed either toxic (A. spinosum) or non-toxic (Isochrisis aff. galbana (T-Iso)) diets. Furthermore, AZA...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Bivalve molluscs; Mussel; Ecophysiology; AZA biotransformation; AZA accumulation; Trophic transfer; Dinoflagellate; Azaspiracid.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00090/20174/17832.pdf
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Effect of environmental and nutritional factors on growth and azaspiracid production of the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry; Sechet, Veronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Savar, Veronique; Tillmann, Urban; Hess, Philipp.
Azadinium spinosum, a small dinoflagellate isolated from the North Sea, is a producer of azaspiracids (AZAs), a group of biotoxins associated with human illness following ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Using batch and continuous cultures of A. spinosum, the present study investigated the effects of different environmental and nutritional factors (salinity, temperature, photon flux density, aeration, culture media, nitrogen sources, phosphate source, and N/P ratios) on growth, maximum cell concentration, and AZA cell quota. Azadinium spinosum grew in a wide range of conditions; from 10 ̊C to 26 ̊C and salinities from 30 to 40, under irradiances ranging from 50 μmol m−2 s−1 to 250 μmol m−2 s−1, with or without aeration. Growth and maximum cell...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: AZA; Chemostat; Dinophyceae; Nutrients; N/P ratio; Photobioreactor.
Ano: 2013 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00149/26054/24411.pdf
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First record of the genus Azadinium (Dinophyceae) from the Shetland Islands, including the description of Azadinium polongum sp. nov. ArchiMer
Tillmann, Urban; Soehner, Sylvia; Nezan, Elisabeth; Krock, Bernd.
Azadinium is a dinophycean genus capable of producing azaspiracids (AZAs), a recently discovered group of lipophilic phycotoxins causing human intoxication via mussel consumption. Although initially described from the North Sea, the genus currently consisting of four described species is probably distributed worldwide. Here we report on Azadinium from the Shetland Islands, which are located in the northernmost part of the North Sea and are largely influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Two strains of Azadinium were isolated from a single water sample. One strain was identified as Azadinium spinosum based on morphology and sequence data and had an AZA cell quota of about 20 fg per cell, similar to all other described strains of the species. The toxin profile...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Azadinium; Azaspiracids; New species; Shetland Islands.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00108/21963/20691.pdf
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Growth and toxin production of Azadinium spinosum in batch and continuous culture ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry; Sechet, Veronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Tillmann, Urban; Krock, Bernd; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp.
Azaspiracids are lipophilic marine biotoxins causing gastrointestinal symptoms similar to DSP toxins. Since 1995, azaspiracids have been encountered in Europe, Africa and more recently in North and South America and Japan. The biological primary producer remained undiscovered during many years and has now been identified as Azadinium spinosum. The organism was grown using K modified medium, at 18°C with a PFD of 200 μmol.m-2.s-1 and a photoperiod of 16L/8D. Batch cultures were carried out using 75mL and 10L flasks, while continuous cultures were produced in 100L chemostats. Cells were recovered using centrifugation or filtration. Different extraction solvents and procedures as well as evaporation modes were evaluated for yield. Quantitation was carried out...
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Ano: 2010 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00152/26348/24431.pdf
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Morphological and Molecular Characterisation of Three New Azadinium Species (Amphidomataceae, Dinophyceae) from the Irminger Sea ArchiMer
Tillmann, Urban; Gottschling, Marc; Nezan, Elisabeth; Krock, Bernd; Bilien, Gwenael.
Some species of the planktonic dinoflagellate genus Azadinium produce azaspiracids (AZAs), a group of lipophilic phycotoxins causing human poisoning after mussel consumption. We describe three new species from the North Atlantic, all of which shared the same Kofoidean plate pattern characteristic for Azadinium: Po, cp, X, 4′, 3a, 6′́, 6 C, 5S, 6′́́, 2′́́́. Azadinium trinitatum sp. nov. was mainly characterized by the presence of an antapical spine and by the position of the ventral pore at the left distal end of the pore plate in a cavity of Plate 1′ Plate 1. Azadinium cuneatum sp. nov. had a conspicuously formed first apical plate, which was asymmetrically elongated and tapered on its left lateral side with a ventral pore located at the tip of this...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Azadinium; Azaspiracids; Irminger Sea; Iceland; New species.
Ano: 2014 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00188/29917/28382.pdf
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Production and Isolation of Azaspiracid-1 and -2 from Azadinium spinosum Culture in Pilot Scale Photobioreactors ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry; Kilcoyne, Jane; Sechet, Veronique; Herrenknecht, Christine; Truquet, Philippe; Herve, Fabienne; Berard, Jean-baptiste; Nulty, Ciara; Taylor, Sarah; Tillmann, Urban; Miles, Christopher O.; Hess, Philipp.
Azaspiracid (AZA) poisoning has been reported following consumption of contaminated shellfish, and is of human health concern. Hence, it is important to have sustainable amounts of the causative toxins available for toxicological studies and for instrument calibration in monitoring programs, without having to rely on natural toxin events. Continuous pilot scale culturing was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of AZA production using Azadinium spinosum cultures. Algae were harvested using tangential flow filtration or continuous centrifugation. AZAs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and subsequently purified. When coupling two stirred photobioreactors in series, cell concentrations reached 190,000 and 210,000 cell·mL−1 at...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Solid phase extraction; Photobioreactor; Chemostat; Dinoflagellate; Micro-algae; LC-MS/MS; Tangential flow filtration; Azaspiracid; HP-20.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00088/19875/17526.pdf
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Quantitative analysis of azaspiracids in Azadinium spinosum cultures ArchiMer
Jauffrais, Thierry; Herrenknecht, Christine; Sechet, Veronique; Sibat, Manoella; Tillmann, Urban; Krock, Bernd; Kilcoyne, Jane; Miles, Christopher O.; Mccarron, Pearse; Amzil, Zouher; Hess, Philipp.
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are secondary metabolites of Azadinium spinosum, that have been shown to cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning when accumulated in bivalve molluscs. We describe here an analytical procedure for the determination of AZAs in cultures of A. spinosum with a focus on the potential formation of AZA methyl-esters as artefacts in the extraction and sample pre-treatment. A. spinosum cells were collected from bioreactor cultures, using centrifugation or filtration. Different extraction procedures were evaluated for formation of methyl-ester artefacts, yield, and matrix effects. Filtration of cultures using glass-fibre filters led to increased formation of methyl-esters. Hence centrifugation is recommended for recovery of cells. The type of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Extraction procedure; Extraction artefact; Matrix effects; LC-MS/MS; Azaspiracid methyl ester; Dinoflagellate; Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00077/18812/16463.pdf
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The role of Azadinium spinosum (Dinophyceae) in the production of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning in mussels ArchiMer
Salas, Rafael; Tillmann, Urban; John, Uwe; Kilcoyne, Jane; Burson, Amanda; Cantwell, Caoimhe; Hess, Philipp; Jauffrais, Thierry; Silke, Joe.
Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of lipophilic polyether compounds first detected in Ireland which have been implicated in shellfish poisoning incidents around Europe. These toxins regularly effect shellfish mariculture operations including protracted closures of shellfish harvesting areas for human consumption. The armoured dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum Elbrachter et Tillmann gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) has been described as the de novo azaspiracid toxin producer; nonetheless the link between this organism and AZA toxin accumulation in shellfish has not yet been established. In August 2009, shellfish samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from the Southwest of Ireland were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Azaspiracids; AZP; AZA toxins; Biodeposits; Dinoflagellates; Feeding experiment; Ireland; LC-MS/MS; Mussels; Phylogeny; Taxonomy.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00049/16049/15836.pdf
Registros recuperados: 10
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