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Registros recuperados: 10
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Child Labor AgEcon
Udry, Christopher R..
Child labor exists because it is the best response people can find in intolerable circumstances. Poverty and child labor are mutually reinforcing: because their parents are poor, children must work and not attend school, and then grow up poor. Child labor has two important special features. First, when financial markets are imperfect, the separation in time between the immediate benefits and long-delayed costs of sending children to work lead to too much child labor. Second, the costs and benefits of child labor are borne by different people. Targeted subsidies for school attendance are very effective in reducing child labor because they successfully address both of these problems.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Child labor; Human capital; Household economics; Labor and Human Capital; J24; O15.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28393
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Consumption Smoothing? Livestock, Insurance and Drought in Rural Burkina Faso AgEcon
Kazianga, Harounan; Udry, Christopher R..
This paper explores the extent of consumption smoothing between 1981 and 1985 in rural Burkina Faso. In particular, we examine the extent to which livestock, grain storage and interhousehold transfers are used to smooth consumption against income risk. The survey coincided with a period of severe drought, so that the results provide direct evidence on the effectiveness of these various insurance mechanisms when they are the most needed. We find evidence of little consumption smoothing. In particular, there is almost no risk sharing, and households rely almost exclusively on self-insurance in the form of adjustments to grain stocks to smooth out consumption. The outcome, however is far from complete smoothing. Hence the main risk-coping strategies, which...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Livestock; Consumption smoothing; Permanent income hypothesis; Precautionary saving; Risk sharing; Risk and Uncertainty; D91; O16.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28497
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Gender Differentials in Farm Productivity: Implications For Household Efficiency and Agricultural Policy AgEcon
Alderman, Harold; Hoddinott, John; Haddad, Lawrence James; Udry, Christopher R..
Within many African households, agricultural production is simultaneously carried out on many plots controlled by different members of the household. Detailed plot-level agronomic data from Burkina Faso provides striking evidence of inefficiencies in the allocation of factors of production across the plots controlled by different members of the household. Production function estimates imply that the value of household output could be increased by 10 to 20 percent by reallocating currently-used factors of production across plots. This finding contradicts standard models of agricultural households. A richer model of behavior, which recognizes that the individuals who comprise a household compete as well as cooperate, has important implications for the...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital; Productivity Analysis.
Ano: 1995 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/42677
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Institutions and Development: A View from Below AgEcon
Pande, Rohini; Udry, Christopher R..
In this paper we argue the case for greater exploitation of synergies between research on specific institutions based on micro-data and the big questions posed by the institutions and growth literature. To date, the macroeconomic literature on institutions and growth has largely relied on cross-country regression evidence. This has provided compelling evidence for a causal link between a cluster of ‘good’ institutions and more rapid long run growth. However, an inability to disentangle the effects of specific institutional channels on growth or to understand the impact of institutional change on growth will limit further progress using a cross-country empirical strategy. We suggest two research programs based on micro-data that have significant potential....
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Institutions; Growth; Cross-country regressions; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; International Development; O11; O12; O17; P51.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28468
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Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Cote D'Ivoire: Social Norms, Separate Accounts and Consumption Choices AgEcon
Duflo, Esther; Udry, Christopher R..
In Cote d'Ivoire, as in much of Africa, husbands and wives farm different crops on separate plots. These different crops are differentially sensitive to particular kinds of rainfall shocks. We find that conditional on overall household expenditure, the composition of expenditure is sensitive to the gender of the recipient of a rainfall shock. For example, rainfall shocks associated with high women's income shift expenditure towards food. Social norms constrain the use of profits from yam cultivation, which is carried out by men. Correspondingly, we find that rainfall-induced fluctuations in income from yams are transmitted to expenditures on education and food, not to expenditures on private goods. We reject the hypothesis of complete insurance within...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Intra-household allocation; Insurance; Social norms; Mental accounts; Consumer/Household Economics; O12; D13.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28404
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Learning About a New Technology: Pineapple In Ghana AgEcon
Conley, Timothy G.; Udry, Christopher R..
This paper investigates the role of social learning in the diffusion of a new agricultural technology in a developing country: Ghana. We use unique data on farmers’ communication patterns to define each individual’s information neighborhood, the set of others from whom he might learn. Our empirical strategy is to test whether farmers change their input decisions to align with those of their neighbors who were successful in previous periods. We present evidence that farmers adopt successful neighbors’ practices, conditional on many potentially confounding factors including the physical proximity of plots, credit arrangements, clan membership, and soil characteristics.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Social learning; Technology; Innovation; Crop Production/Industries; Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies; 031; 012; 013.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28400
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Rural Financial Markets in Developing Countries AgEcon
Conning, Jonathan; Udry, Christopher R..
This review examines portions of the vast literature on rural financial markets and household behavior in the face of risk and uncertainty. We place particular emphasis on studying the important role of financial intermediaries, competition and regulation in shaping the changing structure and organization of rural markets, rather than on household strategies and bilateral contracting. Our goal is to provide a framework within which the evolution of financial intermediation in rural economies can be understood.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Rural finance; Financial intermediation; Agricultural credit; Financial Economics; O16; Q14; O17; O12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28458
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Social Networks in Ghana AgEcon
Udry, Christopher R.; Conley, Timothy G..
In this chapter we examine social networks among farmers in a developing country. We use detailed data on economic activities and social interactions between people living in four study villages in Ghana. It is clear that economic development in this region is being shaped by the networks of information, capital and influence that permeate these communities. This chapter explores the determinants of these important economic networks. We first describe the patterns of information, capital, labor and land transaction connections that are apparent in these villages. We then discuss the interconnections between the various economic networks. We relate the functional economic networks to more fundamental social relationships between people in a reduced form...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Endogenous networks; Informal credit; Social learning; Institutional and Behavioral Economics; O12; D85.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28488
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The Profits of Power: Land Rights and Agricultural Investment in Ghana AgEcon
Goldstein, Markus; Udry, Christopher R..
We examine the impact of ambiguous and contested land rights on investment and productivity in agricultural in Akwapim, Ghana. We show that individuals who hold powerful positions in a local political hierarchy have more secure tenure rights, and that as a consequence they invest more in land fertility and have substantially higher output. The intensity of investments on different plots cultivated by a given individual correspond to that individual's security of tenure over those specific plots, and in turn to the individual's position in the political hierarchy relevant to those specific plots. We interpret these results in the context of a simple model of the political allocation of land rights in local matrilineages.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Land tenure; Investment; Institutions; Land Economics/Use; O12; O13; O17; P48.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28479
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The Return to Capital in Ghana AgEcon
Anagol, Santosh; Udry, Christopher R..
We show that the real return to capital in Ghana's informal sector is high. For farmers, we find annual returns ranging from 205-350% in the new technology of pineapple cultivation, and 30-50% in well-established food crop cultivation. We also examine the relative prices of durable goods of varying durability, and estimate a lower bound to the opportunity cost of capital of 60%.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Financial Economics.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/28417
Registros recuperados: 10
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