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A multi-decade record of high-quality fCO(2) data in version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) 5
Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Pfeil, Benjamin; Landa, Camilla S.; Metzl, Nicolas; O'Brien, Kevin M.; Olsen, Are; Smith, Karl; Cosca, Cathy; Harasawa, Sumiko; Jones, Stephen D.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Schuster, Ute; Steinhoff, Tobias; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wada, Chisato; Wanninkhof, Rik; Alin, Simone R.; Balestrini, Carlos F.; Barbero, Leticia; Bates, Nicholas R.; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Bonou, Frederic; Boutin, Jacqueline; Bozec, Yann; Burger, Eugene F.; Cai, Wei-jun; Castle, Robert D.; Chen, Liqi; Chierici, Melissa; Currie, Kim; Evans, Wiley; Featherstone, Charles; Feely, Richard A.; Fransson, Agneta; Goyet, Catherine; Greenwood, Naomi; Gregor, Luke; Hankin, Steven; Hardman-mountford, Nick J.; Harlay, Jerome; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Humphreys, Matthew P.; Hunt, Christopherw.; Huss, Betty; Ibanhez, J. Severino P.; Johannessen, Truls; Keeling, Ralph; Kitidis, Vassilis; Koertzinger, Arne; Kozyr, Alex; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Kuwata, Akira; Landschuetzer, Peter; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lo Monaco, Claire; Manke, Ansley; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Merlivat, Liliane; Millero, Frank J.; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Murata, Akihiko; Newberger, Timothy; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Paterson, Kristina; Pearce, David; Pierrot, Denis; Robbins, Lisa L.; Saito, Shu; Salisbury, Joe; Schlitzer, Reiner; Schneider, Bernd; Schweitzer, Roland; Sieger, Rainer; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Sullivan, Kevin F.; Sutherland, Stewart C.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Tadokoro, Kazuaki; Telszewski, Maciej; Tuma, Matthias; Van Heuven, Steven M. A. C. .; Vandemark, Doug; Ward, Brian; Watson, Andrew J.; Xu, Suqing.
The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) is a synthesis of quality-controlled fCO(2) (fugacity of carbon dioxide) values for the global surface oceans and coastal seas with regular updates. Version 3 of SOCAT has 14.7 million fCO(2) values from 3646 data sets covering the years 1957 to 2014. This latest version has an additional 4.6 million fCO(2) values relative to version 2 and extends the record from 2011 to 2014. Version 3 also significantly increases the data availability for 2005 to 2013. SOCAT has an average of approximately 1.2 million surface water fCO(2) values per year for the years 2006 to 2012. Quality and documentation of the data has improved. A new feature is the data set quality control (QC) flag of E for data from alternative sensors and...
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Ano: 2016 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00383/49405/49890.pdf
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A Surface Ocean CO2 Reference Network, SOCONET and Associated Marine Boundary Layer CO2 Measurements 5
Wanninkhof, Rik; Pickers, Penelope A.; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Sutton, Adrienne; Murata, Akihiko; Olsen, Are; Stephens, Britton B.; Tilbrook, Bronte; Munro, David; Pierrot, Denis; Rehder, Gregor; Magdalena Santana-casiano, J.; Mueller, Jens D.; Trinanes, Joaquin; Tedesco, Kathy; O'Brien, Kevin; Currie, Kim; Barberols, Leticia; Telszewski, Maciej; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Gonzalez-davila, Melchor; Bates, Nicholas R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Feely, Richard A.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Lauvset, Siv K.; Takahashi, Taro; Steinhoff, Tobias; Schuster, Ute.
The Surface Ocean CO2 NETwork (SOCONET) and atmospheric Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) CO2 measurements from ships and buoys focus on the operational aspects of measurements of CO2 in both the ocean surface and atmospheric MBLs. The goal is to provide accurate pCO(2) data to within 2 micro atmosphere (mu atm) for surface ocean and 0.2 parts per million (ppm) for MBL measurements following rigorous best practices, calibration and intercomparison procedures. Platforms and data will be tracked in near real-time and final quality-controlled data will be provided to the community within a year. The network, involving partners worldwide, will aid in production of important products such as maps of monthly resolved surface ocean CO2 and air-sea CO2 flux...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Carbon dioxide; Network; Oceanography; Fluxes; Best practices.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00675/78725/80992.pdf
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An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2020 5
Olsen, Are; Lange, Nico; Key, Robert M.; Tanhua, Toste; Bittig, Henry C.; Kozyr, Alex; Álvarez, Marta; Azetsu-scott, Kumiko; Becker, Susan; Brown, Peter J.; Carter, Brendan R.; Cotrim Da Cunha, Leticia; Feely, Richard A.; Van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Jeansson, Emil; Jutterström, Sara; Landa, Camilla S.; Lauvset, Siv K.; Michaelis, Patrick; Murata, Akihiko; Pérez, Fiz F; Pfeil, Benjamin; Schirnick, Carsten; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Suzuki, Toru; Tilbrook, Bronte; Velo, Anton; Wanninkhof, Rik; Woosley, Ryan J..
The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface-to-bottom ocean biogeochemical data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of seawater samples. GLODAPv2.2020 is an update of the previous version, GLODAPv2.2019. The major changes are data from 106 new cruises added, extension of time coverage to 2019, and the inclusion of available (also for historical cruises) discrete fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) values in the merged product files. GLODAPv2.2020 now includes measurements from more than 1.2 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 946 cruises. The data for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen,...
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Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00668/78015/80254.pdf
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Autonomous Biogeochemical Floats Detect Significant Carbon Dioxide Outgassing in the High-Latitude Southern Ocean 5
Gray, Alison R.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Bushinsky, Seth M.; Riser, Stephen C.; Russell, Joellen L.; Talley, Lynne D.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Williams, Nancy L.; Sarmiento, Jorge L..
Although the Southern Ocean is thought to account for a significant portion of the contemporary oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2), flux estimates in this region are based on sparse observations that are strongly biased toward summer. Here we present new estimates of Southern Ocean air-sea CO2 fluxes calculated with measurements from biogeochemical profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project during 2014-2017. Compared to ship-based CO2 flux estimates, the float-based fluxes find significantly stronger outgassing in the zone around Antarctica where carbon-rich deep waters upwell to the surface ocean. Although interannual variability contributes, this difference principally stems from the lack of...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Air-sea carbon flux; SOCCOM.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78485/80837.pdf
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Climatic modulation of surface acidification rates through summertime wind forcing in the Southern Ocean 5
Xue, Liang; Cai, Wei-jun; Takahashi, Taro; Gao, Libao; Wanninkhof, Rik; Wei, Meng; Li, Kuiping; Feng, Lin; Yu, Weidong.
While the effects of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a dominant climate variability mode in the Southern Ocean, on ocean acidification have been examined using models, no consensus has been reached. Using observational data from south of Tasmania, we show that during a period with positive SAM trends, surface water pH and aragonite saturation state at 60 degrees-55 degrees S (Antarctic Zone) decrease in austral summer at rates faster than those predicted from atmospheric CO2 increase alone, whereas an opposite pattern is observed at 50 degrees-45 degrees S (Subantarctic Zone). Together with other processes, the enhanced acidification at 60 degrees-55 degrees S may be attributed to increased westerly winds that bring in more "acidified" waters from the...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78486/80834.pdf
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Global Carbon Budget 2020 5
Friedlingstein, Pierre; O'Sullivan, Michael; Jones, Matthew W.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Hauck, Judith; Olsen, Are; Peters, Glen P.; Peters, Wouter; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Le Quere, Corinne; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Jackson, Robert B.; Alin, Simone; Aragao, Luiz E. O. C.; Arneth, Almut; Arora, Vivek; Bates, Nicholas R.; Becker, Meike; Benoit-cattin, Alice; Bittig, Henry C.; Bopp, Laurent; Bultan, Selma; Chandra, Naveen; Chevallier, Frederic; Chini, Louise P.; Evans, Wiley; Florentie, Liesbeth; Forster, Piers M.; Gasser, Thomas; Gehlen, Marion; Gilfillan, Dennis; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Gregor, Luke; Gruber, Nicolas; Harris, Ian; Hartung, Kerstin; Haverd, Vanessa; Houghton, Richard A.; Ilyina, Tatiana; Jain, Atul K.; Joetzjer, Emilie; Kadono, Koji; Kato, Etsushi; Kitidis, Vassilis; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Landschutzer, Peter; Lefevre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Liu, Zhu; Lombardozzi, Danica; Marland, Gregg; Metzl, Nicolas; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; Niwa, Yosuke; O'Brien, Kevin; Ono, Tsuneo; Palmer, Paul I.; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Resplandy, Laure; Robertson, Eddy; Rodenbeck, Christian; Schwinger, Jorg; Seferian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Smith, Adam J. P.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Tanhua, Toste; Tans, Pieter P.; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; Van Der Werf, Guido; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watson, Andrew J.; Willis, David; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Yuan, Wenping; Yue, Xu; Zaehle, Sonke.
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions ( EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change ( ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly...
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Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00677/78860/81159.pdf
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GLODAPv2.2019-an update of GLODAPv2 5
Olsen, Are; Lange, Nico; Key, Robert M.; Tanhua, Toste; Alvarez, Marta; Becker, Susan; Bittig, Henry C.; Carter, Brendan R.; Da Cunha, Leticia Cotrim; Feely, Richard A.; Van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Jeansson, Emil; Jones, Steve D.; Jutterstrom, Sara; Karlsen, Maren K.; Kozyr, Alex; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Murata, Akihiko; Perez, Fiz F; Pfeil, Benjamin; Schirnick, Carsten; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Suzuki, Toru; Telszewski, Maciej; Tilbrook, Bronte; Velo, Anton; Wanninkhof, Rik.
The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface to bottom ocean biogeochemical data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of water samples. This update of GLODAPv2, v2.2019, adds data from 116 cruises to the previous version, extending its coverage in time from 2013 to 2017, while also adding some data from prior years. GLODAPv2.2019 includes measurements from more than 1.1 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 840 cruises. The data for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4)...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00675/78722/80999.pdf
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How Can Present and Future Satellite Missions Support Scientific Studies that Address Ocean Acidification? 5
Salisbury, Joseph; Vandemark, Douglas; Joensson, Bror; Balch, William; Chakraborty, Sumit; Lohrenz, Steven; Chapron, Bertrand; Hales, Burke; Mannino, Antonio; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Reul, Nicolas; Signorini, Sergio R.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Yates, Kimberly K..
Space-based observations offer unique capabilities for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of the upper ocean inorganic carbon cycle and, in turn, supporting research tied to ocean acidification (OA). Satellite sensors measuring sea surface temperature, color, salinity, wind, waves, currents, and sea level enable a fuller understanding of a range of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena that drive regional OA dynamics as well as the potentially varied impacts of carbon cycle change on a broad range of ecosystems. Here, we update and expand on previous work that addresses the benefits of space-based assets for OA and carbonate system studies. Carbonate chemistry and the key processes controlling surface ocean OA variability are reviewed. Synthesis...
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Ano: 2015 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00271/38234/36417.pdf
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Metrics for the Evaluation of the Southern Ocean in Coupled Climate Models and Earth System Models 5
Russell, Joellen L.; Kamenkovich, Igor; Bitz, Cecilia; Ferrari, Raffaele; Gille, Sarah T.; Goodman, Paul J.; Hallberg, Robert; Johnson, Kenneth; Khazmutdinova, Karina; Marinov, Irina; Mazloff, Matthew; Riser, Stephen; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Speer, Kevin; Talley, Lynne D.; Wanninkhof, Rik.
The Southern Ocean is central to the global climate and the global carbon cycle, and to the climate's response to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases, as it ventilates a large fraction of the global ocean volume. Global coupled climate models and earth system models, however, vary widely in their simulations of the Southern Ocean and its role in, and response to, the ongoing anthropogenic trend. Due to the region's complex water-mass structure and dynamics, Southern Ocean carbon and heat uptake depend on a combination of winds, eddies, mixing, buoyancy fluxes, and topography. Observationally based metrics are critical for discerning processes and mechanisms, and for validating and comparing climate and earth system models. New observations...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Southern Ocean; Heat uptake; Carbon uptake; Observationally based metrics.
Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78491/80788.pdf
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On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi-Disciplinary Array 5
Roemmich, Dean; Alford, Matthew H.; Claustre, Hervé; Johnson, Kenneth; King, Brian; Moum, James; Oke, Peter; Owens, W. Brechner; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Purkey, Sarah; Scanderbeg, Megan; Suga, Toshio; Wijffels, Susan; Zilberman, Nathalie; Bakker, Dorothee; Baringer, Molly; Belbeoch, Mathieu; Bittig, Henry C.; Boss, Emmanuel; Calil, Paulo; Carse, Fiona; Carval, Thierry; Chai, Fei; Conchubhair, Diarmuid Ó.; D’ortenzio, Fabrizio; Dall’olmo, Giorgio; Desbruyeres, Damien; Fennel, Katja; Fer, Ilker; Ferrari, Raffaele; Forget, Gael; Freeland, Howard; Fujiki, Tetsuichi; Gehlen, Marion; Greenan, Blair; Hallberg, Robert; Hibiya, Toshiyuki; Hosoda, Shigeki; Jayne, Steven; Jochum, Markus; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kang, Kiryong; Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Körtzinger, Arne; Traon, Pierre-yves Le; Lenn, Yueng-djern; Maze, Guillaume; Mork, Kjell Arne; Morris, Tamaryn; Nagai, Takeyoshi; Nash, Jonathan; Garabato, Alberto Naveira; Olsen, Are; Pattabhi, Rama Rao; Prakash, Satya; Riser, Stephen; Schmechtig, Catherine; Schmid, Claudia; Shroyer, Emily; Sterl, Andreas; Sutton, Philip; Talley, Lynne; Tanhua, Toste; Thierry, Virginie; Thomalla, Sandy; Toole, John; Troisi, Ariel; Trull, Thomas W.; Turton, Jon; Velez-belchi, Pedro Joaquin; Walczowski, Waldemar; Wang, Haili; Wanninkhof, Rik; Waterhouse, Amy F.; Waterman, Stephanie; Watson, Andrew; Wilson, Cara; Wong, Annie P. S.; Xu, Jianping; Yasuda, Ichiro.
The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through the data system, Argo provides fundamental physical observations with broad societally-valuable applications, built on the cost-efficient and robust technologies of autonomous profiling floats. Following recent advances in platform and sensor technologies, even greater opportunity exists now than 20 years ago to (i)...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Argo; Floats; Global; Ocean; Warming; Circulation; Temperature; Salinity.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00509/62043/66192.pdf
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Satellites will address critical science priorities for quantifying ocean carbon 5
Shutler, Jamie D; Wanninkhof, Rik; Nightingale, Philip D; Woolf, David K; Bakker, Dorothee Ce; Watson, Andy; Ashton, Ian; Holding, Thomas; Chapron, Bertrand; Quilfen, Yves; Fairall, Chris; Schuster, Ute; Nakajima, Masakatsu; Donlon, Craig J.
The ability to routinely quantify global carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption by the oceans has become crucial: it provides a powerful constraint for establishing global and regional carbon (C) budgets, and enables identification of the ecological impacts and risks of this uptake on the marine environment. Advances in understanding, technology, and international coordination have made it possible to measure CO2 absorption by the oceans to a greater degree of accuracy than is possible in terrestrial landscapes. These advances, combined with new satellite‐based Earth observation capabilities, increasing public availability of data, and cloud computing, provide important opportunities for addressing critical knowledge gaps. Furthermore, Earth observation in...
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Ano: 2020 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00590/70256/68305.pdf
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State of the Climate in 2010 5
Achberger, Christine; Ackerman, Steven A.; Ahlstrom, A.; Alfaro, Eric J.; Allan, Robert J.; Alves, Robert J.; Amador, Jorge A.; Amelie, Vincent; Andrianjafinirina, Solonomenjanahary; Antonov, John; Arndt, Derek S.; Ashik, Igor; Atheru, Zachary; Attaher, Samar M.; Baez, Julian; Banzon, Viva; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Barriopedro, David; Barthia, Pawan K.; Beal, Lisa M.; Becker, Andreas; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belward, Alan S.; Benedetti, Angela; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Beszczynska-moeller, Agnieszka; Bhatt, Uma S.; Bidegain, Mario; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Bissolli, Peter; Blake, Eric S.; Blunden, Jessica; Booneeady, Prithiviraj; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boudet, Dagne R.; Box, Jason E.; Boyer, Timothy P.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, Ross; Bryden, Harry L.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burrows, John; Butler, J.; Cais, Philippe; Calderon, Blanca; Callaghan, T. V.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Cappelen, John; Carmack, Eddy; Chambers, Don P.; Chelliah, Muthuvel; Chidichimo, Maria P.; Christiansen, H.; Christy, John; Coehlo, Caio A. S.; Colwell, Steve; Comiso, Josefino C.; Compo, Gilber P.; Crouch, Jake; Cunningham, Stuart A.; Cutie, Virgen C.; Dai, Aiguo; Davydova-belitskaya, Valentina; De Jeu, Richard; Decker, David; Dee, Dick; Demircan, M.; Derksen, Chris; Diamond, Howard J.; Dlugokencky, Howard; Dohan, Kathleen; Dolman, A. Johannes; Dorigo, Wouter; Drozdov, Dmitry S.; Durack, Paul J.; Dutton, Geoffrey S.; Easterling, David; Ebita, Ayataka; Eischeid, Jon; Elkins, James W.; Epstein, Howard E.; Euscategui, Christian; Faijka-williams, Eleanor; Famiglietti, James S.; Faniriantsoa, Rija; Feely, Richard A.; Fekete, Balazs M.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, Xavier; Field, Eric; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Fogarty, Vitali E.; Fogt, Ryan L.; Forbes, B. C.; Foster, Michael J.; Frajka-williams, E.; Free, Melissa; Frolov, Ivan; Ganesan, A. L.; Ganter, Catherine; Gibney, Ethan J.; Gill, Stephen; Gill, M.; Gitau, Wilson; Gleason, Karin L.; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Goni, Gustavo J.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Good, Simon A.; Gottschalck, Jonathan; Gould, William A.; Gouveia, Celia M.; Griffiths, Georgina M.; Guard, Chip; Guevara, Vladimir V.; Haas, C.; Hall, Bradley D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heil, A.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Hennon, Paula A.; Henry, Greg H. R.; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Hilburn, Kyle; Hirschi, Joel J. M.; Ho, Shu-peng; Hobgood, Jay S.; Hoerling, Martin; Holgate, Simon; Hook, Simon J.; Hugony, Sebastien; Hurst, D.; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Itoh, M.; Jaimes, Ena; Jeffries, Martin; Jia, Gensu J.; Jin, Xiangze; John, William E.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Jones, Philip D.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Kanzow, Torsten O.; Kaplan, Alexey; Kearns, Edward J.; Keller, Linda M.; Kennedy, John J.; Khatiwala, Samar; Kholodov, Alexander; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Kikuchi, T.; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Knaff, John A.; Kobayashi, Shinya; Kokelj, Steve V.; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kratz, David P.; Krishfield, Richard; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Kumar Arun,; Lammers, Richard B.; Lander, Mark A.; Landsea, Chris W.; Lantuit, Hugues; Lantz, Trevor C.; Lapinel, Braulio P.; Lareef, Zubair; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Leon, Antonia L; Leon, Gloria; Lauliette, Eric; Levitus, Sydney; Levy, Joel M.; L'Heureux, Michelle; Lin, I. I.; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yanju; Liu, Yi; Loeb, Norman G.; Long, Craig S.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing-jia; Lyman, John M.; Macdonald, Alison M.; Maddux, Brent C.; Maier, Frank; Malkova, Galina; Marchenko, Sergey; Marengo, Jose A.; Maritorena, Stephane; Marotzke, Jochem; Martinez Guingla, Rodney; Maslanik, Jochem; Masson, Robert A.; Mcbride, Charlotte; Mcgree, Simon; Mclaughlin, Fiona; Mcpeters, Rich; Mcvicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Medany, Mahmoud A.; Meier, Walt; Meinen, Christopher S.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Miller, Laury; Mitchum, Gary T.; Montzka, Steve; Morcrette, Jean-jacques; Mote, Thomas; Muhle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Murray, Don; Nash, Eric R.; Nerem, Steven R.; Newman, Paul A.; Nishino, S.; Njau, Leonard; Noetzli, J.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Oberman, Naum; Obregon, Andre; Ogallo, Laban; Oludhe, Christopher; O'Malley, Robert T.; Overland, James; Park, Geun-ha; Parker, David E.; Pasch, Richard J.; Pegion, Phil; Peltier, Alexandre; Pelto, Mauri S.; Penalba, Olga C.; Perez, Ramon S; Perlwitz, Judith; Perovich, Donald; Peterson, Thomas C.; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, David; Pinzon, Jorge E.; Pitts, Michael C.; Proshutinsky, A.; Quegan, S.; Quintana, Juan; Quintero, Alexander; Rabe, B.; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Rayner, Darren; Rayner, Nick A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Reagan, James R.; Reid, Phillip; Renwick, James A.; Revadekar, Jayashree; Reynolds, Richard W.; Richter-menge, Jacqueline; Rignot, Eric; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rogers, Mark; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero-cruz, Fernando; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen; Rossi, Shawn; Rutledge, Glenn; Saatchi, Sassan; Sabine, Christopher L.; Saha, Suranjana; Sanchez-lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sato, Hitoshi; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schauer, U.; Schemm, Jae; Schmid, Claudia; Schneider, Philipp; Schueller, Dominique; Sensoy, Serhat; Sharp, Martin; Shaver, Gus R.; Shiklomanov, Alexander; Shiklomanov, N.; Shimada, Koji; Siegel, David A.; Simmons, Adrian; Skansi, Maria; Smith, Adam; Smith, Cathy; Smith, S.; Smith, Thomas M.; Sokolov, Vladimir; Spence, Jacqueline M.; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steele, Mike; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Tahani, Lloyd; Takahashi, Taro; Taylor, Michael A.; Thepaut, Jean-noel; Thiaw, Wassila M.; Thorne, Peter W.; Timmermans, M. L.; Tobin, Skie; Toole, John; Trewin, Blair C.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S. W.; Van Der A, Ronald J.; Van Der Werf, G. R.; Vautard, Robert; Vieira, G.; Vincent, Lucie A.; Vinther, Lucie A.; Vinther, B.; Vose, Russell; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahr, John; Walker, David A.; Walsh, John; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, Muyin; Wang, Sheng-hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Weaver, Scott; Webber, Patrick J.; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyman, James; Whitewood, Robert; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Willett, Katharine M.; Williams, W.; Willis, Joshua K.; Wolken, Gabriel; Wong, Takmeng; Woodgate, Rebecca; Woodworth, Philip; Wovrosh, Alex J.; Xue, Yan; Yamamoto-kawai, M.; Yin, Xungang; Yu, Lisan; Zhang, Liangying; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, L.; Zhou, Xinjia; Zimmermann, S..
Several large-scale climate patterns influenced climate conditions and weather patterns across the globe during 2010. The transition from a warm El Nino phase at the beginning of the year to a cool La Nina phase by July contributed to many notable events, ranging from record wetness across much of Australia to historically low Eastern Pacific basin and near-record high North Atlantic basin hurricane activity. The remaining five main hurricane basins experienced below-to well-below-normal tropical cyclone activity. The negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation was a major driver of Northern Hemisphere temperature patterns during 2009/10 winter and again in late 2010. It contributed to record snowfall and unusually low temperatures over much of northern...
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Ano: 2011 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00660/77164/78582.pdf
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State of the Climate in 2016 5
Arndt, D. S.; Blunden, J.; Dunn, R. J. H.; Aaron-morrison, Arlene P.; Abdallah, A.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adler, Robert; Alfaro, Eric J.; Allan, Richard P.; Allan, Rob; Alvarez, Luis A.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Arce, Dayana; Argueez, Anthony; Arndt, Derek S.; Arzhanova, N. M.; Augustine, John; Awatif, E. M.; Azorin-molina, Cesar; Baez, Julian; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Beck, H. E.; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Bernhard, G. H.; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bettolli, Maria L.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bidegain, Mario; Biskaborn, B.; Bissolli, Peter; Bjerke, J.; Blake, Eric S.; Blunden, Jessica; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Boudet, Dagne; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Brimelow, Julian; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Buehler, S.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderon, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Caroff, P.; Carrea, Laura; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Chandler, Elise; Cheng, Ming-dean; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, Daniel; Chung, E. -s.; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; Coldewey-egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Cross, J. N.; Crouch, Jake; Cutie, Virgen; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A. M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Di Girolamo, Larry; Diamond, Howard J.; Dindyal, S.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Drozdov, D. S.; Dunn, Robert J. H.; Duran-quesada, Ana M.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Epstein, H. E.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Etienne-leblanc, Sheryl; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.; Fateh, S.; Fausto, R. S.; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flannigan, Mike; Flemming, Johannes; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Fonseca, C.; Forbes, B. C.; Foster, Michael J.; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Gerland, S.; Gilson, John; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Goni, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Idelmis T.; Goto, A.; Greenhough, Marianna D.; Grooss, J. -u.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles; Gupta, S. K.; Gutierrez, J. M.; Haas, C.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hanssen-bauer, I; Hare, Jon; Harris, Ian; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Hendricks, S.; Hernandez, Marieta; Hernandez, Rafael; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Ho, Shu-peng; Hobbs, William R.; Huang, Boyin; Huelsing, Hannah K.; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jimenez, C.; Jin Xiangze,; John, Viju; Johns, William E.; Johnsen, B.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Jones, Philip D.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, J. W.; Kass, David; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Kelem, G.; Keller, Linda M.; Kelly, B. P.; Kendon, Mike; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. -j.; Kimberlain, Todd B.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kochtubajda, Bob; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Krumpen, T.; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lanckmann, J. -p.; Lander, Mark A.; Landschuetzer, Peter; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lantz, Kathleen; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Leuliette, Eric; Lewis, Stephen R.; L'Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I-i; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Long, Craig S.; Loranty, M.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lu, Mong-ming; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing-jia; Luojus, K.; Lyman, John M.; Macara, Gregor; Macdonald, Alison M.; Macias-fauria, M.; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, Jose A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martinez-gueingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; Mcbride, Charlotte; Mccabe, M. F.; Mccarthy, Gerard; Mccarthy, M.; Mcdonagh, Elaine L.; Mcgree, Simon; Mcvicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, W.; Mekonnen, A.; Menezes, V. V.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Minnis, Patrick; Miralles, Diego G.; Mistelbauer, T.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Mitro, Srkani; Monselesan, Didier; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mora, Natalie; Morice, Colin; Morrow, Blair; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Muehle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Mueller, R.; Nash, Eric R.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, Louise; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan Jose; Noetzli, Jeannette; O'Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Parinussa, Robert M.; Park, E-hyung; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-ramirez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Pearce, Petra R.; Pellichero, Violaine; Pelto, Mauri S.; Peng, Liang; Perkins-kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, C.; Phillips, David; Phoenix, G.; Pinty, Bernard; Pitts, Michael C.; Pons, M. R.; Porter, Avalon O.; Quintana, Juan; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Rayner, Darren; Raynolds, M. K.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Read, Peter; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Remy, Samuel; Renwick, James A.; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-menge, J.; Rimmer, Alon; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Rollenbeck, Ruetger; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Roquet, F.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sallee, Jean-bapiste; Sanchez-lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schemm, Jae; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schoeneich, P.; Schreck, Carl J., Iii; Schuur, Ted; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Sharp, M.; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Silov, Eugene; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeed, David A.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Smith, Adam; Smith, Sharon L.; Soden, B.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, Jose L.; Stennett-brown, Roxann; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, Dimitri A.; Sun-mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Tamar, Gerard; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, L.; Thompson, Philip R.; Timmermans, M. -l.; Timofeev, Maxim A.; Tirnanes, Joaquin A.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Tweedy, Olga; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S. W.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vieira, G.; Vincent, Lucie A.; Voemel, Holger; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlin, Anna; Walker, D. A.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng-hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wiese, David N.; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Willie, Shem; Willis, Josh K.; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yim, So-young; Yin, Xungang; Yu, Lisan; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Huai-min; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhao, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Zilberman, Nathalie.
In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and...
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Ano: 2017 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00673/78500/80851.pdf
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State of the Climate in 2017 5
Arndt, D. S.; Blunden, J.; Hartfield, G.; Ackerman, Steven A.; Adler, Robert; Alfaro, Eric J.; Allan, Richard P.; Allan, Rob; Alves, Lincoln M.; Amador, Jorge A.; Andreassen, L. M.; Argueez, Anthony; Arndt, Derek S.; Azorin-molina, Cesar; Baez, Julian; Bardin, M. U.; Barichivich, Jonathan; Baringer, Molly O.; Barreira, Sandra; Baxter, Stephen; Beck, H. E.; Becker, Andreas; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Bell, Gerald D.; Belmont, M.; Benedetti, Angela; Berrisford, Paul; Berry, David I.; Bhatt, U. S.; Bissolli, Peter; Bjerke, J.; Blake, Eric S.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Boucher, Olivier; Box, J. E.; Boyer, Tim; Braathen, Geir O.; Bromwich, David H.; Brown, R.; Buehler, S.; Bulygina, Olga N.; Burgess, D.; Calderon, Blanca; Camargo, Suzana J.; Campbell, Jayaka D.; Cappelen, J.; Carrea, Laura; Carter, Brendan R.; Chambers, Don P.; Cheng, Ming-dean; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Christy, John R.; Chung, E. -s.; Clem, Kyle R.; Coelho, Caio A. S.; Coldewey-egbers, Melanie; Colwell, Steve; Cooper, Owen R.; Copland, L.; Crouch, Jake; Davis, Sean M.; De Eyto, Elvira; De Jeu, Richard A. M.; De Laat, Jos; Degasperi, Curtis L.; Degenstein, Doug; Demircan, M.; Derksen, C.; Di Girolamo, Larry; Diamond, Howard J.; Dlugokencky, Ed J.; Dohan, Kathleen; Dokulil, Martin T.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Domingues, Catia M.; Donat, Markus G.; Dong, Shenfu; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Drozdov, D. S.; Dunn, Robert J. H.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Elkharrim, M.; Elkins, James W.; Epstein, H. E.; Espinoza, Jhan C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Farrell, S.; Fausto, R. S.; Feely, Richard A.; Feng, Z.; Fenimore, Chris; Fettweis, X.; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Flemming, Johannes; Fogt, Ryan L.; Folland, Chris; Forbes, B. C.; Foster, Michael J.; Francis, S. D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Frey, Richard A.; Frith, Stacey M.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Ganter, Catherine; Gerland, S.; Gilson, John; Gobron, Nadine; Goldenberg, Stanley B.; Goni, Gustavo; Grooss, J. -u.; Gruber, Alexander; Guard, Charles; Gupta, S. K.; Gutierrez, J. M.; Haas, C.; Hagos, S.; Hahn, Sebastian; Haimberger, Leo; Hall, Brad D.; Halpert, Michael S.; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Hanna, E.; Hanssen-bauer, I; Harris, Ian; Heidinger, Andrew K.; Heim, Richard R., Jr.; Hendricks, S.; Hernandez, Marieta; Hernandez, Rafael; Hidalgo, Hugo G.; Ho, Shu-peng; Hobbs, William R.; Huang, Boyin; Hurst, Dale F.; Ialongo, I.; Ijampy, J. A.; Inness, Antje; Isaksen, K.; Ishii, Masayoshi; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jimenez, C.; Jin Xiangze,; John, Viju; Johns, William E.; Johnsen, B.; Johnson, Bryan; Johnson, Gregory C.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Jones, Philip D.; Jumaux, Guillaume; Kabidi, Khadija; Kaiser, J. W.; Kato, Seiji; Kazemi, A.; Keller, Linda M.; Kennedy, John; Kerr, Kenneth; Kholodov, A. L.; Khoshkam, Mahbobeh; Killick, Rachel; Kim, Hyungjun; Kim, S. -j.; Klotzbach, Philip J.; Knaff, John A.; Kohler, J.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korshunova, Natalia N.; Kramarova, Natalya; Kratz, D. P.; Kruger, Andries; Kruk, Michael C.; Krumpen, T.; Lakatos, M.; Lakkala, K.; Lander, Mark A.; Landschuetzer, Peter; Landsea, Chris W.; Lankhorst, Matthias; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Leuliette, Eric; L'Heureux, Michelle; Lieser, Jan L.; Lin, I-i; Liu, Hongxing; Liu, Yinghui; Locarnini, Ricardo; Loeb, Norman G.; Long, Craig S.; Lorrey, Andrew M.; Loyola, Diego; Lumpkin, Rick; Luo, Jing-jia; Luojus, K.; Lyman, John M.; Macias-fauria, M.; Malkova, G. V.; Manney, G.; Marchenko, S. S.; Marengo, Jose A.; Marra, John J.; Marszelewski, Wlodzimierz; Martens, B.; Martinez-gueingla, Rodney; Massom, Robert A.; May, Linda; Mayer, Michael; Mazloff, Matthew; Mcbride, Charlotte; Mccabe, M. F.; Mccarthy, M.; Mcvicar, Tim R.; Mears, Carl A.; Meier, W.; Mekonnen, A.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Menzel, W. Paul; Merchant, Christopher J.; Meredith, Michael P.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Miralles, Diego G.; Mitchum, Gary T.; Mitro, Srkani; Monselesan, Didier; Montzka, Stephen A.; Mora, Natalie; Morice, Colin; Mote, T.; Mudryk, L.; Muehle, Jens; Mullan, A. Brett; Mueller, R.; Nash, Eric R.; Nerem, R. Steven; Newman, Louise; Newman, Paul A.; Nieto, Juan Jose; Noetzli, Jeannette; O'Neel, S.; Osborn, Tim J.; Overland, J.; Oyunjargal, Lamjav; Park, E-hyung; Pasch, Richard J.; Pascual-ramirez, Reynaldo; Paterson, Andrew M.; Pearce, Petra R.; Pelto, Mauri S.; Perkins-kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Perovich, D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Phillips, C.; Phillips, David; Phoenix, G.; Pinty, Bernard; Rajeevan, Madhavan; Rayner, Darren; Raynolds, M. K.; Reagan, James; Reid, Phillip; Reimer, Christoph; Remy, Samuel; Revadekar, Jayashree V.; Richter-menge, J.; Rimmer, Alon; Robinson, David A.; Rodell, Matthew; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ronchail, Josyane; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Roth, Chris; Rusak, James A.; Sallee, Jean-bapiste; Sanchez-lugo, Ahira; Santee, Michelle L.; Sawaengphokhai, P.; Sayouri, Amal; Scambos, Ted A.; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Schmid, Claudia; Schmid, Martin; Schreck, Carl J., Iii; Schuur, Ted; Selkirk, H. B.; Send, Uwe; Sensoy, Serhat; Sharp, M.; Shi, Lei; Shiklomanov, Nikolai I.; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Siegel, David A.; Signorini, Sergio R.; Sima, Fatou; Simmons, Adrian J.; Smeed, David A.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Smith, Adam; Smith, Sharon L.; Soden, B.; Spence, Jaqueline M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Stammerjohn, Sharon; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Stella, Jose L.; Stephenson, Tannecia S.; Strahan, Susan; Streletskiy, Dimitri A.; Sun-mack, Sunny; Swart, Sebastiaan; Sweet, William; Tamar, Gerard; Taylor, Michael A.; Tedesco, M.; Thoman, R. L.; Thompson, L.; Thompson, Philip R.; Timmermans, M. -l.; Tobin, Skie; Trachte, Katja; Trewin, Blair C.; Trotman, Adrian R.; Tschudi, M.; Van As, D.; Van De Wal, R. S. W.; Van Der Schalie, Robin; Van Der Schrier, Gerard; Van Der Werf, Guido R.; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric J.; Velicogna, I.; Verburg, Piet; Vincent, Lucie A.; Voemel, Holger; Vose, Russell S.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Walker, D. A.; Walsh, J.; Wang, Bin; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Junhong; Wang, Lei; Wang, M.; Wang, Sheng-hung; Wanninkhof, Rik; Watanabe, Shohei; Weber, Mark; Weller, Robert A.; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Whitewood, Robert; Wiese, David N.; Wijffels, Susan E.; Wilber, Anne C.; Wild, Jeanette D.; Willett, Kate M.; Willis, Josh K.; Wolken, G.; Wong, Takmeng; Wood, E. F.; Woolway, R. Iestyn; Wouters, B.; Xue, Yan; Yin, Xungang; Yu, Lisan; Zambrano, Eduardo; Zhang, Huai-min; Zhang, Peiqun; Zhao, Guanguo; Zhao, Lin; Ziemke, Jerry R.; Abernethy, R.; Albanil, Encarnacion Adelina; Aldeco, Laura S.; Aliaga-nestares, Vannia; Anderson, John; Armitage, C.; Avalos, Grinia; Behe, Carolina; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bernhard, G. H.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Bolmgren, K.; Bouchon, Marilu; Campbell, Ethan C.; Castro, Anabel; Costanza, Carol; Covey, Curt; Coy, Lawrence; Cronin, T.; Cruzado, Luis; Daniel, Raychelle; Davletshin, S. G.; De La Cour, Jacqueline L.; Deline, P.; Dewitte, Boris; Dhurmea, R.; Dickerson, C.; Domingues, Ricardo; Durre, Imke; Eakin, C. Mark; Farmer, J.; Fauchald, P.; Geiger, Erick F.; Gomez, Andrea M.; Gugliemin, Mario; Hansen, K.; Helfrich, S.; Hemming, D. L.; Heron, Scott F.; Heuze, C.; Horstkotte, T.; Hubert, Daan; Hueuze, Celine; Ibrahim, M. M.; Isaac, Victor; Jacobs, Stephanie J.; Jeffries, Martin O.; Karakoylu, Erdem M.; Khan, M. S.; Ladd, C.; Lavado-casimiro, Waldo; Lee, S. -e; Lee, T. C.; Li, Bailing; Li, Tim; Lopez, Luis A.; Luthcke, S.; Marcellin, Vernie; Marin, Dora; Marsh, Benjamin L.; Martin, A; Martinez, Alejandra G.; Martinez-sanchez, Odalys; Meijers, Andrew J. S.; Miller, Ben; Moat, Ben; Mochizuki, Y.; Mosquera-vasquez, Kobi; Mostafa, Awatif E.; Nielsen-gammon, John W.; Noll, Ben E.; Osborne, Emily; Pastor, Saavedra Maria Asuncion; Paulik, Christoph; Peltier, Alexandre; Pinzon, J.; Po-chedley, S.; Polashenski, C.; Purkey, Sarah G.; Quispe, Nelson; Rakotoarimalala, C.; Richardson, A. D.; Ricker, R; Rodriguez, Camino Ernesto; Rosner, Benjamin; Roth, David Mark; Rutishauser, T.; Sasgen, L.; Sayad, T. A.; Scanlon, T.; Schenzinger, Verena; Silow, Eugene; Skirving, William J.; Sofieva, Viktoria; Sparks, T. H.; Spillane, Sandra; Stanitski, Diane M.; Stengel, M.; Stephenson, Kimberly; Strong, Alan E.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Kenneth S.; Thackeray, S. J.; Thomson, Lthorsteinsson T.; Timbal, Bertrand; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Tirak, Kyle, V; Togawa, H.; Tommervik, H.; Tourpali, Kleareti; Trinanes, Joaquin A.; Tucker, C. J.; Tye, Mari R.; Van Der A, Ronald J.; Velden, Christopher S.; Vickers, H.; Webster, M.; Westberry, Toby K.; Widlansky, Matthew J.; Wood, K.; Yoon, Huang; York, A.; Zhu, Zhiwei; Ziel, R.; Ziese, Markus G..
In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth’s atmosphere—carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide— reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth’s surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during most of the year and weak La Niña conditions notable at the start and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset,...
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Ano: 2018 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00677/78863/81163.pdf
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The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A Platform for Integrated Multidisciplinary Ocean Science 5
Sloyan, Bernadette M.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Kramp, Martin; Johnson, Gregory C.; Talley, Lynne D.; Tanhua, Toste; Mcdonagh, Elaine; Cusack, Caroline; O’rourke, Eleanor; Mcgovern, Evin; Katsumata, Katsuro; Diggs, Steve; Hummon, Julia; Ishii, Masao; Azetsu-scott, Kumiko; Boss, Emmanuel; Ansorge, Isabelle; Perez, Fiz; Mercier, Herle; Williams, Michael J. M.; Anderson, Leif; Lee, Jae Hak; Murata, Akihiko; Kouketsu, Shinya; Jeansson, Emil; Hoppema, Mario; Campos, Edmo.
The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) provides a globally coordinated network and oversight of 55 sustained decadal repeat hydrographic reference lines. GO-SHIP is part of the global ocean/climate observing systems (GOOS/GCOS) for study of physical oceanography, the ocean carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycles, and marine biogeochemistry. GO-SHIP enables assessment of the ocean sequestration of heat and carbon, changing ocean circulation and ventilation patterns, and their effects on ocean health and Earth’s climate. Rapid quality control and open data release along with incorporation of the GO-SHIP effort in the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) in situ Observing Programs Support...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: GO-SHIP; Ship-based observations; Multidisciplinary ocean research; Contemporaneous ocean observations; Global ocean change and variability; Health; Essential ocean variables; Essential climate variables.
Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00509/62062/66243.pdf
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The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2 from 1994 to 2007 5
Gruber, Nicolas; Clement, Dominic; Carter, Brendan R.; Feely, Richard A.; Van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Ishii, Masao; Key, Robert M.; Kozyr, Alex; Lauvset, Siv K.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Murata, Akihiko; Olsen, Are; Perez, Fiz F.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Tanhua, Toste; Wanninkhof, Rik.
We quantify the oceanic sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) over the period 1994 to 2007 by using observations from the global repeat hydrography program and contrasting them to observations from the 1990s. Using a linear regression-based method, we find a global increase in the anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 34 +/- 4 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) between 1994 and 2007. This is equivalent to an average uptake rate of 2.6 +/- 0.3 Pg C year-1 and represents 31 +/- 4% of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions over this period. Although this global ocean sink estimate is consistent with the expectation of the ocean uptake having increased in proportion to the rise in atmospheric CO2, substantial regional differences in storage rate are found, likely owing...
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Ano: 2019 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00675/78673/80896.pdf
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The reinvigoration of the Southern Ocean carbon sink 5
Landschutzer, Peter; Gruber, Nicolas; Haumann, Alexander; Rodenbeck, Christian; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Van Heuven, Steven; Hoppema, Mario; Metzl, Nicolas; Sweeney, Colm; Takahashi, Taro; Tilbrook, Bronte; Wanninkhof, Rik.
Several studies have suggested that the carbon sink in the Southern Ocean-the ocean's strongest region for the uptake of anthropogenic CO2-has weakened in recent decades. We demonstrated, on the basis of multidecadal analyses of surface ocean CO2 observations, that this weakening trend stopped around 2002, and by 2012 the Southern Ocean had regained its expected strength based on the growth of atmospheric CO2. All three Southern Ocean sectors have contributed to this reinvigoration of the carbon sink, yet differences in the processes between sectors exist, related to a tendency toward a zonally more asymmetric atmospheric circulation. The large decadal variations in the Southern Ocean carbon sink suggest a rather dynamic ocean carbon cycle that varies more...
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Ano: 2015 URL: https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00292/40366/38974.pdf
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Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements 5
Rodgers, Keith B.; Key, Robert M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Doney, Scott C.; Dunne, John P.; Glover, David M.; Ishida, Akio; Ishii, Masao; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Lo Monaco, Claire; Maier-reimer, Ernst; Mercier, Herle; Metzl, Nicolas; Perez, Fiz F.; Rios, Aida F.; Wanninkhof, Rik; Wetzel, Patrick; Winn, Christopher D.; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro.
Here we use observations and ocean models to identify mechanisms driving large seasonal to interannual variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (O-2) in the upper ocean. We begin with observations linking variations in upper ocean DIC and O-2 inventories with changes in the physical state of the ocean. Models are subsequently used to address the extent to which the relationships derived from short-timescale (6 months to 2 years) repeat measurements are representative of variations over larger spatial and temporal scales. The main new result is that convergence and divergence (column stretching) attributed to baroclinic Rossby waves can make a first-order contribution to DIC and O-2 variability in the upper ocean. This results in...
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Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/11107/7415.pdf
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Fone: (61) 3448-4433 - Fax: (61) 3448-4890 / 3448-4891 SAC: https://www.embrapa.br/fale-conosco

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