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Registros recuperados: 18
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A 1992 social accounting matrix (SAM) for Tanzania AgEcon
Wobst, Peter.
"August 1998." "MERRISA: Macro Economic Reforms and Regional Integration in Southern Africa." Includes bibliographical references (p. 35-36).
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Tanzania; Social accounting -- Mathematical models; Macroeconomics -- Mathematical models; Consumer/Household Economics.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97550
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A 1998 SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX FOR MALAWI AgEcon
Chulu, Osten; Wobst, Peter.
The last few years have seen a proliferation of attempts by various institutions to create a framework that would enable analysts to have a broad overview of all transactions in the Malawian economy. A first attempt was made by Lodh and Chulu (1994) to construct a macro accounting framework using data from the National Statistical Office's 1990-1991 Household Expenditure and Small Scale Economic Activities Survey and the National Sample Survey of Agriculture complemented by other data sets such as the Government Budget Estimates, National Accounts and External Trade Statistics. This framework consisted of 9 sectors using 1987 as the base year. However, this framework was lacking in detail such that it was extremely limited in its usefulness as a basis for...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16282
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A GENDERED 1993-94 SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX FOR BANGLADESH AgEcon
Fontana, Marzia; Wobst, Peter.
This working paper documents the construction of a 1993-94 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Bangladesh. 1 The SAM distinguishes 10 agricultural sectors—including two different kinds of rice technology—and 19 manufacturing sectors, out of 43 sectors in total. It also differentiates between twelve socio-economic groups, allowing detailed analysis of household welfare and poverty. The SAM has ten factors of production: one type of capital, one type of land and eight different types of labor which are disaggregated by both level of education and gender. The innovative feature of the SAM is that it separates out female and male labor value-added for each educational level and in each sector of the economy, providing a base for gender-sensitive analyses of...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16285
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ASSESSING IMPACTS OF DECLINES IN THE WORLD PRICE OF TOBACCO ON CHINA, MALAWI, TURKEY AND ZIMBABWE AgEcon
Diao, Xinshen; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Marcelle; Wobst, Peter.
This study quantitatively analyzes the general equilibrium effects of declines in world demand for tobacco products. The study finds that tobacco exports and production in the three developing countries, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Turkey, would be badly hit if world tobacco prices fall due to the decline in tobacco demand. Moreover, for a given decrease in the world tobacco price, the more important the tobacco sector is in an economy, the worse the tobacco sector is hit. Tobacco is quite important to the Malawian and Zimbabwean economies as tobacco production and trade accounted for, respectively, 17% and 43% of agricultural GDP and tobacco exports accounted for 50% and 35% of national exports in these two countries. The negative effects of a decline in world...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16273
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"DEVELOPMENT BOX" AND SPECIAL AND DIFFERENTIAL TREATMENT FOR FOOD SECURITY OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AgEcon
von Braun, Joachim; Wobst, Peter; Grote, Ulrike.
At the Ministerial Conference in Doha, WTO member countries acknowledged the need to further correct the prevailing restrictions and distortions in agricultural world markets. The Ministerial Declaration of Doha reaffirms the commitment of creating a fair agricultural trading system that will recognize the special needs of developing countries and foster their full integration and participation in agricultural world trade. It has been widely discussed who the winners and losers of further trade liberalization may be, considering particular country groups such as the Cairns Group or the group of Net Food Importing Developing Countries. Although many developing countries may gain from both increased access to OECD markets and the elimination of own trade...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Food Security and Poverty.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18759
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EXTERNAL SHOCKS AND DOMESTIC POVERTY ALLEVIATION: SIMULATIONS WITH A CGE MODEL OF MALAWI AgEcon
Lofgren, Hans; Chulu, Osten; Sichinga, Osky; Simtowe, Franklin; Tchale, Hardwick; Teska, Ralph; Wobst, Peter.
Two sets of issues loom large on the economic horizon of Malawi: poverty alleviation and the country’s vulnerability to shocks emanating from the outside world. In this paper, simulations with a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model of Malawi are used to analyze aspects of these issues. The primary database that is used is a 1998 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Malawi which in part is based on the recently published Malawian Integrated Household Survey (IHS) 1997-98. The simulations explore the effects of external shocks and domestic policy changes aimed at poverty alleviation. The external shocks reflect episodes to which Malawi’s economy has been exposed in recent times: changes in the international prices of tobacco and petroleum products and...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16299
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HIV/AIDS AND LABOR MARKETS IN TANZANIA AgEcon
Arndt, Channing; Wobst, Peter.
We analyze the implications of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Tanzania for labor markets and human capital accumulation. Three analyses are undertaken. First, we examine the 2000/01 Labor Force Survey and compare it with the 1990/91 Labor Force Survey. Since these two surveys encompass a period where accumulated AIDS deaths increased dramatically, their comparison provides an opportunity to make inferences about the impact of HIV/AIDS over that period. Second, we study rates of human capital accumulation, proxied by educational attainment, for the period 1991 to 2000. While the most obvious impact of HIV/AIDS on human capital comes about through the deaths of skilled people, this might not be the greatest concern in terms of long run economic impact. In poor...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16288
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HIV/AIDS and Primary School Performance in Tanzania AgEcon
Wobst, Peter; Arndt, Channing.
We examine the performance of the primary school education system in Tanzania over the 1990s—a decade characterized by substantial AIDS deaths. Given the relatively robust correlation between educational attainment and productivity established in the literature in both agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, human capital accumulation through education forms a major component of development strategy. At the same time, AIDS poses clear threats to the goal of human capital accumulation through education. To assess performance of the primary school system, we estimate non-stationary education transition matrices using a minimum cross entropy approach at the national, sub-national, and regional levels for girls, boys, and all students. Results indicate a...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Health Economics and Policy; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/25870
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INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR PRO-POOR AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AgEcon
Dorward, Andrew; Fan, Shenggen; Kydd, Jonathan; Lofgren, Hans; Morrison, Jamie; Poulton, Colin; Rao, Neetha; Smith, Laurence; Tchale, Hardwick; Thorat, Sukhadeo; Urey, Ian; Wobst, Peter.
This paper draws together findings from different elements of a research project examining critical components of pro-poor agricultural growth and of policies that can promote such growth in poor rural economies in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Agricultural growth, a critical driver in poverty reducing growth in many poor agrarian economies in the past, faces many difficulties in today’s poor rural areas in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Some of these difficulties are endogenous to these areas while others result from broader processes of global change. Active state interventions in ‘kick starting’ markets in 20th century green revolutions suggest that another major difficulty may be current policies which emphasize the benefits of liberalization...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Agricultural growth; Rural poverty; Sub-Saharan Africa; Green Revolution; India; International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60170
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MACRO POLICIES AND THE FOOD SECTOR IN BANGLADESH: A GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS AgEcon
Fontana, Marzia; Wobst, Peter; Dorosh, Paul A..
Trade liberalization in the early 1990s in Bangladesh has enabled the private sector to respond with market-stabilizing inflows of rice and wheat following major production shortfalls. At the same time, easing of restrictions on foreign investment, combined with substantial depreciation of the Taka, have enabled exports of the labor-intensive readymade garment industry to expand significantly. Moreover, recently discovered natural gas resources might be exploited, creating new revenues for the country. A proper assessment of the impact of such policies and economic developments on the poor requires a comprehensive framework to analyze interactions between different sectors, and linkages between macro and micro levels. In this paper we develop a computable...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16307
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Policy bias and agriculture: partial and general equilibrium measures AgEcon
Bautista, Romeo M.; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn; Wobst, Peter.
"May 1998." "Macro Economic Reforms and Regional Integration in Southern Africa." Includes bibliographical references (p. 23-25). Published as Bautista, Romeo M., Robinson, Sherman, Tarp, Finn, and Wobst, Peter. 2001. Policy bias and agriculture: partial and general equilibrium measures. Review of Development Economics 5(1): 89-104.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Terms of trade; Equilibrium (Economics) -- Mathematical models; Tanzania; Computable general equilibrium (CGE); Agricultural trade; Agricultural and Food Policy.
Ano: 1998 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/97544
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POVERTY-FOCUSED SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRICES FOR TANZANIA AgEcon
Thurlow, James; Wobst, Peter.
The development of effective and sustainable economic policies for Tanzania requires access to appropriate databases. One such database is a social accounting matrix (SAM) that details the structure of the entire economy, taking into account the patterns of production and demand, and various institutional relationships. Prior to this study the most recent SAM for mainland Tanzania was for 1992 and was based on past household budget and labor force surveys. Following the release of newer versions of these two surveys as well as a new input-output table for 1992, it is desirable to construct a new SAM for the country. Furthermore, given that Tanzania is committed to reducing national poverty, it is necessary that this new SAM is able to address questions...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16262
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Soil Fertility Management Choice in the Maize-Based Smallholder Farming System in Malawi AgEcon
Wobst, Peter; Tchale, Hardwick; Frohberg, Klaus.
The paper analyses the factors that affect smallholder farmers’ choice of soil fertility management options in Malawi using a two-stage maximum likelihood estimation procedure. Using results from the Double-Hurdle model, the paper estimates the probabilities and intensities of fertilizer application conditional on choice of inorganic fertilizer. The findings indicate that relative wealthy indicators, human capital, credit and market access, food security index and land pressure are the main factors that greatly influence farmers’ choice and intensity of input investment. Although there is a high and positive correlation between probability of adoption and intensity of application, factors that influence adoption are not necessarily the same as those that...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Soil fertility management; Smallholder farmers; Double-Hurdle model; Malawi; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9524
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STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT AND INTERSECTORAL SHIFTS IN TANZANIA: A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS AgEcon
Wobst, Peter.
Tipo: Report Palavras-chave: Political Economy.
Ano: 2001 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16539
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THE IMPACT OF DOMESTIC AND GLOBAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON FIVE SOUTHERN AFRICAN COUNTRIES AgEcon
Wobst, Peter.
We compare the impact of alternative domestic and global trade liberalization scenarios on five economies in Southern Africa. The study applies a computable general equilibrium model that employs standardised 12-sector social accounting matrices for Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The approach incorporates stylised features such as own-household consumption and marketing margins that are of particular importance when a majority of agricultural producers are not sufficiently integrated into formal markets and thus rely on own production to meet their daily diets. Hence, improved infrastructure implies lower marketing costs and better market integration, which translates to increased production opportunities. The comparison of the results...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2002 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16296
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THE IMPACT OF INCREASED SCHOOL ENROLLMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TANZANIA AgEcon
Seebens, Holger; Wobst, Peter.
Failure to accumulate human capital is one of the pressing problems of developing countries. Lacking human capital formation bears consequences on an economy wide level, since education contributes to labor productivity. We examine the impact of increased school enrollment with regard to economic growth and income inequality. A dynamic computable general equilibrium (DCGE) model applying a 2000 SAM for Tanzania is used to evaluate the quantitative long-term effects of increased school attendance on overall economic growth and welfare. In order to get an insight in how a potential skill upgrade would affect the economy, we simulate a government program that aims at increasing primary school enrollment. We find that an increase in human capital formation in...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: International Development; Labor and Human Capital.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/18737
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THE ROAD TO PRO-POOR GROWTH IN ZAMBIA: PAST LESSONS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES AgEcon
Thurlow, James; Wobst, Peter.
Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost three-quarters of the population were considered poor at the start of the 1990s, with a vast majority of these people concentrated in rural and remote areas. This extreme poverty arose in spite of Zambia’s seemingly promising prospects following independence. To better understand the failure of growth and poverty-reduction this paper first considers the relationship between the structure of growth and Zambia’s evolving political economy. A strong urban-bias has shaped the country’s growth path leading to a economy both artificially and unsustainably distorted in favor of manufacturing and mining at the expense of rural areas. For agriculture it was the maize-bias of public policies that...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Copper mines and mining; Poverty alleviation; Africa; Zambia; Manufacturing industries; Spatial analysis; Household surveys; Agricultural growth; International Development.
Ano: 2004 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/60169
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WHY THE POOR CARE ABOUT PARTIAL VERSUS GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM EFFECTS - PART 1, METHODOLOGY AND COUNTRY CASE AgEcon
Wobst, Peter.
The paper compares the effects of productivity growth in agriculture in a standard CGE model and an adjusted CGE model with special features in order to replicate partial equilibrium behavior of traded agricultural sectors within a general equilibrium framework. The fixed-price, partial equilibrium CGE model shows a strong multiplier effect so that total GDP, factor earnings, and household incomes increase with the productivity growth in agriculture. In comparison, the standard CGE model generates much more diverse sectoral behavior, stronger trade through shifts in the exchange rate, and a less equitable income distribution among farm and non-farm households.
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: CGE; Partial Equilibrium; Southern Africa; Tanzania; International Development.
Ano: 2000 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/16283
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